Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Analysis of Trypsin and Alpha - Amylase Inhibitory Activities in Selected Legume Varieties in Sri Lanka

A. M. C. N. Abeykoon, H. M. T. Herath, M. A. Jayasinghe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130248

Aim: To quantify the Trypsin Inhibitory Activity (TIA) and Alpha - Amylase Inhibitory Activity (AIA) in legume varieties with effect of cooking.

Study Design: Seeds of twelve legume varieties grown in Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) in experimental field conditions were used and data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA at 95% confidence interval using MINITAB statistical software.                                                

Place and Duration of Study: Grain Legumes and Oil Crops Research and Development Centre (GLOCRDC), Angunakolapalessa and Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), Colombo, Sri Lanka between June 2019 and Dec 2019.

Methods: Ethanolic (80%) extracts of raw and cooked grain legumes were used. In determining TIA, N-α-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPA) is used as a synthetic substrate for trypsin enzyme and the rate of hydrolysis was measured by intensity of colour released by p-nitroaniline. AIA was carried out determining the maltose content which was released by hydrolysis of starch in the presence of amylase enzyme using reduction of 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid.

Results: TIA in raw legumes ranged from 0.65±0.02 mg/g (ANK- Brown) to 1.52±0.01 mg/g (ANKCP1) while in cooked legumes ranged from -0.11±0.1 mg/g (ANK-Black) to 0.61±0.02 mg/g (MI 5). In pressure cooking (120oC, 10 min) considerable reduction in TIA of 53.74% (MI6) to 100% (ANK-Black, Bombay) was observed. A significant difference (p<0.05) in TIA among the varieties as well as among cooked form of varieties were observed (one- way ANOVA). Further a significant difference (p<0.05) in TIA was observed between cooked and raw form in each legume variety (Paired T-Test).

AIA of cooked samples was ranged from - 11.61% (MI 6) - 23.05% (MISB1) and there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in AIA among the most of the legume varieties.  

Conclusion: A significant reduction of TIA among the legumes varieties was observed in the pressure cooking process while a significant activity of alpha- amylase was not seen in cooked legumes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salt Iodization and Urinary Iodine Concentration Levels among Primary School Children in Mt. Elgon Sub-County, Kenya

Stephen N. Onteri, Anselimo O. Makokha, Beatrice Nyanchama Kiage Mokua, Philip Ndemwa

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130249

Aims: Iodine plays a key role in thyroid hormone production and functioning. Inadequate iodine intake results in iodine deficiency (ID) which impairs the normal functioning of the thyroid. The deficiency is responsible for damage to brain development, growth retardation, cretinism, and thyroid dysfunction. Millions of people have been condemned to a life of few prospects and continued underdevelopment due to ID. The study was conducted to assess iodine status among primary school children in the Mt. Elgon region and the impact of salt iodization on this status.

Study Design:  A school-based cross-sectional descriptive study to assess iodine status among primary school children was employed in the study.

Study Area and Duration: The study was carried out in Kenya, Bungoma County, Mount Elgon Sub-County. The study period was between 27th November 2018 and 26th November 2019.

Methodology: Healthy primary school children aged 6 to 12 years who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Spot urine samples were collected in schools, while water samples were collected from different water sources. Salt was collected from households (HH) and at distribution outlets. The Sandell Kolthoff reaction was used to analyse urine and water samples while salt was analysed using iodometric titration.

Results: The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 200.7 µg/l. Out of which 0.55% were severely deficient, 5.25% moderately deficient, 18.23% with a mild deficiency, 25.69% had adequate iodine levels, 22.38% had more than adequate, and 27.90% had excess iodine levels. Household and salt samples from different distribution outlets that conformed to set standards of iodization were 49.4% and 63.64%, respectively. Iodine was not detected in all the water samples collected.

