Open Access Original Research Article

Composition of Fatty Acids, Total Sterols and Total Polyphenol Content of the Oils of Six Oilseeds in Côte d'Ivoire

Yao N'guessan Jean Claude, Adima Amissa Augustin, Niamke Bobelé Florence, Adje Anoh Félix

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i130227

Aims: This study aims to determine the fatty acid, sterol and total polyphenol composition of Ricinodendron heudelotii, Terminalia catappa, Moringa oleifera, Cyperus esculentus, Sesamum indicum and Coula edulis oils.

Study Design: Plant material consisting of almonds of Ricinodendron. heudelotii, Terminalia catappa, Moringa oleifera, rhizomes of, Cyperus esculentus, seeds of Sesamum indicum and hazelnuts of Coula edulis were collected in different producing areas of Côte d'Ivoire in 2017.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between November 2017 and June 2018 at the Laboratory of Industrial Processes, Synthesis, Environment and New Energies, National Polytechnic Institute Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d'Ivoire.

Methodology: The extraction of oil from the oil-bearing organs of different plants was carried out by maceration of the crushed parts of these organs in hexane at a crushed/solvent ratio of 1:10 (grams/volume) for 6 hours at cold temperature. These oils were analyzed by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acid profile, then by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer for the determination of sterols and Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer for the quantification of polyphenols.

Results: The results show a fatty acid composition of the different oils dominated by four fatty acids: oleic (18.89 - 93.93%), linoleic (1.03 - 43.2%), palmitic (2.65 - 35.6%) and stearic (1.09 - 11.66%). We also note average unsaponifiable matter (0.5 - 1.71%) and sterols dominated by sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Concerning polyphenols, the values obtained range from 52.09 to 863.67 µg gallic acid equivalent/g oil.

Conclusion: The presence of sterols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids in interesting proportions show that these oils are important sources of edible oils beneficial to human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Popularization of Traditional Processing of Cowpea into Couscous (Beroua) in the West (Dogondoutchi) and Mid-South (Maradi and Zinder) of Niger

Issoufou Amadou, Oumarou S. Samna, Mahamadou E. Gounga, Mounkaila A. Hassane, Abdoul-Aziz Saidou

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i130228

In Niger, there is a rich diversity of food processing sits from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Like most processed products, beroua or cowpea couscous is produced using artisanal processes. It is originated from the people of Arawa (Dogondoutchi). This transformation spread to the Maradi and Zinder regions, where studies have shown variability in the processing of cowpea grains into beroua. This study aimed to describe local knowledge around the different processes of processing cowpea into beroua through important areas of cowpea agricultural production in Niger, notably Dosso, Maradi and Zinder. The results show that beroua has been known for several years by local populations, its production and consumption are based on traditional knowledge and know-how. Cultural and technical exchanges between peoples transformed the beroua popular quickly. The beroua, through marketing and various exhibitions, has contributed to the popularization of Niger's traditional dishes both at national and international level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensorial Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Newly Developed Ice-Cream, with Plant Originated Stabilizer; Modified Kithul (Caryota urens) Flour

J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe, K. M. P. Manamperi, D. H. M. Nandasiri

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i130229

Aims: Replacement of existing stabilizer in ice cream industry by using modified Kithul (Caryota urens) flour which helps to reduce usage of other ingredients which are used for improve the texture and creaminess of the product was examined. Kithul (Caryota urens) flour has better stabilizing ability than other flour and it can be used in product diversification in the food industry. The objective of this study was to use modified Kithul (Caryota urens) flour as a new plant origin stabilizer for the production of ice cream which can be easily applied for ice cream machines.

Study Design: Three treatments were prepared as commercial stabilizer based (industrial mixture) as the control (A), and two samples with modified Kithul flour under two condition as without refrigerated (B) and 24 hours refrigerated (C) the modified Kithul flour with milk before preparing ice cream.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, between June 2019 and January 2020.

