Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acid Profile and Oil Stability of Butter Made from Peanut Paste Supplemented with Sesame Seed Paste

Ufot E. Inyang, Onyale V. Oduma

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i430196

The present study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementation of peanut paste with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% sesame seed paste on the fatty acid profile and oil stability of butter made from the blends. Packaged samples from each blend were stored at ambient temperature (27±2oC) for 12 weeks and analysed for oil separation, peroxide value (PV) and acid value (AV) at four weeks interval. Unblended peanut and sesame seed butters served as control samples. The result showed that apart from behenic acid that was not detected in sesame butter oil, the other eight fatty acids detected in peanut butter oil were also found in sesame butter oil but in varying quantities. Oil extracted from 100% peanut and sesame seed butters contained slightly below 20% saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and slightly above 80% unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linolenic, arachidic and behenic acids decreased while stearic, linoleic, and eicosenoic acids increased with increase in sesame paste supplementation. Butters made from blended pastes had higher percentages of SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) than 100% peanut butter oil. Oil separation, PV and AV significantly (P = .05) increased with storage time. Quantity of oil separated at week 12 ranged from 1.05% to 3.19%. The rate of peroxide formation decreased with increase in sesame paste supplementation. Consequently, at week 12, while 10% sesame paste supplemented butter recorded 263.12% increment in PV, the value for 50% sesame paste supplemented butter was 143.01%. The treatment had no effect on acid value during storage. At week 12, the AV increment for the butters from the blended pastes ranged from 179.59% to 181.82% while the values for 100% peanut butter and 100% sesame butter were 183.72% and 119.64% respectively. The study has shown that butter of high unsaturated fatty acids with delayed onset of oxidative deterioration could be produced from peanut paste supplemented with sesame seed paste.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Potential Antioxidants and Antioxidant Activity in Raw and Cooked Selected Locally Grown Legumes in Sri Lanka

L. L. P. S. Lokuge, H. M. T. Herath, M. D. W. Samaranayake, S. L. Liyanage, R. H. M. K. Ratnayake, W. K. S. M. Abeysekera

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 14-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i430197

Legumes are important crop species belonging to the family Fabaceae and constitute a significant part in the diet of Sri Lankans, as a meat substitute. The present study evaluated antioxidants and their activity in locally grown legume varieties for potential utilization as health foods. Twelve legume varieties grown in Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) were used for screening purpose. Results were statistically analysed using Univariate General Linear Model (SPSS Version 20) followed by mean separation Tukey HSD test. The Total Phenolics Content (TPC) of raw and cooked form of legume varieties ranged from 0.84 ± 0.04 (MICP 1) to 4.34 ± 0.15 mg (GAE)/g (ANKCP 2) and 0.30 ± 0.04 (MICP 1) to 3.71 ± 0.12 mg (GAE) /g  (Dhawala) whereas Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) ranged from 0.88 ± 0.03 (ANK-Black) to 2.19 ± 0.04 mg (QE)/g (Waruni) and 0.62 ± 0.04 (Waruni) to 8.33 ± 0.16 mg (QE)/g (Dhawala) respectively. TPC and TFC were significantly differed (p < 0.05) among the varieties as well as raw and cooked form in each variety.

The significant highest (p<0.05) antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH was shown in both forms of raw and cooked in dark seed coat coloured varieties of ANK-Brown (4.95± 0.42 and 2.18± 0.45 (TE) / g ; dark brown) ANK-Black (4.11± 0.41and 3.17± 0.60 (TE) / g ; black) and Waruni (3.38± 0.18 and 1.51± 0.13 (TE) / g ; purple) respectively while the significant (p<0.05) highest ABTS and FRAP were shown in the same varieties in raw form only. Similarly, the highest results for activity for ABTS (11.74 ± 0.26 (TE) / g) and FRAP (0.32 ± 0.02 (TE) / g) were found in cooked form of variety Dhawala. Results demonstrated the varietal identification of ANK-Brown, ANK-Black, Waruni and Dhawala with a high potential in developing functional foods. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Blanching, Varietal Difference of Irish Potato Flour and Sprouted Maize Flour on Energy Density of Gruels of Three Irish Potatoes Varieties (Cipira, Pamela and Dosa) in Dschang, West-Cameroon: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Leonie Gaytane Nguemguo Kalamo, Stephano Tambo Tene, Julie Mathilde Klang

