Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Bread Prepared from Wheat and Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Flour, Starch and Non-Starch Residue Flour) Blends

O. A. Kure, C. C. Ariahu, B. D. Igbabul

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330274

Bread was produced from wheat (Trititum spp) orange flesh sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) flour, starch and non-starch residue blends. The orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were washed, peeled, sliced, dried and milled to flour. The starch and non-starch residue were also produced from the orange-fleshed sweet potatoes. Different proportions of wheat and flour, wheat and starch and wheat and non-starch residue of orange-fleshed sweet potato with increasing level of orange-fleshed sweet potato at 10, 20, 30 and 40% addition in wheat were prepared. Control samples were 100% wheat flour (A0), 100% orange-fleshed sweet potato flour (A1), 100% orange-fleshed sweet potato starch (B1) and 100% orange-fleshed sweet potato non-starch residue (C1). Breads from these different proportions were formulated. The proximate, mineral, vitamin, physical properties and sensory attributes of the bread samples and their composites were determined. The GENSTAT Statistical Software (version 17.0) was used for data analyses. The Proximate compositions of the bread ranges as follows; moisture 26.30-36.21%, protein 0.85-7.89%, fat 6.33-8.93%, fiber 0.82-4.92%, ash 0.56-2.11% and carbohydrates 41.26-64.84%. The physical properties of the breads ranged from 210.60-254.00 g, 0.05-2.40 mm, 317.60-440.60 cm3 and 1.25-2.10 for loaf weight, oven spring, loaf volume and specific volume respectively. Mineral and vitamin composition for breads samples ranged respectively thus for calcium 18.45-33.21 zinc 0.92-6.27, magnesium 0.28-19.33, phosphorus 31.00-319.60 and potassium 56.30-352.60, vitamin B1, 0.10-0.37, vitamin B2, 0.07-1.23, vitamin B6, 0.09-1.25, vitamin B12 0.04-1.13 mg/100 g, vitamin C 0.12-14.17 mg/100 g and vitamin A 0.00-8193 µg/100 g.The sensory evaluation results indicated that up to 20% substitution of wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato flour, starch and non-starch residue flours was acceptable in bread formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) Flour Blends for Production of Stiff Dough and Biscuits

Nguseer Patience Orafa, Osaretin Buraimoh Samuel, Anastasia Angorkuma Daagema

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330275

This study evaluates the quality of yam and carrot flour blends for the production of stiff dough and biscuits. Flour samples were prepared from yam tubers and carrot flours .The carrot flour was used to substitute 5, 10, 15, and 20 of the yam flour on the stiff dough. Biscuits were prepared from various blends of wheat flour, carrot flour and yam flours. The proximate composition, functional properties, vitamin, minerals and sensory attribute of the flour blends were carried out using appropriate standard methods for the analysis. The sensory properties of the stiff dough and biscuits were determined. The proximate composition of the flour blends were significantly (P< 0.05) different for the moisture (7.52.-6.89%), ash (2.00-2.36%), protein (4.90-4.55%), fat (1.41-1.25%) and carbohydrate (82.09-77.73%). The water absorption (2.53 – 4.10%) and least gelation concentration( 6.43-12.03%) of the blends increased while the bulk density  (0.65-0.53 g/ml), dispersibility (1.49 -2.50%), swelling capacity( 2.59 -3.83%) and foaming capacity (26.73-6.44 g/ml).The blends were rich in iron( 8.43-19.22 mg/100g), zinc (7.43-18.11 mg/100g), magnesium (94.54-170.49 mg/100g) and phosphorus (30.63-84.01 mg/100g). The blends were rich in pro-vitamin A (5.51-17.42). Vitamin B1 (0.43-0.84) and vitamin C (4.81-17.81 mg/100g). The sensory scores recorded on the flour blends for appearances (7.10- 8.50), texture (7.40 -8.10), taste (7.10 -7.85), aroma (6.70 -7.60) and acceptability (6.35-7.70) decreased with increasing level of carrot flour in the blends. The biscuits containing  75% wheat flour, 20% yam flour and 5% carrot flour was the most preferred.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Garcinia mongostana, Lycium barbzarum, Momordica grosvenori, and Psidium guajava on the Growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus

