Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Malt-based Sugar Syrup from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Malted Sorghum and Millet Grains

Okpalanma Emeka Felix

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430134

The suitability of sorghum and millet grains in the production of malt-based syrups was determined. The grains were steeped for 50 h, germinated for 5 days at room temperature and were kilned for 48h to produce the malts. Mashing was carried out by three-stage decoction method and the resulting wort further hydrolysed with glucoamylase enzyme to yield malt syrups. Proximate analysis results showed that the crude protein contents in sorghum (11.3%) and millet (10.8%) malts were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in sorghum (10.36) and millet (8.58%) grains. Cereal grains (sorghum, millet) were higher in fat (6.83, 7.30%), ash (2.41 and 3.16%), fibre (3.31 and 2.63%), moisture (9.93 and 9.95%) and total carbohydrate (71.63 and 53.35%) contents when compared with the malts. Results for malting characteristics of the grains showed that sorghum had significantly (p < 0.05) higher germinative energy (82.53%), germinative capacity (90.50%) diastatic power (32°L) and lower malting loss (13.50%) than millet grains: 76.6%, 85.67%, 27°L and 18.47% respectively. Mashing temperature and pH optima results for amylase activity were 60-70°C in sorghum, 40-450C in millet and pH 6-7 in sorghum and millet respectively. Results obtained on the analysis of the malt syrup samples (sorghum and millet) were (%): Moisture (12.35, 13.46), ash (0.02, 0.04), pH (4.5, 5.0), total solids (82.20, 80.1), Dextrose equivalent (85, 81) and reducing sugar (70.30, 65.45) respectively. Viscosity, colour and taste of the end products were physically checked. Sorghum grain exhibited better potential for syrup production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activities, Nutritional Composition and Antinutritional Properties of Two Leafy Vegetables (Cleome rutidosperma and Cassia tora) Consumed in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Kiliobas Kiri Sha’a, Susan Artimas Pwakangdi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430135

Antioxidants are agents which scavenge free radicals and prevent cellular damage cause by them. They reduce the damage due to free radicals by neutralizing them before they can attack the cells. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, nutritional and antinutritional properties of two leafy vegetables, Cleome rutidosperma and Cassia tora consumed in Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) models were used to determine antioxidant activities of extracts. Nutritional composition and antinutritional properties were determined using standard procedures. There was a significant (p=0.05) decrease in the concentration of DPPH radical due to the scavenging activity of ethanol leaf extract of  Cleome rutidosperma compared to control/standard. In FRAP also, C. rutidosperma ethanolic extract exhibited higher ferric reducing power than C. tora. Proximate analysis revealed the nutrients for C. rutidosperma and C. tora as; crude protein (31.06±0.00% and 26.24±0.00%), fat (7.13±0.00% and 6.93±0.10%), ash (15.17±0.61% and 11.60±0.00%), crude fiber (11.06±0.01 and 13.19±0.10%), moisture (9.99±0.00% and 9.12±0.10%), NFE (25.60±0.10% and 32.94±0.10%) respectively. Antinutritionals in ethanolic extracts of C. rutidosperma and C. tora were; oxalates, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, phytate and alkaloids. Both vegetables revealed good percentages of proteins which can be used to compliment other sources of protein. All antinutrients of extracts were within tolerable levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Properties of Starches from Two Varieties of Sweet Potato and Yam Tubers Available in Nigeria

N. S. Donaldben, O. O. Tanko, T. O. Hussaina

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430136

The research sought to investigate the functional properties of starches obtained from four Nigerian root and tubers, yam and sweet potato varieties, in order to facilitate their exploitation as substitute raw material for the local food and pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The varieties, namely: white yam (Dioscorea rotundata), water yam (Dioscorea alorta), orange flesh sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cream flesh sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), their respective starches were obtained by wet separation techniques and were analyzed for their pasting properties, physic-chemical properties, starch yield on dry and wet basis, functional, starch purity, amylase and amylo-pectin were undertaken in order to determine their suitability for food and other uses. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, holding strength, breakdown, set from peak and set back from through ranged from 7.3 – 8.3 mins, 65.4 – 71.3°C, 511.5 – 1001.2 BU, 860.8 – 871.3 BU, 300.1 – 306.9 BU, 240.8 – 248.1 BU and 400.4 – 510.9 BU respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the pasting properties. The crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture and carbohydrate ranged from 1.55 – 1.85%, 0.09 – 0.12%, 0.12 – 0.22%, 1.32 – 2.05%, 10.72 – 11.09% and 85.59 – 86.20% respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the proximate composition of the starches. The starch yield on dry weight basis, starch weight on fresh weight basis, starch yield from tubers and percentage dry matter ranged from 56.84 – 85.88%, 22.75 – 36.07%, 18.02 – 26.00% and 40.02 – 44.01% respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the all the parameters. The bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, gelatinization temperature, starch purity, amylase, amylo-pectin and pH ranged from 0.56 – 0.61g/cm3, 86.8 – 99.4%, 103.2 – 125.4%, 59.78 – 60.42°C, 95.28 – 96.55%, 27.25 – 29.37%, 70.63 – 72.63% and 6.82 – 6.91 respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the parameters but no significant difference (p>0.05) in the pH. The starches from yam and sweet potato varieties starches can be exploited for diverse uses based on their different characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characterization of Flours and Some Food Products Processed from Ten Maize Varieties (Zea mays) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