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 28-43
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i430198

Child malnutrition is a problem that usually occurs from the age of weaning. It is mostly manifested in the form of protein-energy malnutrition and mainly affects many infants in developing countries. This study is aimed at improved the energy density of gruels made from Irish potato flours by using the response surface methodology. To achieve this, blanched and unblanched Irish potato flours of three varieties (Cipira, Dosa and Pamela) were produced. The flours were then chemically and physically characterized. The response surface methodology using the Doelhert plan was carried out to study the effect of blanching on the energy density of gruels of the three Irish potato varieties with dry matter and optimized germinated corn flour concentration (Kassaï variety) as factors. As such that the blanching, variety and interactive effect of the blanching and variety significantly influence (p<0.05; 0.01; 0.001) the proximate chemical composition of all flours. The combination of optimized germinated corn flour at concentrations ranging from 3.10 to 5.76 g with Irish potato flour at concentrations between 14.50-25.45 g of dry matter has resulted in gruels with flow velocities between 100 and 160 mm/30s. The activity of germinated flour was influenced by blanching, which reduced its activity in the Dosa and Pamela varieties but increased in the case of Cipira. The use of optimized germinated corn flour during the preparation of the Irish potato gruels resulted in an increase of the energy density between 3.4 and 6.02. The correlation matrix shows that the fluidizing capacity of optimized germinated corn flour is significantly (p<0.05; 0.01) influenced by carbohydrates, ash and fibers. In view of all the above, the appropriate combination of optimized germinated corn flour and the various Irish potato flours would alleviate the problem of protein energy malnutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Cassava Flour Production in Iwajowa Local Government Area of Oyo State

Oluwafemi, Zaccheaus Olaniyi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i430199

This study investigated the economics of cassava flour production in Iwajowa Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument of data collection was a well-structured questionnaire and interview schedules. A simple random sampling technique in proportion to population was used to select 120 respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis were used to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics and cassava flour production inputs. The cassava flour processors in the study area were still in their active age with a relatively low level of education and moderate family size. Majority engaged in cassava flour production as primary occupation using soaking and sundry processing techniques. Therefore ₦23064 was the mean of gross margin in the area. It is recommended that cassava flour processors should be educated on new production technologies, assisted to have access to improved processing machine and to solve the problems itemized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Amino Acid Profile and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activities of Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) Roe Hydrolyzate

Max Robinson Wenno, Johanna Louretha Thenu, Martha Loana Wattimena

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i430200

Roe has a high protein content and a number of amino acids. The process of removing fat and hydrolyzate with enzymes leads to the breaking of the bonds, so that complex proteins are converted into short chain proteins or peptides and free amino acids. The peptide can act as bioactive and has an effect as antihypertensive, antibacterial, antioxidant and so on. This research was aimed at utilizing processed roes to make hydrolyzate which had previously viewed the chemical composition both fresh and defatted, and to determine the protein profile of the roes from hydrolyzate. The research data were analyzed descriptively,  and the average value and standard deviation were calculated. The results showed that skipjack roes have a fairly complete chemical composition, such as Proximate (protein, fat, moisture, ash, and carbohydrates), with values, respectively 19,19%, 0,67%, 76,32%, 2,51% and 1,31%. It was also found that the dominant amino acid composition of defatted skipjack mature roes is lysine, glutamate and leusine with values, respectively 12.65, 11.20 and 7.72 g/100 g protein and have activity as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory. The ACE inhibitory activity of Skipjack roe hydrolysates of crude papain enzyme from immature and mature value, respectively 36.62% and 38.82%, while pure papain enzyme from immature and mature value respectively 42.63% and 47.54%. The protein profile of the immature roe hydrolyzate range from 10.88 to 125,80 kDA, while the mature roe hydrolysates range from 10.08 to 125,30 kDa.