Elham Bagheri, Amal Bakr Shori, Ahmad Salihin Baba

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330276

There are an increasing number of fermented beverage using herbal extract as a natural ingredient. The growth of bacteria in four plant water extract (Lycium barbarum, Psidium guajava, Momordica grosvenori, and Garcinia mongostana) as measured by the increase in turbidity of MRS and M17 growth medium containing Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus respectively was investigated during 30 minutes of incubation at 37°C. The stimulatory effects on Lactobacillus spp. growth was tremendously enhanced (p<0.05) by L. barbarum (3.0%; OD=0.1.1) and P. guajava (1.5% (OD=0.5) and 3.0% (OD=0.6); respectively) compared to control (0%) after 30 minutes. In addition, inclusion of P. guajava (1.5%) shorted incubation time to reach plateau at 5 minutes. The inclusion of M. grosvenori and G. mangostana water extract at 0.30% increased Lactobacillus spp. growth by 2 and 14 fold respectively which higher than control. There was a dose response effect of all plant water extracts except for M. grosvenori on the growth of S. thermophilus. All the three concentrations of L. barbarum and P. guajava stimulated the growth of S. thermophilus which reach 3 fold higher than control at 1.5% L. barbarum. On the other hand, M. grosvenori water extract showed inhibitory effects on the growth of S. thermophilus at all doses but after the first 15 min at 3.0% the inhibitory effects were lost (p<0.05). G. mangostana water extract at 3.0% increased S. thermophilus growth 10 fold higher than control after 30 minutes. In conclusion, all plant water extract samples except M. grosvenori could be a good vehicle for carrying Lactobacillus ssp. and S. thermophilus while M. grosvenori could enhance the growth of Lactobacillus spp. but not S. thermophilus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Citrus Juice from Lemon (Citrus limon), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) as Influenced by Degree of Ripening

Olusegun O. Ogundele, Mathew K. Bolade

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330277

The influence of degree of ripening (unripe, half-ripe and ripe) of citrus fruits (lemon, lime and grapefruit) on the biochemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of their juices was investigated. The juice yield from the citrus fruits was affected by the level of ripening as the highest juice yield was obtained when the fruits were at ripe stage giving 25.2 mL/100 g (lemon), 43.3 mL/100 g (lime), and 21.1 mL/100 g (grapefruit). The biochemical characteristics of the citrus juices revealed that the pH values were generally increasing with an increasing level of ripening particularly for lime and grapefruit while the pH of lemon juice was decreasing with an increase in the degree of ripening. The lowest pH values exhibited by the citrus fruits were 2.87 (ripe lemon), 2.16 (unripe lime), and 3.27 (unripe grapefruits). The total acidity of the citrus juices essentially exhibited an inverse relationship with their corresponding pH values. The highest ascorbic acid contents of the juices were 51.3 g/100mL (unripe lemon), 38.9 g/100mL (unripe lime), and 44.7 g/100mL (unripe grapefruit) while the highest total phenolic contents were 722 µg GAE/mL (unripe lemon), 207 µg GAE/mL (unripe lime), and 646 µg GAE/mL (unripe grapefruit); indicating a significant impact of degree of ripening on the parameters. The antioxidant activity of the citrus juices using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay revealed a significant influence of degree of ripening and juice volume on the activity. The percent inhibition of DPPH free radical by the juices was generally higher at an unripe stage of fruit maturity as well at greater juice volume. The ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) of the citrus juices was also influenced by the level of ripening of the fruit. The FRAP values were generally higher at unripe stage which were 3.72 µ mol Fe(II)/g (unripe lemon), 4.98 µ mol Fe(II)/g (unripe lime) and 9.53 µmolFe(II)/g (unripe grapefruit).