Conclusion: The study population was found to have adequate iodine based on the median UIC of 200.7 µg/l. However, there was a coexistence of both deficiency and excessive UIC and salt iodization within the population. No iodine was detected in the water samples in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Kinds of Substrates on the Growth and Yield Performance of Pleurotus sapidus (Oyster Mushroom)

Nasir Ahmed Khan, Waqar Ahmed, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Owais Yasin, Suhail Asad, Shahzad Munir

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130250

Cultivation of edible fungi (mushrooms) is a useful method for bio-conservation in the agriculture industry. For the better production of mushrooms, we used the agricultural waste material as a substrate for the cultivation of mushrooms. After mushroom harvesting, these substrates are available as an excellent source of soil conditioner. In this study, we used the sawdust of a simbal tree (Bombax ceiba L.), office scrap paper, and poultry manure as a substrate to cultivate the Pleurotus sapidus (oyster mushroom). Data recorded from the inoculation of spawn to the harvesting of fruiting bodies by using different parameters. The results revealed that the Treatment-T4 (sawdust of simbal tree 50% + poultry manure 50%) required the least number of days (16 days) for 100% spawn-running, development of pinhead (6.5 days), and fruiting bodies (5.5 days), produced the maximum number of fruiting bodies (24.25), maximum yield (388.40 g), and highest biological efficacy (77.68%). The Treatment-T5 (office scrap paper 50% + poultry manure 50%) took the maximum number of days (32 days) for 100% spawn-running, development of pinhead (18 days) and fruiting bodies (17 days), produced least number of fruiting bodies (9.5), minimum yield (224.50 g), and lowest biological efficacy (44.90%). Therefore, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms is an excellent or environment-friendly technique because the substrate used for mushroom cultivation is economical and readily available.

Open Access Original Research Article

Processing of a Nutrient-Rich Cereal Butter an Alternative to Peanut Butter

T. T. El-Sisy, Jehan B. Ali

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130251

Cereal butter were made from sunflower, pumpkin, garden cress, corn, rye and peanut butter served as control. Chemical, physical, microbiological, textural and sensory evaluation of cereal based butter poduced from different types of cereal were analzed using a standard method. Pumpkin had highest protein (30.23%), while sunflower, pumpkin and peanut cereals had the highest amounts of fats (51.46, 49.05 and 48.00%, respectively). Also, corn had the highest amounts (72.56%) of carbohydrate. For microbiological evaluation, data show that total mould count ranged between 1.10 to 1.80 log cfu/g for rye and peanut, respectively. Garden cress is a good source of potassium, calcium, iron, and sodium. Also, Pumpkin is a good source of Magnesium, zinc, Phosphor and Selenium.  Sunflower had the highest value of Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B9 and E but garden cress had the highest value of B2, K and C vitamins. The fatty acid composition of cereals reported that palmitic acid was the highest value in rye 21.80%. The Palmitoleic acid ranged from 0.22 to 12.50%, the lowest was peanut and highest occurred in sunflower. The highest of oleic acid was peanut 46.80%.  Sunflower had highest Linoleic acid (69.0%) and garden cress had highest of linolenic acid 32.18%. Rye had highest value (20.69%) in Arachidic acid and garden cress scored highest in Eicosenoic acid (13.40%). The microbiological quality of cereals butter samples are total aerobic bacterial counts (TAB) ranged between 1.09 log cfu/g (rye butter) to 1.91 log cfu/g (peanut butter). Garden cress was obtained the higher for viscosity value (16100, 15900 and 15700 cp/s) at 25, 40, 60°C than other cereals butter. In texture analysis, garden cress butter had the highest significant amounts of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness. Sensory evaluation of sunflower butter had the highest significant amounts of overall acceptability, peanut butter then pumpkin butter (96.30, 88.40 and 79.20, respectively) in all samples. Results could be useful in improving cereal butter processing and delivering sunflower butter to consumers who are more concerned as a functional food, high fat content and peanut allergy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health and Nutritional Qualities of Drinks Produced in the Beninese Brewery Company and Those Sold on the Benin Market

Célestin K. C. Tchekessi, Jultesse S. B. Banon, Arthur Fagbohoun, Tchouaib Aguenou, Akim Bouraima, Pivot S. A. Sachi, Roseline T. M. Bleoussi, Anayce A. M. Djogbe, Karl T. Assogba, Paulin Azokpota, Innocent P. Bokossa Yaou

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130252

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory qualities of beverages sold on the market in Benin.

Study Design:  The biological material used consisted mainly of beverage samples (126) collected at random from three wholesalers at the points of sale on two different occasions (regular period of 15 days) at the Dantokpa international market in Cotonou (Benin) in between April and September 2019.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between April and December 2019 at the Food Safety Research, Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Technologies, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Methodology: Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory qualities of samples were evaluated.

