Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a High Value Nutritious Baking Flour from Dried Ripe Banana Peels

M. W. Mugo, L. G. Njue

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i330083

Background: During processing of banana, peels are discarded which are valuable source of potassium, dietary fiber with percentages up to 40-50% protein, 8-11% lipids, and 2.2- 10.9% fatty acids. Therefore a high value nutrition baking flour can be made using dried ripe banana peels and reduce disposal of the banana peel.

Objective: This study was conducted to develop a high value nutritious baking flour from dried banana peels.

Methods: Ripe banana peels were treated with steam blanching at 57 0C for 12 hours to prevent enzymetic discoloration. The peels were then cut into small pieces of 1cm in thickness for easier drying and placed on trays. They were then placed in a preheated dehydrator. The initial temperature set was a 62ºC for 12 hours. The temperature was reduced to 57 0C after 12 hours making it a total of 24 hours for drying banana peels completely. The dried banana peels were crushed into fine flour using sterile mortar and pestle. Banana peel flour obtained was incorporated in whole meal flour formulation at four different levels as 0, 10, 20, and 30 %.. Sensory evaluation was done by assessing the organoleptic properties on over all acceptability using a nine- point Hedonic scale. Proximate analysis in percentage was carried out on the following parameters; moisture content, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, Ash crude fibre, ntioxidant (Vitamin C) and total dietary fibre.

Results: Whole meal cake with 20% banana peel flour was found to be the most accepted formulation. It had good physical characteristics. Proximate composition results of 20 % ripe banana peel flour were as follows: Moisture-17.2±0.05%, Crude protein- 5.5±0.01%, Crude fibre- 19.2±0.01%, Ash 8.8±0.02% and Carbohydrates- 14.6±0.01%., Lipids 1.5±0.01, Vitamin C91.30±0.01  and total dietary fibre 20.14±0.01 for 20% banana peels flour.

Conclusion: Ripe banana peel flour has potentials to be added in to patent baking flour to make healthy food products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of the Ruku-ruku Leaf Solution (Ocimum sanctum) as a Natural Preservative in Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger sp.) during Low-temperature Storage

Muhammad Heffiqri Riady, Iis Rostini, Yuli Andriani, Rusky Intan Pratama

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i330084

This research was conducted to determine the shelf life of Indian mackerel by giving ruku-ruku leaf solution at different concentrations on phytochemical test, amount of bacteria, degree of acidity (pH), weight loss, and water content in Indian mackerel during low-temperature storage. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing, University of Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The research method used is an experimental method with 4 treatments. Ruku-ruku leaf solution treatments concentration were 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50%, soaking time 30 minutes, then stored at low-temperature (5-10ºC). Observations were made on days 1, 3, 6, and 7 for Indian mackerel concentration of 0% or control (without soaking of ruku-ruku leaf solution) while treatment with ruku-ruku leaf solution 10%, 30%, and 50% were carried out at days 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. The parameters observed included phytochemical test, amount of bacteria, degree of acidity (pH), weight loss, and water content. The results of research showed that the use of a ruku-ruku leaf solution with concentration 30% on Indian mackerel during low-temperature storage has the longest shelf life that is until the 13th day with amount of bacteria 6,90 × 107 cfu/g, degree of acidity (pH ) at 6,95, weight loss at 9,52% and water content at 65,32%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Partial Characterization of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose Resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain from Fruits Harvested in Yamagata, Japan

Takeshi Nagai, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Norihisa Kai, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Nobutaka Suzuki

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i330085

Aims: The study aimed to isolate and characterize 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae from fruits to establish distinctive bread making technology using wild-type yeasts in the future.

Study Design: The research was conducted experimentally.

Place and Duration of Study: Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan, from April 2015 to March 2019.

Methodology: Wild-type yeasts with 2-DG resistance were isolated using the following experiments: 1. Separation by yeast nitrogen base-maltose plate medium, 2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol production tests, 3. Leavening ability tests using bread doughs, 4. Sequence analysis. The identified yeast strain was used for freezing and drying torelance tests. Moreover, it tried to improve drying tolerance of yeasts.