Open Access Original Research Article

Farro 57 Rice Cultivar: A Comparative Study of the Nutritional Composition of its Parboiled Milled Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice

E. S. Ukpong, E. U. Onyeka, G. C. Omeire, C. Ogueke

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330278

This work analyzed the nutritional composition of germinated brown rice (GBR)  produced from FARRO 57 rice cultivar and compared it with that of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and ungerminated parboiled milled/white rice (UWR) from the same cultivar which were used as controls. The aim was to evaluate and compare the nutritional composition of UBR, UWR and GBR of the rice cultivar. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice grains in distilled water for 24 h and then made to germinate in a laboratory incubator at 35° C for 12, 24 and 36 h. The parameters determined included proximate composition, energy value, minerals, vitamins, total starch, amylose and total reducing sugar contents and they were determined in triplicates. It was found that GBR had significantly higher contents of protein (14.54-15.01%), ash (3.36.98%), total dietary fibre (9.23-9.31), phosphorus (130.55-187.15 mg/100 g), iron (6.22-9.94 mg/100 g), calcium (455.0-560.0 mg/100 g), zinc (2.51-2.72 mg/100 g), selenium (92.10-107.50 µg/100 g), vitamin B2 (2.35-2.92 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (1.82-2.68 mg/100g) than UBR and UWR. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the contents of vitamins A (19.45-19.72 IU), B1 (0.33-0.34 mg/100g) and B6 (1.00-1.10 mg/100g) of GBR and UBR samples, however they were all significantly higher than that of UWR. The GBR also had significantly lower amount of total carbohydrate (64.21-71.09%), total starch (54.91-60.92%), amylose (22.05-28.14%), and total reducing sugar (5.14-11.23%) than UBR and UWR. Amongst the GBR samples, the ash, protein, and the minerals increased with increase in duration of germination while the total carbohydrate, starch and amylose decreased with increase in duration of germination. GBR was recommended over UBR and UWR due to its optimum levels of the nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Halal Food Safety: PCR Based Detection of Porcine DNA in Imported Chocolate

Khaleda Akter, Mahfuza Khandaker, Md. Abdul Aziz, Shahriar Mahmud, Md. Neaz Morshed, G. M. Sala Uddin

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 61-71
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330279

Halal food and food products consumption is a major part of living in Muslim community. Pork meat or meat items are not considered halal in Muslim countries and consumers. Ensuring pork-free food items is a challenge for the food industry and exporters to Muslim nations. This study aims to detect porcine DNA in imported chocolate products in Bangladesh for halal safety assurance. The imported chocolate samples were collected from various multi shops in Dhaka. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used in our research to detect the porcine DNA. Two primer sets are used for the detection of porcine mitochondrial cyt-b (cytochrome-b) gene fragments in chocolate samples. To visualize the amplified DNA, agarose gel (1%) was used. After electrophoresis, DNA band in agarose gel indicated that the gene fragments are amplified properly. In our research, out of 42 chocolate samples, only 2 samples were found positive. The chocolate samples were branded as Wild Berry Flavor Chocolate and Cadbury Milk Tray Chocolate. In comparison with the positive pork sample, these two samples also containing the 165bp and 359bp fragment of the porcine cytochrome b gene. We reported that chocolate products contain the pork contamination were not labeled as halal. While other samples that did not have any halal logo originated from outside Bangladesh and imported also showed negative result. The present study established the DNA-based porcine detection system based on mitochondrial cyt-b that is viable in highly processed products. It can be used in the halal certification process to determine the pork items presence in food and halal safety. Our research also reported that imported chocolates should halal certify before release into the market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical, Alveograph and Anti-nutritional Properties of Breads Formulated from Wheat and Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Seed Flour Blends

S. Ibrahim, E. D. Inelo, M. O. Eke

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 72-85
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330280

