Open Access Original Research Article

Ginger Nectar Formulation Based on Oleoresin Using a Central Composite Design

Daouda Sidibe, Adama Coulibaly, Yves Nyamien, Blé Loui Oguielou, Ysidor N’guessan Konan, Godi Henri Marius Biego

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i430088

Aims : This study aims to determine the organoleptic characteristics of different formulations nectars elaborated with ginger oleoresin.

Study Design : Ginger nectars were formulated, using a composite central plan, from oleoresin or ginger rhizome, lemon juice and sugar. Then, they were subjected to sensory analyzes.

Place and Duration of Study : The study was conducted, between November and December 2017, at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences Laboratory of the Félix Houphouët-boigny University.

Methodology : Seventeen (17) nectars formulas were established by considering varying amounts of three ingredients: oleoresin (X1), sugar (X2) and lemon juice (X3) according to a composite experimental plan. The acceptance of these nectar formulas with consumers has been estimated. The intensities of perception of their color, texture and flavor were also evaluated relative to the artisanal nectar of ginger taken as a control. The sensory evaluation was carried out by panels of tasters.

Results : The hedonic analysis indicates that in addition to the control Ft accepted at 91.43% by the tasters, the formulations F2; F8; F12; F13 and F14 are preferred in proportions ranging from 57.14% to 77.15%. The intensities of the organoleptic characteristics of these nectars are translated by sensory profiles. The formulations F2; F8; F12; F13 and F14 are yellow while the control is brown. As regards the texture, the control has a turbidity more pronounced than the formulations. While the intensities of the fluidity and homogeneity are higher for formulations F2; F8; F12; F13 and F14 than the control. In addition, the control Ft appears sweeter and more acidic than the formulations. This character is also observed in the flavors of gnamankou and lemon.

Conclusion : The formulations F2; F8; F12; F13 and F14 close to the witness would be indicators for producers of ginger nectar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Process Optimization and Characterization of Gamma Irradiation Induced Variations in Functional Properties of Maize (Zea mays L.) Flour

Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Sonia Sonia Safdar, Raheela Jabeen

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i430089

The effect of particle size and high dose gamma irradiation on functional properties of maize flour was studied. The maize flour at three levels of particle size (-177, -250 and -420 µm obtained from sieves of 80, 60 and 40 meshes respectively) was irradiated in transparent glass bottles at three levels of gamma radiation (25, 50 and 75 kGy) using 60Co gamma source. A significant linear increase in water holding and swelling capacities and bulk density values and significant linear decrease in emulsifying stability was observed in response to an increase in particle size of the flour. Gamma radiation dose was found to show a significant linear positive effect on water holding capacity and solubility but a significant linear negative effect on oil holding capacity, protein solubility and bulk density values. These observed trends in functional properties of maize flour with the application of gamma irradiation suggests that quality of maize flour, regarding the manufacture and packaging of food products, may be improved by irradiation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of Triple Bagging System and Lippia multiflora Leaves for the Vitamin Quality Preservation of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Ibrahim Fofana, Kouamé Olivier Chatigre, N’guessan Verdier Abouo, Godi Henri Marius Biego

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i430090

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of triple bagging systems with or without Lippia multiflora leaves on the vitamin-quality of cowpea seeds during storage.

Methodology: Cowpea seeds that have undergone any treatment were collected from producer in the southwest of Côte d’Ivoire. The fresh leaves of Lippia multiflora were collected and dried in sunlight for 7 days in center of Côte d’Ivoire. The storage bags used were obtained from the suppliers to Côte d’Ivoire in Abidjan. All this material was sent to the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire to perform the experiment. Thus for the experiment realization, a central composite design (CCD) was used. The first factor of CCD consisted to six types of packaging, namely: one control with polypropylene bag (TST), one triple bagging batch (composed of 2 internal layers in independent high density polyethylene 80 mm thick and a woven bag polypropylene) without biopesticide (H0), and four batches (H1, H2, H3 and H4) containing respectively (0.7%; 2.5; 4.3%; and 5%) biopesticide. The second factor, storage time, it included six periods of observation (0; 1; 2; 4.5; 7 and 8 months). HPLC techniques were used for the separation and quantification of β-carotene, α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and the water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine and folic acid). The estimated daily intake of folic acid (vitamin B9) was also evaluated for Ivorian adult of 70 kg.