Results: The results of the microbiological analyzes revealed that all the drinks analyzed contained neither the total mesophilic aerobic flora, nor wild yeast, saccharomyces nor lactic bacteria. Therefore, the drinks are free from all pathogenic microorganisms that may harm the health of consumers. These products sold on the market complied with the criteria set by the standards and were therefore of satisfactory hygienic quality. However, the physicochemical parameters of the various drinks analyzed varied significantly from one brand to another. Results showed that the Nigerian Guinness produced contained more foam (287 s at 20 °C) and was rich in Diacetyl (0.119 mg / l) than the Benin Guinness (0.050 mg / l). As for the beer "La Béninoise", it produced more foam (220 s at 20 °C) than the Goldberg (209 s at 20 °C) but less than the Satzenbrau (250 s at 20 °C). The beer "La Béninoise" was less rich in Diacetyl (0.026 mg / l) and shown more than Goldberg (0.047 mg/l) and Satzenbrau (0.034 mg/l). As for the types of mixed drinks, it is the star Radler of Nigeria which presented a beautiful foam (235 s at 19.9 °C) with a cloudy aspect compared to the variegated one of Benin (227 s at 20.1 °C). Sensory analysis revealed that Beninese Brewery Company drinks were more appreciated by tasters.

Conclusion: In view of these results, all the beverages analyzed can be recommended to consumers because most of these drinks are of satisfactory quality and consistent with the standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Compounds Contents and Particle Size on Some Functional Properties of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam) Powders

Assiéné Agamou Julien Armel, Fombang Nig Edith, Mbofung Carl Moses

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 60-71
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130255

Objective: This study aims to determine the influence of the contents of compounds and particle size on the functional properties of leaves powders of M. oleifera.

Methodology: The leaves were collected from three farms in the localities of Mbouda and Maroua and processed in powders. The proximate composition, some functional properties such as particle size, true Water Absorption Capacity (WACt), apparent Water Absorption Capacity (WACa), Water Solubility Index (WSI), Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), and Bulk density were determined.

Results: The mean contents of young and mature leaves powders are 24.96 ± 0.29 and 23.13 ± 0.50 g/100 DM in total proteins; 34.26 ± 0.52 and 29.11 ± 1.44 g/100g DM in available carbohydrate, 8.34 ± 0.64 and 8.34 ± 0.68 g/100g DM in total lipids, 8.75 ± 0.74 and 9.08 ± 0.48 g/100g DM in total ash, 21.13 ± 1.34 and 27.14 ± 1.04 g/100g DM in total fibers, respectively. The particle size of powders is majority large. The fiber's contents significantly affect the increase of rehydration properties and the OHC, while the large particle size, the density. Values of WACt and WACa are 27.02 ± 0.20 and 32.88 ± 1.24 % in young leaves and 28.98 ± 0.15 and 35.88 ± 1.02 % in mature leaves, respectively. The WSI and OHC are 3.02 ± 0.06 and 257 ± 1% in young leaves and 3.5 ± 0.04 and 261 ± 2 % in mature leaves, respectively. The Bulk density is 0.42 ± 0.01 g/ml in young leaves and 0.39 ± 0.01 in mature leaves.

Conclusion: Functional properties of M. oleifera leave powders do not always depend on the contents of compounds and particle size distribution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Roasted Soybean Flour Substitution on the Chemical and Sensory Properties of Maize Flour Snack (Aadun)

A. A. Amanyunose, O. O. Olosunde, T. O. Adedeji, O. A. Abiodun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 72-77
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130256

Aims: To determine the effect of roasted soybean flour substitution on the chemical and sensory properties of maize flour snack (Aadun).

Study Design: Multiple comparison test was performed on the data obtained using Duncan test

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were prepared in Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, between August 2020 and November 2020.

Methodology: Composite flours were developed from roasted maize and soybean to produce snacks (Aadun). Proximate, mineral, amino acid profile and sensory properties of the samples were determined using standard procedure.

Results: The protein content of the sample ranged between 8.94–16.43% with sample with 40% soybeans having the highest value. The mineral content of the samples increased with increased addition of soybean. Total amino acid of the Aadun samples ranged between 64.81 and 83.42 g/100 g showing an increase as fortification with soybean flour increased. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall acceptability of all the snacks.

