Open Access Case study

The Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Plan for Chicken Nugget Plant

Md. Asaduzzaman

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530295

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a protective approach alarmed with not only food manufacturing but also storage safety. Now-a-days this system has become vital tool for dealings involving different types and kinds of foodstuffs. This perseverance was to established exact HACCP proposal for Bangladeshi chicken nugget manufacturing plant in a current poultry processing plant in Kishoreganj, Dhaka. A precise broad HACCP model was established to develop consumption security and quality of chicken nugget processed in this manufacturing plant. This study was based on genuine circumstances in the chicken nugget manufacturing plant, HACCP’s seven principles and several current general models such as Bangladesh Standards & Testing Institution (BSTI), HALAL, ISO 9001:2015, and ISO 22000, YUM Quality Systems Audit of HACCP utilize through investigation which is also known as qualitative methodology. Under taking the consideration all factors of HACCP such as flow-chart, corrective action, verification procedures, Critical control point monitoring requirements and record-keeping were originated, a HACCP team established in the factory. Three Critical control points (CCP) were acknowledged in the manufacture of chicken nugget in this processing plant. The most important identified CCPs were Supply of ingredients and raw material; packaging material; Proper temperature and time for oil frying and proper examination during packing for foreign and unwanted materials of final product. Therefore, HACCP system should be established in each and every poultry processing facilities, recommended by author.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Pan Bread from Chia Seeds Powder as Substitute Wheat Flour

G. E. Boriy, Eman A. Yousef, Eman A. A. Abd Rabou

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530294

As part of this functional food covenant, the world is searching for new healthy food products with ample quantities of bioactive components such as fibre, mineral elements, essential amino acids, and phenols. Since CHIA seeds powder has both nutritious and pharmaceutical  properties, integrating it into pan bread  may be  beneficial  to  human  health. The sensorial parameters of pan bread enriched with CSP, amino acids composition, and proximate  compositions  of the pan bread were investigated in this study by partially replacing  wheat  flour (WF) with  CHIA  seeds  powder  (CSP) at  levels  of  3  percent, 6  percent, 9 percent, and 12 percent. The addition of CSP to pan bread  improved  the mineral content of the bread. With  only  a minor depreciation in bread  quality, CSP could  partially replace  WF  72 percent extraction in pan bread, increasing its nutritional value in terms of  fibre, essential amino acids, and minerals. Sensorial evaluation revealed that pan bread supplemented with up to 12% CSP was acceptable to the panelists, with notable differences in crumb texture, appearance, crust color, crumb grain, taste, odor, and overall acceptability as compared to pan  bread   control. When compared  to  pan bread  without  CSP, the CSP  mixture  increased the mineral  content, essential  amino  acid  content, and nutritional   properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Break Fast Cereal Made from Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Soybean (Glycine max), Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

Mohammed A. Usman

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530296

The present study was aimed at the assessment of physicochemical and consumer acceptability of breakfast cereals developed from locally-sourced materials (sorghum, soybean, Bambara groundnut and groundnut). Ten samples were formulated by mixing the flours in different ratios while the formulated flours were subjected to various analyses including proximate composition, functional properties, vitamins and microbial evaluation and consumer acceptability. The results revealed the following ranges in the proximate parameters: moisture (6.45 – 10.46%), protein (10.26 –19.64%), fat (3.89–11.42%), ash (1.48 – 2.69%), crude fiber (1.94–3.72%), carbohydrates (56.09 – 72.06%), and energy (363.52 – 405.64 Kcal). The functional properties of the formulated breakfast cereal were bulk density (0.65-1.14 g/cm3), water absorption capacity (70.45-82.45 ml/g), swelling index (7.05-10.95%), solubility (73.55-88.84%), and viscosity (22.96-38.84 cP). Appreciable quantities of vitamins were present in the formulated breakfast cereal including vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and folic acid. The sensory evaluation on the formulated breakfast cereal revealed that sample F (5% Malted sorghum flour + 65% Unmalted Sorghum flour + 30% Soybean flour) was rated the highest in terms of appearance, taste, and overall acceptability. The comparative advantage of this formulated cereal meal is that the ingredients used (soybean, sorghum, Bambara groundnut and groundnut) are easily grown in the tropical areas with high yield and are locally available.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties, Sensory Acceptance and Storage Stability of Yogurt Flavored with Refractance Window Dried Passion Fruit Powder

Amos Asiimwe, Julia B. Kigozi, John Muyonga

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530297

Aims: The study evaluated the use of refractance window dried passion fruit powder as a flavoring for yogurt.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Makerere University, Kampala-Uganda between October 2020 and January 2021.