Methodology: Three samples were evaluated for its sensory properties and selected ice cream sample from the sensory evaluation (Treatment B) was evaluated for proximate composition and evaluated for physicochemical properties vs industrial ice cream as a control.

Results: The comparison revealed that modified Kithul flour-based ice cream (Treatment B) was better in terms of low cost of production, high overrun and high overall acceptability in the sensory analysis vs industrial ice cream (Treatment A).

Conclusion: According to the results of the evaluation of quality attributes, without refrigerated milk-modified Kithul flour mixture before making ice cream is better than the industrial ice cream due to their low cost of production, high overrun and high overall acceptability in sensory analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Characterization of Unsweetened and Sweetened “Kunun-zaki” Beverage and Pulp

Esienanwan Esien Efiong, Jonathan Maduka Nwaedozie, Abraham Ehinomhen Ubhenin, Emmanuel Hala Kwon- Ndung

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i130230

Aims: To characterize unsweetened and sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink/pulp using GC-MS.

Study Design: The experimental groups were divided into four: unsweetened “kunun-zaki” drink, sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink, unsweetened “kunun-zaki” pulp and sweetened “kunun-zaki” pulp respectively.

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State and Central Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Methodology: The processes involved sorting, cleaning, soaking, decanting, washing, milling, gelatinization, fermentation, and sieving. Unsweetened “kunun-zaki” beverage was made from millet, sorghum, soybean, dried sweet potatoes, germinated rice, ginger, and cloves. The same process was followed for the sweetened variety, with addition of dried dates. After sieving to collect “kunun-zaki” beverage, the remnant was the pulp. Hydrodistillation and Soxhlet apparatus were used to extract the essential oils, and fatty acids respectively. Fatty acid methyl esters of the samples were then analysed using GC-MS.

Results: The GC chromatogram identified three constituents in unsweetened “kunun-zaki” drink. The dominant constituents were 9,12-octadecadienenoic acid (z,)- (73.36%), and n-hexadecanoic acid (19.31%). Eleven compounds were identified in sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink. The most abundant was 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- 54.062%, followed by n-hexadecanoic acid (17.278%). Twenty-one peaks corresponding to eighteen compounds were detected in unsweetened “kunun-zaki” pulp. The dominant constituents were gingerol (20.262%), 1H-3a,7-methanoazulene,2,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,6,8,8-teramethyl-,[3R-(3α,3aβ,7 β,8aα)]- (19.925%),  2-Butanone,4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)- (15.59%), and cedrene (10.977%). For sweetened “kunun-zaki” pulp, four compounds were detected. The dominant compounds being 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (z,z)- (68.664%), n-hexadecanoic acid (18.654%), and oleic acid (10.199%).

Conclusion: The results showed safe fatty acid profile of all samples for different health status. Other components showed bioactivities with significant health benefits. This study identified compounds which validate the medicinal claims of “kunun-zaki.” This is the first documentation of GC-MS profiling of “kunun-zaki” parts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sprouting on Chemical, Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidants and Antinutrients of Flaxseeds

M. A. M. Abd-El- hady, M. E. I. Elsorady

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i130231

The objective research investigated the effect of flaxseed sprouting on chemical composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidants and flaxseed antinutrients during the four-day sprouting period. For attempts to reduce flaxseed levels of some antinutritional factors, such as cyanogenic glucosides, and improve nutrient palatability and availability, the sprouting technique has been used. After 4 days of sprouting, the dry matter content of the seeds was decreased by 5.54%. Significant decreases in oil content were observed during the sprouting period, but there were increases in protein, fibre, P, Ca, Fe and Zn content. During sprouting, the content of cyanogenic glucosides as antinutrients has decreased, thus increasing the nutritional quality and the economic demand for flaxseed sprouts. Increases were also found in the value of free fatty acids, peroxide and saponification. In addition, unsaponifiable matter has been reduced. Among fatty acids, while linoleic and oleic were increased during the sprouting period, linolenic was decreased. The results revealed that in extracted oils, total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased during and at the end of sprouting, whereas flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophylls increased.