The feasibility of partially substituting wheat flour with pawpaw seed (WFPS) flour in bread formulation was investigated. Matured, ripped pawpaw fruits were washed, and the seeds were collected, extracted, dried and milled. Different proportions of wheat and pawpaw seed flour with increasing level of pawpaw seed flour at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 % addition in wheat were prepared. Control sample was 100 % wheat flour and its bread. The physical properties of breads and alveograph properties of dough blends were determined. Also, the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of the bread samples were determined using standard procedures. The GENSTAT Statistical Software (version 17.0) was used for data analyses. Physical properties of the bread samples significantly (p<0.05) decreased in oven spring (5.49-2.39 cm), loaf volume (1022.50-901.60 cm3) and specific volume (4.09-3.14 cm3/g) but increased in loaf weight (250.20-288.50 g) with increased pawpaw seed flour addition. Values for dough maximum pressure (91.00-109.50 mm), extensibility (80.50-54.50 mm) and baking strength (255.00-237.50 ×10-4joules/g) significantly (p<0.05) decreased while the ratio of resistance to extensibility increased (1.36-1.66) with increased seed flour addition. The result of the mineral analysis of the breads showed significant (p<0.05) increase in all the mineral parameters determined. High values were recorded in magnesium (143.00-182.50 mg/100g), calcium (252.60-342.60 mg/100g) and phosphorus (73.50-127.30 mg/100g). The anti-nutritional contents of the breads significantly (p<0.05) increased as the level of pawpaw seed flour substitution increased. Tannins, oxalate, Phytate, and Trypsin inhibitor ranged from 1.76-2.68 mg/100g, 0.06-0.28 mg/100g, 0.06-0.29 mg/100g and 1.28-9.71 TIU/100g respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Proximate, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Jams from Selected Tropical Fruits Spiced with Ginger, Garlic and Turmeric

O. A. Adeoti, A. O. Alabi, E. O. Ogunjobi, O. O. Elutilo, S. O. Adeodokun

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 86-99
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330281

Fruit jams were produced from watermelon, pineapple and apple spiced with ginger, garlic and turmeric using standard method. The sample treatments were WA (watermelon 100%), WAGI (watermelon 95% + ginger 5%), WAGA (watermelon 95% + garlic 5%), WATU (watermelon 95% + turmeric 5%), WAGGT (watermelon 95% + ginger 5% + garlic 5% + turmeric 5%), PI (pineapple 95%), PIGI (pineapple 95% + ginger 5%), PIGA (pineapple 95% + garlic 5%), PITU (pineapple 95% + turmeric 5%), PIGGT (pineapple 95% + ginger 5% + garlic 5% + turmeric 5%), AP (apple 95%), APGI (apple 95% + ginger 5%), APGA (apple 95% + garlic 5%), APTU (apple 95% + turmeric 5%) and APGGT (apple 95% + ginger 5% + garlic 5% + turmeric 5%). The proximate, physicochemical (pH, total soluble solid, titratable acidity), antioxidant and sensory characteristics of the jams were determined using standard analytical procedures. The protein content of the sample ranged from 0.50 to 7.16% for reference sample (CNTP) and watermelon-garlic jam (WAGA). The fat and ash contents of the samples ranged from 0.21 to 2.55% and 1.03 to 4.38% for pineapple jam (PA) and reference sample (CNTP) respectively. The fibre content was 0.11% for reference sample (CNTP) and 1.90% for and watermelon-garlic jam (WAGA). The pH of the jams ranged from 3.10 to 3.50 for reference sample (CNTP) and apple-ginger-garlic-tumeric jam (APGGT) while total soluble solid and titratable acidity ranged from 50.00 and 69.80 °brix for pineapple-ginger-garlic-tumeric (PIGGT) and reference sample (CNTP) and 1.13 and 1.40 g/ml for CNTP and PIGA respectively. The TSS/TTA was 37.92 to 61.22 for PIGA and CNTP. The antioxidant activity of the sample was 25.45% for CNTP and 50.67% for PIGI while the total phenolic contents was 0.10 mmGAE/100 g and 0.28 mmGAE/100 g for CNTP and PIGI. The sensory values for the color ranged from 4.30 and 7.85 for WAGGT and PIGI while the taste ranged from 6.10 and 7.80 for APTU and PIGI. The overall acceptability ranged from 5.89 and 7.88 for CNTP and PIGI. Fruit jams spiced with ginger, garlic and turmeric was highly nutritious, however the pineapple-ginger jam showed a very high nutrient and bioactive components which make it to be a functional, healthy and immune booster foods for both children and adult alike.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation and Mango Mesocarp or Fluted Pumpkin Powders on the Chemical Composition and Potential Mineral Bioavailability of Sorghum-Based Complementary Foods