Methodology: Passion fruit pulp was mixed in carboxymethyl cellulose and dried using a laboratory refractance window drier.

Plain yogurt was flavored with 2% passion fruit powder. Passion fruit flavored, plain and commercial yogurt were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory properties. Statistical analyses were performed using XLSTAT and all results were considered to be significant at P<0.05.

Results: pH values and titratable acidity for all yogurts ranged from 4.67 to 3.77 and 1.21% to 2.89%, respectively throughout the 14 day storage period. The apparent viscosity of all yogurts increased significantly during storage and ranged from 413.76 cP to 525.20 cP, the syneresis of yogurts ranged from 25.6% to 32.2%, vitamin C content of the yogurts ranged from 0.69 mg/100 g to 1.91 mg/100 g, the carotenoid content of yogurts ranged from 0.55 µgRAE to 1.07 µgRAE, phenolic content of the yogurts ranged from 0.50 mg/100 g GAE to 8.01 mg/100 g GAE, whereas total antioxidant activity of the yogurts ranged from 0.21mg/100g VCE to 9.96mg/100g VCE. For all yogurt types, there was no significant change (p<0.05) in any of the sensory parameters (flavor, color, mouth feel, consistency, taste and overall acceptability) over the storage period of 14 days.

Conclusion: Addition of passion fruit powder to yogurt resulted in increased levels of vitamin C, beta carotenoid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity, in comparison to plain yoghurt and commercial vanilla flavored yogurt. This will provide consumers with more nutritious options thereby improving nutrition of consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Shigella spp and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Select Commercially Processed Meat Products

Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi, Helen Inikpi Ajayi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 50-66
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530298

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shigella spp and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in some selected commercially processed ready-to-eat snail (Archachatina marginata) and edible worm (Rhynchophorus phoenicis).

Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were obtained from vendors along the Benin-Sapele express road, South-South Nigeria, over a two months period (November to December, 2019).

Methodology: The enumeration of total heterotrophic counts, total Shigella counts and total Staphylococcus aureus counts were done using nutrient agar, Salmonella Shigella agar and mannitol salt agar respectively. All isolates were further identified by their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were identified using methicillin-oxacillin agar, while the antibiogramic profile of selected isolates and their multidrug resistant profile were done according to the CSLI guideline.

Results: The mean heterotrophic bacterial counts (THCs) obtained in Rhynchophorus phoenicis ranged from 0.00 × 10³ ± 0.00 cfu/g to 500.00 × 10³ ± 0.00 cfu/g, while the mean THCs obtained in Archachatina marginata ranged from 13.3 × 10³ ± 1.15 cfu/g to 500 × 10³ ± 0.00 cfu/g. The total Staphylococcus aureus obtained in Rhynchophorus phoenicis was between 0.00 × 10³ ± 0.00 cfu/g to 294 × 10³ ± 4.7 cfu/g and the Shigella bacteria counts from 0.00 × 10³ ± 0.00 cfu/g to 258 × 10³ ± 14.64 cfu/g. The antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from both Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Archachatina marginata, found the majority of isolates (96.67%) to be resistant to ceftazidime and cefuroxime, while 83.33% of the isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin. All Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, cloxacillin and amoxycillin clavulanate. The multidrug resistant index recorded was between 37.5 and 100. All Staphylococcus (9) isolates tested for methicillin resistance was observed to be positive.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that RTE vended meat products sold in along Benin City By-pass, contains Shigella and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species, which are potential foodborne pathogens and efforts should be made at eliminating them from these vended meat products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation Using Sawdust and Different Organic Manures

O. A. Orngu, I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, B. O. Unagwu, V. E. Etim

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530299

Aims: The aim was to evaluate the performance of cultivating oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using sawdust and different organic manures. 

Study Design: The experimental design used was the complete randomized design (CRD) and the Data obtained was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s Least Significant Difference(LSD) test to compare treatment means; differences was considered significant at 95% (P≤0.05) (SPSS Version 21 software).

Place and Duration of Study: National Biotechnology Development Agency, South East Center, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between September 2019 and November 2019.

