Open Access Original Research Article

HACCP Plan and Adoption of HACCP Metasystem in the Tea Industries of Bangladesh

I. Ahmad, R. S. Chowdhury, Rayhan Uddin, A. Shakawat, W. U. Rahman, Wahidu Zzaman

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v13i330106

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) metasystem is a concept not much familiar to the tea industries of Bangladesh. This study was conducted to investigate the issue of food safety through HACCP metasystem and conduct a hazard analysis to make a comprehensive model of HACCP plan for the tea industries of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis was used to determine the CCPs (Critical Control Points) or OPRPs (Operational Pre-Requisite Programs) and design a HACCP plan through risk assessment and seven logical approaches. Two OPRPs and CCPs were determined. The derived CCPs were the biological hazard in the cultivation stage and the physical hazard in the processing step namely CTC (Crush, Tear and Curl) and Googy shifter step. The biological hazard in the cultivation stage can be controlled by proper application of GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) while the physical hazard can be controlled in the processing step by proper maintenance of the magnetic arrestor. Considering the benefits and constraints, standard processing procedures and guarantees of food safety of tea as well as to stay in the competitive global market the tea industries should adopt HACCP metasystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Roles of Different Sugar Sources on the Quality of Nigella Enriched Tomato Ketchup

Mahbuba Rahman Tripty, Ashrafi Akter, Ismat Jahan, Md. Ahmadul Islam, Md. Anisur Rahman Mazumder

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v13i330108

The study was concerned to evaluate the effect of table sugar, honey and zero-calorie sugar on the quality of nigella enriched tomato ketchup. Ketchup was prepared by mixing 5, 10 and 15% nigella paste with tomato pulp. The variations in taste, color and texture were analyzed based on the consumers’ acceptability and 5% nigella paste was appropriate for product development. Three different types of sugar source (table sugar/honey/zero-calorie sugar) were used to prepare nigella enriched tomato ketchup. Moisture content and total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly lower in the sample S2 (tomato ketchup prepared with honey) which was 64.00±1.75% and 18.00±1.8%, respectively. Sample S1 (tomato ketchup prepared with table sugar) contained higher moisture content (65.40±1.55%); though it's not significantly different with sample S3 (tomato ketchup prepared with zero-calorie sugar). Sample S3 contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amount of TSS (25±1.6%) than other samples. In case of color analysis, it was observed that L*, a* and b* value reduced for all samples when treated with sodium benzoate but not significantly different. Sensory analysis suggested that sample S1 was suitable for the processing of nigella enriched tomato ketchup.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Analysis, Cyanide and Moisture Content of Different Garri Samples

C. E. Kalu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v13i330109

Three garri samples from three differents markets in Afikpo North L.G.A of Ebonyi State were collected and the microbial, moisture content and cyanide content of the samples (A, B, C) were assayed to ascertain their quality and safety. The Microbial analysis, the total plate counts were 7.9 x 105 cfu/g, 2.6 x 105 cfu/g, and 1.6 x105 cfu/g in samples A, B and C respectively. On the other hand the fungal counts were 1.6 x105 cfu/g, 0.8 x105 cfu/g and 0.2 x 105 cfu/g in samples A, B and C respectively. Staphylococcus spp was isolated from all the garri samples while streptococcus spp was isolated in samples A and B. However Escherichia coli was isolated only in sample A. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp in samples A and B while Penicillium spp was isolated in all samples A, B and C. Cyanide content of the samples were also determined. The values were 0.688 mg/kg, 0.750 mg/kg and 0.630 mg/kg in samples A, B, and C respectively. The moisture content determination of the garria the values of 16%, 14% and 13% in samples A, B, and C respectively. Thus, the microbial counts of the garri samples were within safe limits of the international food standard (<105 cfu/g). The cyanide contents were also within safe limits of the international standard (<IHCH/100 g). Moreover, the absence of food borne pathogens of microbiological safe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Commercial Gluten Containing and Gluten Free Pastas: Cooking Quality Parameters

Ozge Kurt Gokhisar, Mahir Turhan

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v13i330111

Aims: Gluten-free food (GFF) consumers reportedly have problems with the lower cooking quality of gluten-free pastas (GFPs) compared to gluten-containing pastas (GCPs).  This work is designed to compare the cooking quality of commercial GFPs and GCPs population wise for contributing to the resolution of the issue in the market. 

Study Design, Materials and Methodology: Cooking quality parameters of 10 commercial GFPs (maize based and maize-rice based) and 10 commercial GCPs (semolina), namely optimum cooking time (OCT), weight increase (WI), volume increase (VI), cooking loss (CL), and their microstructures were determined.

Results: GCPs had shorter OCT, higher WI and VI, and lower CL than GFPs (P < .05), representing higher cooking quality.  GCPs showed more consistent cooking quality compared to GFPs. GCPs showed more consistent cooking quality compared to GFPs.  GFPs made of maize showed higher cooking quality than GFPs made of maize and rice mixture (P < .05). When considering the microstructure, GCPs has a smooth outer surface where the gluten network provides a framework that holds embedded starch granules.  On the other hand, GFPs has a protruding surface where gelatinized starch provides a framework that holds embedded protein patches, which results poor cooking quality. 

Conclusion: GCPs shows higher cooking quality compared to GFPs. They also exhibited a narrower range for cooking quality parameters indicating their more consistent behavior than those of GFPs.  GFPs made of maize showed higher cooking quality than GFPs made of maize and rice mixture. 

Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work comparing the cooking quality of populations of commercial pastas (10 GFPs versus 10 GCPs) and embodied the issue. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Ascorbic Acid Concentration in Commercially Available Fruit Drinks in Bangladesh

Mohammad Rahanur Alam, Mohammad Asadul Habib, Pinaki Chowdhury, Lincon Chandra Shill, Md Abdullah Al Mamun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v13i330112

Aim: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is the most important food constituent because of its antioxidant and functional activity. The study aims to determine the Vitamin C content in commercially available fruit drinks collected from selected shops in Bangladesh.

Study Design: This study is an experimental study. 

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in the food analysis laboratory of Department Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, from January 2019 to May 2019. In the present study, a total of 22 branded different fruit drinks samples (orange, mango, lichi) were collected from the local market of Noakhali, Bangladesh.

Methodology: Vitamin C was analyzed with the titrimetric method and Sugar content, pH was also successfully determined by refractometer, pH meter respectively.

Results: The analyzed Vitamin C was found in the range of 2.96 to 70 mg/100 ml. Sugar content, pH was also successfully determined from the samples. The majority of the samples were found less in vitamin C concentration while only two samples (samples 3, 18) were found high the vitamin C concentration.

Conclusion: From the above study, titrimetric analysis proves itself as a scientific method in the determination of vitamin C concentration in the samples.