Results: Yeasts were separated from twenty varieties of five fruits species. Among them, a yeast strain (YTPR1) isolated from pear Redbartllet fruits was identified as S. cerevisiae. YTPR1 possessed high fermentation ability and freezing tolerance, however, CO2 and ethanol production decreased after lyophilization of yeasts. In contrast, the cultivation with trehalose, glycerol, and L-glutamic acid at low concentration enhanced the fermentation ability of YTPR1.

Conclusion: Yeast YTPR1 isolated from pear Redbartllet fruits utilized maltose as well as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. To improve drying tolerance of yeast YTPR1, it was useful to incubate with 6% trehalose, 0.1-2.0% glycerol and 1.0% L-glutamic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Use of Cola Follicles (Cola nitida Vent. Schott & Endl.) Potash in the Formulation of "Kabatôh" in Côte d’Ivoire

Sidibe Daouda, Nyamien Yves, Adama Coulibaly, Dosso Lassina, Konan Ysidor, Biego Henri

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i330086

Aims: The objective of this study was to produce and use potash from kola follicles (Cola nitda) in the formulation of an ethnic or traditional foods namely kabatôh.

Study Design: 17 formulations of kabatôh carried out in the presence of potash were subjected to a sensory analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, running 2019.

Methodology: Kola dried follicles collected from the region of Tonkpi were incinerated after sun dried. Ash obtained was used for the production of potash after maceration (with water), filtration and evaporation. The extracted potash was characterized and used in the kabatôh formulation procedure. Seventeen formulations of kabatôh and the control sample were used as part of a sensory analysis to evaluate the perception of the color, savor, texture and the flavor like their level of appreciation by tasters.

Results: The potash extraction yield determined was 10.23 ± 0.72%, with a basic pH of 11.15 ± 0.05. Results showed that potash moisture content and concentration of potassium hydroxide are 4.15 ± 0.21% and 0.81 ± 0.03 mol/L, respectively. Some of the formulations with potash were appreciated more than 83% by the panelists. The control sample was appreciated by 56.76% of the panel.

Conclusion: The presence of potash improves the organoleptic characteristics of kabatôh. Thus, Kola follicules could be used in the potash production process that represents an interest in food and feed but also in the industrial world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics of Soy Milk-Fluted Pumpkin Leaf Based Product

M. E. Korshima, A. I. Sengev, I. O. Acham, S. A. Ahemen

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i330087

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of fluted pumpkin leaves extract on the physicochemical properties, microbiological quality and organoleptic attributes of the soy milk using standard methods. Five blend ratios and codes of 100:0 (Sample A), 95:5 (Sample B), 90:10 (Sample C), 85:15 (Sample D) and 80:20 (Sample E) were developed for soy milk and fluted pumpkin leaves extract respectively. Results from this study revealed that increase in fluted pumpkin leaves extract supplementation in the soy milk increased the moisture (80.06 to 82.68%), fiber (0.58 to 0.76%), ash (0.71 to 0.96%), pH (5.99 to 6.50), while decreasing the protein (3.57 to 2.80%), fat (2.78 to 2.30%), carbohydrate (12.30 to 10.38%), titratable acidity (0.17 to 0.13%), total solids (19.27 to 18.60%), total bacteria (3.30×105 to 1.45×105 cfu/mL) and fungi (2.40×104 to 6.0×102 cfu/mL) loads. The fluted pumpkin leaves extract also appeared to have a bactericidal effect on the product as bacterial load decreased with increase in the concentration of the extract. The sensory evaluation revealed that Sample C containing 90% soy milk and 10% fluted pumpkin leaves extract was the most preferred blend among the samples containing the leaves extract. The formulated product could be useful to individuals who have lactose intolerance or heart-related diseases since it is practically free from lactose and cholesterol. It is recommended that flavour masking agents should be used to improve the herbal flavour of the product, to enhance its general acceptability and encourage consumption.