Methodology: Saw dust was prepared as substrate with different organic manures and coded SD, Saw dust; SDP, Sawdust+ Poultry; SDC, Saw dust + cow dung; SDD, Saw dust+ pig dung) in the ratio of 100:0 and 50:50 respectively to cultivate oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Subsequently, the rate of growth, time of harvest, yield and average weight were recorded and proximate composition determined using standard methods.

Results: Oyster mushroom harvested showed Moisture content ranged (4.63-7.14%), ash content (4.84-6.77%), crude fat (0.98-3.28%), fiber (16.02-18.23%), protein (19.27-33.41%) and carbohydrate (38.18%-48.89%). Average weight yield was highest in saw dust substrate (10.2g) with total yield (980g) and least average weight (7.5g) and total yield (105g) in sawdust and poultry litters substrate. Oyster mushroom from all the substrate differed significantly (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Sawdust was the most suitable substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation though sawdust and pig dung combination can be a good alternative.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Indigenous Yeasts Isolated from Nigerian Fermented Food Products

I. A. Adesokan, A. I. Sanni, S. S. Kanwar

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530300

Probiotics are living microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Before an organism can be designated as probiotic there are certain criteria that must be fulfilled. These include acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity, ability to co-aggregate, hydrophobicity etc. One hundred and eighty one indigenous yeast isolates recovered from various fermented food products of Nigeria were characterized and grouped using phenotypic methods. Forty two selected yeast isolates were identified using molecular method which involved sequencing of D1 and D2 domain of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA. Then nine indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated for their probiotic characteristics such as acid and bile tolerance, transit in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, autoaggregation and hydrophobicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC10 was included as a positive control. The S. cerevisiae were able to grow in the presence of acidic medium with pH as low as 2 and 3. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test with 0-1% ox bile, all the S. cerevisiae tested were able to grow. The growth for 3% bile tolerance test ranged from 4.81 to 5.35 log cfu/ml. These isolates were able to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal transit. All the yeast isolates exhibited bile salt deconjugation activity against sodium glycodeoxycholate and were able to grow in the presence of all other bile salts investigated. Autoaggregation ability (an adhesive property) of the indigenous yeast isolates ranged from 89.80% for S. cerevisiae BK19 to 99.91% for S. cerevisiae OB03. The native yeast isolates also exhibited high percentage hydrophobicity, another adhesive property of probiotics. The values obtained ranged from 31.62 to 83.45% for isolates AG23A and OB 17. These observations indicate that the native yeast isolates from Nigerian fermented foods have the potential of being use as probiotics for making functional foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermentation and Exrusion Effects on the In Vitro Proteinand Starch Digestibility of Unripe Plantain and Pigeon Pea Blends

S. E. Orekoya, A. O. Ojokoh, A. O. Arogunjo, J. O. Aribisala, B. O. B. Ajayi-Moses, P. O. Gabriel, I. M. Akinwunmi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530301

This study investigated effects of fermentation and extrusion on the in vitro protein andstarch digestibility of unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends. The blended samples were set-up in three arrangements (A=100g unripe plantain; B= 70g unripe plantain: 30g pigeon pea; C= 50g unripe plantain: 50g pigeon pea) and divided into four batches (i.e. first batch = preconditioned and fermented; second batch = extruded; third batch = fermented and extruded; and fourth batch = unfermented/unextruded). Semi-solid state method of fermentation was deployed to ferment blended samples for 96 hours. The pH, temperature and total titratable acidity (TTA) of these samples were evaluated. Fifteen microorganisms comprising 9 bacteria, 2 yeasts and 4 molds were isolated and identified as; Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostocmesenteroides, Lactobacillus mali, Streptococcus lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergilluscandidus, and Mucorhiemalis. There were notable variation in the values of pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) during fermentation. The processes of fermentation and extrusion significantly amplified the in vitro starch digestibility of the flour blends with fermented extruded samples (51.03±0.02 to 55.19±0.02mg/ml) unlike theraw flour blends (36.77±0.20 to 41.26±0.003mg/ml).The in vitro protein digestibility significantly increased with the extruded fermented samples (12.73±0.17 to 15.45±0.06mg/ml) and lowest forraw flour blends (4.57±0.29 to 5.98±0.37mg/ml). Hence, it can be concluded based from the available information from this study that fermentation and extrusion increase the in vitro starch digestibility and protein digestibility of unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chemical, Physical and Functional Properties of Extruded Snacks from Blends of Acha Grain, Jackbean and Pawpaw Pormace Flours

A. I. Fakolujo, A. V. Adelugba

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 94-110
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530302

Aims: To produce protein and fibre enriched extruded product that can be used as a protein supplement by combining legumes, cereal and fruits, evaluate the proximate properties of the snacks, evaluate anti-nutritional factors in the snacks, assess the functional properties of the flour blends, determine the physical properties of the extruded snacks, evaluate the quality and sensory properties of the snacks produced, carry out the mineral content analysis of the extruded products.