Sengev Iorfa Abraham, Ariahu Chukwuma Charles, Abu Joseph Oneh, Gernah Dickson Iorwuese

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 100-111
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330282

The effect of fermentation, mango mesocarp or fluted pumpkin leaf powders on the chemical properties and potential mineral bioavailability of sorghum-based complementary foods was investigated. Samples were formulated based on 16% protein to satisfy the nutrient requirement of preschool children to obtain non-fermented sorghum/mango mesocarp/crayfish (NFSMC), non-fermented sorghum/fluted pumpkin leaf/crayfish (NFSPC), fermented sorghum/ mango mesocarp/crayfish (FSMC) and fermented sorghum/ fluted pumpkin leaf /crayfish (FSPC). Some physico-chemical properties of the blends were analysed using standard procedures. Moisture (10.22–10.99%) and carbohydrate (78.73-79.89%). The protein (15.84-16.91%), fibre (0.07-0.08%) and ash (2.07-2.15%) were within the recommended limits. Fat contents ranged from 2.00-2.16% and energy values ranged from 401.40 to 402.10 kCal. Fermentation did not significantly (p ≥ 0.05) affect the proximate composition of the products. The mineral values for magnesium (53.25-61.60%), sodium (32.06-46.30%), potassium (20.80-44.66%), calcium (198.60-230.30%) and phosphorus (98.99-101.50%) with no significant (p ≥ 0.05) difference in most of the products. The iron and copper values ranged from 10.03-17.09% and 0.42-1.43% respectively. Mineral ratios for the products ranged from 0.74 – 2.19 for Na/K, 1.96 – 2.71 for Ca/P and 3.69 – 5.07 for Ca/Mg. The tannins content ranged from 20.23 to 51.51 mg/100 g, phytate (7.25-22.16 mg/100 g), oxalate (5.50 to 14.37 mg.100 g), pH (6.20 to 7.80) and beta-carotene ranged from 724.50 - 1215.40 µg/100 g with significant (p<0.05) difference between the blends. The molar ratios of the blends, except NFSMC, indicated good potential for mineral bioavailability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Enzymes and Germination Pattern: Upshot of High Salinity on Soluble Protein and Average Weight of Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Seedlings

Saeeda Bano, Samina Iqbal, Beena Naqvi, Kanwal Abbasi, Kauser Siddiqui, Hafsa Sattar, Afsheen Aman

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i330283

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely considered as a functional food mainly due to its various beneficial components including vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, bioactive and antioxidant compounds that stimulate health beyond basic nutrition. The overwhelming agricultural crop at salinity conditions faced several abiotic and biotic stresses that unfortunately reduced the potential applicability of highly nutritious plants. Therefore, in this study the response of antioxidant enzymes were studied at different germination stages of the seedlings and results suggested that all antioxidant enzymes play a crucial role during oxidative stress. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings had the potential to germinate remarkably well up to 800 mM NaCl concentration and the average weight of seedlings and soluble protein content was efficiently increased at high salinity. During oxidative stress, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase significantly showed tolerances to salinity stress conditions. Among them, Ascorbate Peroxidase presented significant activity even at 600 mM of NaCl in germination stage 1. The antioxidant defense mechanism of Spinacia oleracea is activated at the very early stage of germination which perhaps helps the plant to survive under harsh conditions thus maintaining the nutritional components of the plant.