Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Study of the Polarity of Yam Tuber (Dioscorea spp.) at the Beginning of Tuberization

Kouadio Claver Degbeu, Aïssatou Coulibaly, Tetchi Achille Fabrice, N’Guessan Georges Amani

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230078

Yam, like most roots and tubers, has a tissue variation that is responsible for the difference in cooking observed during culinary preparations. In order to understand the origin of this variation, this study was conducted through optical microscope and SEM observation of the beginning of tuberization. The local variety named Kponan of Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata was used. The days after the beginning of the tuberization, the protrusion of the stem base intensified and gives rise to the tuber. The histological study of the onset of tuberization revealed once again the existence of a longitudinal growth gradient whose point of growth is the apex and the sense of maturity of the distal part at the proximal end. The cells birth at the apex and differ a little more towards the middle part of the tuber. The apex is the driving zone for the tuber's lengthwise growth. The cambial cells ensure this growth in length and thickness of the tuber. The tuber's growth activity decreases from the distal part to the proximal one. The distal part contains more vacuolated cells thus rich in water and less starch than the middle and proximal parts. The cell wall is thin and less lignified. The cambium generates cells at the lower end of the apex. These very vacuolated cells differentiate and will form the median and proximal parts of the tuber. The distal part will remain immature compared to the other two parts. This could explain the low dry matter and the origin of rejection or elimination of the distal part during culinary operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Benefit-risk Analysis of Locally Cultivated Mango Fruits and Branded Mango Beverages in Adamawa State, Nigeria

I. B. Bwatanglang, S. T. Magili, Y. Musa, S. P. Zira, P. Alexander, Y. Adamu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230079

In this study, the vitamin, nutrient, antinutrient and heavy metal concentrations in Powdered mango fruit juices (sachet brands) (PMFJ), Liquid mango fruit juices (LMFJ), and Fresh or raw mango fruits juices (FMFJ) were assessed toward establishing a tradeoff between their health benefits and potential health risk on consumption. The analysis show the concentration of vitamin C constituting 50-70% and Vitamin A 30-40% by composition relative to other vitamins. The highest concentration of vitamin A and C were observed in the PMFJ, and the LMFJ samples. Relative to the bioavailability of vitamin E, K, B1, B2, B6 and B12, FMFJ contains the highest concentrations compared to PMFJ and LMFJ. The results further show the highest concentration of 0.79 mg/100 g and 6.85 mg/100 g of oxalate and phytate in the FMFJ. The analysis of the mineral contents show Ca accounting for over 50%, with FMFJ containing the highest concentration (57%). The concentration of Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zinc all falls within the acceptable range to constitute any potential risk on consumption. Based on the EDI values, the dietary exposure to lead (Pb) was observed to be above the oral reference dose (RfD) values set for Pb in edibles. Further appraisal for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk from Pb exposure gives a THQ values of less than one (<1) and a CRI ≤10-4. Overall, the results show children to be more at risk for Pb exposure than the adults. From the results, it could suffice to say that unhealthy agricultural practices and possible anthropogenic activities could be the probable reasons for the low level of vitamin A and C in the FMFJ samples. Furthermore, could probably be the contributing factors leading to the increasing use of additives and fortified functional foods to meets population demands and nutritional requirements as observed in the PMFJ and LMFJ samples respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Characteristic of Fried Bilih Fish from Tanah Datar and Solok Regency