Conclusion: The chemical properties of Aadun increased with addition of soybean flour. Addition of 10 % soybeans to the maize snack did not have significant effect on the taste, texture and overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals and Nutritional Constituent Evaluation of Bael (Aegle marmelos) Fruit Pulp at Different Development Stage

A. Sarkar, M. Rashid, M. Musarrat, M. Billah

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130257

Aegle marmelos Correa commonly known as “Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening, nutritional constituent of A. marmelos at different development stages. Highest amount of alkaloid was in premature bael (8.09±0.09 mg/g), phenols in premature bael (9.65±0.06 mg/g) pulp and saponins in mature bael(5.57±0.08) pulp. Highest amount of thiamin (B1) (1.83±0.03 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (48.62±0.04 mg/100 g) in premature bael pulp. Sugar content significantly highest in matured bael(6.94±0.04 mg/100 g) pulp. Most abundant mineral potassium content was maximum in (139.61±0.04 mg/100 g) premature bael fruit pulp. The nutritional constituents and phytochemicals change depending on maturation stage. Nutritional constituent changes on the effects of development of bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit. It has been found in the present study that there were a numbers of phytochemical changes occurred during different fruit development stages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Creating Sim Flower Scent (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) for Product Sim Fruit from Natural Materials in Vietnam

Le Huy Hai, Le Mai Xuan Truc

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 87-92
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130258

Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to reproduce the scent of Sim (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) flower from natural substances present in Vietnam to replace the scent extracted from Sim flower.

Materials and Methods: All the materials for making the Sim flower fragrance and products from Sim fruit are natural sources in Vietnam.

Fragrance assessment by olfactory, the aroma is diluted 20 times with an odorless diethyl phthalate (DEP) solvent, followed by a special scent paper and the smell of the nose to assess the scent. The fragrance of Sim flower was tested on Sim syrup product 0.2%, Sim jam 0.5%, Sim wine 0.3% by weight.

Results: After the experiment, we have selected fragrance FW.1, FW.2 for Sim wine, FS.1 and FS.2 for Sim syrup, FJ.1 and FJ.2 for Sim jam.

The main aroma of Sim flower is made up of Aldehyde anisic, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamon bark oil, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Linalyl cinnamate, Linalyl formate, Linalyl butyrate. Aldehyde anisic and Linalool are the main constituents that determine the aroma of Sim flower.

Conclusions: We have created the scent of Sim flower from natural materials in Vietnam for Sim wine FW.1, FW.2, for Sim syrup FS.1, FS.2, and Sim jam FJ.1, FJ.2. Sim flower FW.1, FW.2, FS.1, FS.2, FJ.1, and FJ.2 are added to Sim wine, Sim syrup, Sim jam to increase the value and appeal of the products made from Vietnam Sim fruit.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Use of Honey in the Treatment of Wound Infection

Hassana Ibrahim Adamu, Isma’il Rabi’u, Mabeh Blessing Inah

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i130253

Honey is a sweet substance made by bees using nectar from flowers. Honey is of different types, but the Apis mellifera is the one most commonly used, consumed by people and collected by bee keepers. The flower from which bees gather nectar, determines the colour, chemical composition, flavour and aroma of the honey. The use of honey in folk medicine has been practiced since ancient times and has more recently been rediscovered by medical researchers for its use in dressing acute and chronic wounds, particularly where conventional modern therapeutic agents have failed. The wound healing property of honey is due to its antibacterial activity; the ability to maintain a moist wound condition, the high sugar content which hinders microbial growth, the high viscosity which help in providing a protective barrier to prevent infection, the immunomodulatory property which helps in wound repair, the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide and the high osmolarity which draws fluid out of the wound bed to enable an outflow of lymph, as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Different scientists reported honey, as having one of the most powerful inhibitory effect with regard to sixty species of bacteria. Although the inhibitory activity of honey has been established against wide spectrum of bacteria, it differs depending on the type of honey. Under different concentrations, honey has been reported to be active against a number of bacterial pathogens such as (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter and Coagulase positive/ negative Staphylococcus etc.) isolated from wounds.