L. A. Akpro, Deffan K. Prudence, G. A. Gbogouri, Louis Ban-Koffi, K. E. Assemand, G. J. Nemlin

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430137

Objective: The aim of this work was to determine the processing aptitude of maize varieties into food products to be promoted in Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: Three dishes have been developed from ten maize varieties (MAAN16, PGBR, PGB18, AAA3, KF18, CJB, KO/Na4, KO/Na3, KO/Wa6, and EV99MRP). The sensory criteria used for the acceptability of the food products were the taste, the flavor and the color. Prior to the preparation of maize flour based food, like cakes, cooked flour paste (tôh) and semolina porridge,  the biochemical and physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, fat, protein content, ash content, carbohydrate, total sugar and reducers and pH) and functional characteristics of maize were determined. Hedonic   and descriptive tests were performed   with 30 and 15 panelists respectively.

Results: The maize varieties presented good nutritional and technological potentialities because of their high content in essential compounds likely to influence the organoleptic characteristics of the processed food.  The lowest starch content was MAAN16 with 38.58 ± 0.45% dw and the highest was CJB with 71.85 ± 0.56% dw. The lowest protein content is 5.56 ± 0.17% dw at CJB and the highest protein content is 13.66 ± 0.33% dw in KO/Na3. The lowest fat content is 3.87 ± 0.12% dw (in KO/Na4) and the highest is 12.56 ± 0.50% dw (in MAAN16); the lowest carbohydrate level is 63.27 ± 0.01% dw (in MAAN16) and the highest is 74.92± 0.03% dw (in CJB). The acceptability of the cakes, the cooked flour paste and the semolina porridge depended on the maize variety. Foods prepared from maize varieties CJB, KO/Na3, KO/Wa6, MAAN16 and PGBR were the most appreciated by tasters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Raw Goat Meat in Uyo Metropolis, Akwaibom State

Hephzibah Oluwatoyin Ajulo, Matthew Olugbenga Ajulo, N. S. E. Udo Ekereumoh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 50-60
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i430138

Introduction: In Nigeria, abattoirs have become a source of infection and pollution, attracting domestic animals, wild carnivores and rodents due to lack of adequate slaughtering and disposal facilities. Improper processing of meat consumed by the majority of people in Nigeria is a serious public health issue.

Aims: This study was aimed at isolating, characterizing, and identifying Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli from raw goat meat in Uyo metropolis.

Study Design: Fresh goat meat samples were collected from different locations within Uyo metropolis namely; such as goat meat collected at Itam junction market (GTI), Anua junction market (GTA), Ikot Okubo junction market (GTO), Itak Uyo market (GTU), Etuk market (GTE), Ndueh Otong market (GTN) and Mbiere Ebeh market (GTM).

Results: The analysis of fresh raw goat meat in Uyo metropolis showed that the total viable count of bacterial load detected on the fresh raw goat meat samples ranged from 9.1X102cfu/g to 1.07X104cfu/g. The highest bacterial count for E. coli was obtained from raw goat meat obtained from GTA1 (3.4X103 cfu/g) followed by GTM2 (3.2X103 cfu/g). The highest bacterial count for Salmonella was obtained from raw goat meat obtained from GTO1 (1.07X104) followed by GTM 2 (1.02X104). The result showed that in addition to E. coli (100%) that was found in all goat meat samples, the most common isolated microorganisms from the fresh raw goat meat samples was Salmonella choleraesuis (38.8%) followed by Salmonella salaemae (34.4%) and Salmonella kauffmanni (9.5%) respectively.

Conclusion: This study has indicated high microbial contamination of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. in the raw goat meats sold at the selected junctions of Uyo metropolis which suggested a high level of contamination of raw goat meats use for consumed in homes within Uyo metropolis.