Nabila Auva Athiyya Bari, Rusky Intan Pratama, Iis Rostini, Eddy Afrianto

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230080

This research aim to know the comparison between the fried bilih fish from Sumpur and Paninggahan district in West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. This research conducted from February to June 2019 in Technology Fishery Laboratory of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Testing Laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural Industrial Technology. Research method is non-experimental method with fried bilih fish from Sumpur and Paninggahan area as the samples. Research parameters are chemical characteristic in form of proximate analysis, includes water, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrate content; organoleptic characteristic in form of appearance, aroma, taste, and texture; and physical characteristic in form of hardness and fracturability. The result explains that Sumpur fried bilih fish is more preferred by panelist with the median value in appearance, aroma, taste, and texture is 9 or strongly favored. The Sumpur fried bilih fish nutrient content is consisting of 11.994% water content, 4.978% ash content, 42.067% protein, 39.47% fat, and 1.49% carbohydrate. Paninggahan fried bilih fish nutrient content is consisting of 11.237% water content, 6.818% ash, 41.333% protein, 39.108% fat, and 1.5% carbohydrate. The texture between Sumpur and Paninggahan fried bilih fish is not significant, both of them are crispy and dry. Paninggahan fried bilih fish has the highest hardness test and highest fracturability level than Sumpur friend bilih fish. The conclusion is fried bilih fish from Sumpur more prime based on proximate dan organoleptic test compared to fried bilih fish from Paninggahan which is cause by prosessing different.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Safety Practices in Garri Production among Cassava Processors in Ido Local Government Area Oyo State Nigeria

A. S. Adeoye, O. O. Oke, J. O. Ogunsola

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230081

The study assessed safety practices carried out in garri production among the cassava processors in Ido Local Government area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 104 cassava processors from three (3) wards in the study area. Parameters examined are socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, respondents’ knowledge of food safety practices, and the constraints encountered in the food safety practices in garri production among the respondents in the study area. A well structured-questionnaire with interview schedule was used for data collection in the study area. Both descriptive and inferential statistics like frequency distribution, percentages, Chi-square and Pearson product moment correlation were used in analyzing the data. Results show that majority of the respondents were female (70.2%), had age range of 31-40 (47.1%), married (72.1%), primary education (35.6%), and processing experience of 6-10 years (65.4%). Most of the respondents (53.7%) have sufficient knowledge of the food safety practices. Also, most of the respondents (63.4%) encountered little or no constraints in cassava processing into garri in the study area. The results further exemplified that there is significant relationship between constraints encountered in processing and respondents’ knowledge of food safety practices among the cassava processors in the study area (r = -0.194, p < 0.05). This implies that there is little or no constraint for food safety practices but cassava processors’ knowledge and their years of experience have positive influence on the production of garri in the study area. It is however recommended that government should deploy community health workers to monitor the processing activities of the cassava processors and to enforce adequate hygiene in safety practices in all the cassava processing units in the study area. The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, NAFDAC should also be mobilized to ensure that garri is free of cyanide acid content and fortified with vitamins before its distribution to the markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Hygiene and Safety Practices on Raw Milk Produced and Consumed in Kiambu County, Kenya

Stephen K. Njoroge, Lucy G. Njue

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i230082

Background: In Kenya Food safety has been a subject of concern in the recent past due to an increase in chronic illnesses. This was triggered by challenges in quality control, unregulated trade of milk by hawkers, and a minimal level of safety awareness among the farmers.

Objective: The study was aimed at finding out awareness of safety practices on raw milk produced and consumed in Kiambu County. 

Methods: A cross-section study was carried out, to examine hygiene standards and safety aspects among dairy farmers at Gatundu South Constituency, mainly in three regions namely Kiganjo, Gatei and Gatundu town. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 33 participants in each locality.

Results: The study showed small scale farmers accounted for (98%) who keep 2 to 3 cows. The quality assurance of the products accounted for more than (97%) hence not significant (p>0.05). The record management at the farm level had less than 40% of farmers, hence no significance difference (p>0.05). The milk rejection accounted for 97%, and there was a significant ((p˂0.05)). In contamination with antibiotics and preservatives. Brokers who vend milk in the sub-urban centers in Thika town, Ruiru town, and Nairobi accounted for (14%)... The use of health records was not a priority among the farmers, coupled with irregular withdrawal periods; ranging from 48 hours to 72 hours.

Conclusion: Hygiene standards and safety aspects among dairy farmers in Kiambu County are compromised. Subsequently, there is a need to enforce controls in; informal marketing channels, besides training, infrastructural development, code of practice and inspections to enhance the quality and safety of dairy products along the supply chain.