Methodology: Acha flour (A), Jack bean flour (J) and Pawpaw flour (P) were produced and blended to give various ratios of AAA (100% Acha, 0% jackbean, 0% pawpaw pomace), AJP (70% Acha, 20% Jackbean, 10% pawpaw), APJ (70% Acha,10% Jack bean, 20% pawpaw), AJN (70% Acha, 30% Jackbean, 0% Pawpaw), ANP (70% Acha, 0% Jack bean, 30% Pawpaw). These composite flour blends were used to produce extruded snacks and were analyzed for their proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional contents, and sensory properties, functional and physical properties. The analysis were carried out in triplicates for all the five formulations. The result obtained from the analysis were statistically analysed using SPSS 16.0 defined at (P < 0.05).

Results: Protein content ranged from 10.92% to 6.98% with ANP having the highest and low in AAA, Carbohydrate content also ranged from 83.76% to 79.40%, high in AJP and lower in ANP, AAA had the highest moisture content of 3.88% and low in AJP 2.66, Fat content was high ANP (4.41%) and low in AJN and AJP (3.00%), APJ has the highest fibre content of (3.60%) and lower in AJN (1.18%) Ash was high in AAA and low in AJP (2.89% and 1.59%) respectively. The tannin content ranged between 0.18 to 0.36mg/g with ANP to be the highest, phytate content ranged between 0.25mg/g to 0.63mg/g. Saponin content ranged from 0.35 to 0.73mg/g with ANP to be the highest among them. As for the functional properties, the bulk density ranged between 0.84 - 0.92g/ml with the control samples (AAA) having the highest value and the lowest value was observed in sample AJP. Water absorption capacity and Oil absorption capacity ranged between 0.88 – 3.5% and 1.33 – 2.33% respectively. Physical properties of the extruded snacks; bulk density ranges between 0.23 –  0.38% with sample AAA having the highest value and ANP being the lowest, Apparent density, Lateral expansion and Porosity ranged between 0.36 – 0.62%, 79 – 130% and 0.47 – 0.81% respectively. All the five formulations have no significant difference in there sensory attributes. Mineral content, Potassium content was high in ANP (203.75mg/100g) and low in AJP (148.75mg/100g), Calcium was high in ANP (576.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (435.50mg/100g), Magnessium was high in ANP (208.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (208.25mg/100g).

Conclusion: Inclusion of pawpaw pomace and Jackbean to the composite increased (p<0.05) the protein and Mineral content of the product, when compared with the control. Based on the nutritional values and sensory attributes, AJP and ANP snacks could be recommended as an appropriately enriched snack product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Germination on the Physicochemical and Antinutritionnal Parameters of White Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seeds Cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire

Jacques Mankambou Gnanwa, Jean Bedel Fagbohoun, Anon Attoh Hyacinthe, Edmond Dué Ahipo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 111-121
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i530303

The objective of the present study was to evaluate some physicochemical and some antinutritional factors characteristics of sprouted seeds of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with a view to their valorization in the Ivorian diet. The contents of dry matter, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, fat, increased significantly under the effect of the germination of bean seeds. In addition, the mineral contents (Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Sodium, Potassium) of sprouted bean samples are statistically different from those of ungerminated beans. Then, it was found that germination resulted in a significant increase in the contents of vitamins (A, B1, C, D and E). However, a significant decrease in the anti-nutritive compounds such alkaloid, oxalates, phytates and tannins was observed in the sprouted bean seeds. The mean values range from 45.00 ± 3.54 to 16.25 ± 1.28; from 68.29 ± 0.71 to 21.32 ± 0.18; from 81.72 ± 2.48 to 38.14 ± 1.76 and from 51.58 ± 0.26 to 19.35 ± 0.53 per cent respectively. Thus, germination is an effective processing method for increasing vitamins and mineral bioavailability, and for reducing significantly anti-nutritve compounds after the bean seeds germinate.