Results: The results of vitamin properties indicate a significant influence (P < 0.05) between the type of treatments and shelf life. Multivariate analysis results (PCA and AHC) indicate that the addition of at least 0.7% Lippia multiflora leaves in triple bagging systems makes preservation more efficient and preserves the vitamin quality of the cowpea seeds during 8 months. The contribution to meeting vitamin B9 requirements is palpable when cowpea seeds are stored for up to 8 months in the triple bagging systems associated with the biopesticide.

Conclusion: Cowpea seeds storage in triple bagging systems with Lippia multiflora leaves appears as a method of effective and inexpensive conservation to ensure the vitamin-quality of cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Composite Bread Produced from Wheat and Fermented Cashew Kernel Flours

Bleou Jean Jaurès Touzou, Doudjo Soro, Soronikpoho Soro, Kouadio Ernest Koffi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i430091

The aim of this research was to produce bread from composite flours (fermented cashew kernel/wheat), determine their physicochemical and sensory properties. The Hagberg falling number (FN) and rheological properties of wheat flour replaced with fermented cashew kernel flour at 10, 20 30 and 40% were evaluated. The physical properties and proximate composition of loaves were determined. Also sensory characteristics of breads were evaluated. Results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with fermented cashew kernel flour negatively impacted the rheological properties and increased the falling number. Thereby, composite flours obtained from wheat flour substitution with fermented cashew kernel flour at 10 and 20 percent levels were retained for bread production. The weight, volume and specific volume of loaves varied from 208 to 229 g, 433 to 657 cm3 and 1.80 to 3.20 cm3/g respectively. The crude protein, fat, crude fibre, moisture and ash contents of the composite breads increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in the proportion of fermented cashew kernel flour. The carbohydrate contents were observed to decrease significantly (P<0.05) from 38.08 to 56.18% with increase in the percentage of the cashew kernel flour incorporation. Sensory evaluation of the bread samples showed that substitution level of 10% fermented cashew kernel flour produced bread that was acceptable to the consumers whereas at 20% were neither like nor dislike. Therefore, it is recommended to use a level of substitution of wheat flour with fermented cashew kernel flour not exceeding 20% for bread production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characterization of Biscuits from Blends of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea), Ground Bean Seed (Macrotyloma) and Moringa Seed (Moringa oleifera) Flour

Justina Y. Talabi, Babawande A. Origbemisoye, Beatrice O. Ifesan, Victor N. Enujuigha

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v12i430092

The nutrient composition and the acceptability of biscuit from composite flours of wheat, Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea), Ground bean seed (Macrotyloma) and Moringa seed (Moringa oleifera) were evaluated. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea), Ground bean seed (Macrotyloma) and Moringa seed (Moringa oleifera) were dried, and processed into flour. The flour blends developed was used as a substitute for wheat flour as composite flour. The resulting mixtures were then used to produce biscuits at different ratios of wheat flour to flour blends; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 level of the flour blends. The pasting properties, proximate composition, minerals, physical (spread ratio, weight, thickness and colour) and sensory properties of the composite biscuit were evaluated. The pasting properties of the flours showed that pasting temperature ranged from 68.50°C - 70.0°C and the peak viscousity range from 101.17 RVU – 207.17 RVU, while Break down (43.0 RVU) was highest in 90% wheat: 10% (Bambara- groundnut-ground bean seed- moringa seed flour) (WFF1). The protein content increased from 12.50% in the control (100% wheat flour) to a range of 14.40% - 16.19% in the biscuits; crude fibre decreased from 2.83 to 2.40 - 1.84%, ash content increased from 1.26% to a range of 1.53 - 2.01%, while carbohydrate and energy value reduced from 69.20 to 65.54 - 63.36% and 384.04 Kcal/100 g to 391.34 - 391.55 Kcal/100 g respectively. As the ratio of blends level increase, the thickness, diameter and weight increased but the spread ratio decreased. In conclusion incorporation of bambara groundnut, ground bean seed and moringa seed flour blends played important role in enhancing the nutritional properties of biscuits through improving their protein content, energy value and mineral elements especially calcium and potassium.