Open Access Policy Article

Welfare Effect of Adaptation Policy for Rice Price Variation under Climate Change in Bangladesh

M. A. Salam, Jun Furuya, Shintaro Kobayashi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 26-40
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830328

This study was designed to evaluate the welfare effect of the climate adaptation policy for rice price variation in terms of producer surplus, consumer surplus, and net change in social welfare in Bangladesh, using the partial equilibrium model of the adaptation policy. The long-term trend of climate and policy adaptation for climate impact on price variation of the rice in Bangladesh is taken into economic model approach. The base period of this research is 1977-2009 and the extrapolation period is 2010-2030. To execute the designed analysis, the time series data from national and international organization are used. The results for the support price policy show that the total surplus that producers receive is equivalent to USD 1,164 million, substantially higher than the consumer surplus (USD 763 million) during the period 2010–2030. The net change in the social welfare owing to the support price policy is equivalent to –1483 million (USD) during the period 2010–2030. Moreover, analysis of the subsidized price policy shows that the total surplus that consumers receive (USD 1,958 million) is relatively higher than the producer surplus (USD 1,738 million) in the same period. The net change in social welfare owing to the subsidized price policy (–197 million USD) is much higher than that owing to price support –1483 million (USD). Implementing the dual price policy would result in a much higher net change in the society’s welfare (–1185 million USD) compared to that possible through each policy separately. In conclusion, these adaptation and price stabilization policies are recognized to be more useful in mitigating the severe price rise and fall in the future food market, in favour of both producers and consumers. Even though the change in net social welfare is higher, the higher cost of policy budget is imperative to make stable food supply and security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Functional, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Cowpea/Soybean Fortified Dabuwa (A Nigerian Dried Stiff Porridge) Produced from Different Cereals

Maryam A. Jarma, Gervase I. Agbara

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830326

Dabuwa is a dried stiff porridge made from fonio and maize in the ratio of 1:3, beef fat and spiced with fresh onion and caraway (black) seeds. It is a popular food indigenous to the Shuwa Arab nomads of North-eastern Nigeria. An attempt was made to modify dabuwa not only from maize but also from millet and rice. The cereal flours were supplemented with legume flours, the beef fat content was reduced, fresh onion and caraway seeds were replaced with a dried spice-mix of onion, ginger and cardamom. A 3×2×2×2 full factorial design was scaled down to a fractional factorial design of 3×2×2 which generated 12 runs. Supplementation (cowpea and soybean) was done at a constant level of 30%. Fonio was incorporated at either 12.5% (F1) or 22.5% (F2). Each formulation had the other cereal (maize, millet or rice) added at 57.5% (Ma1, Mi1, R1) or 47.5% (Ma2, Mi2, R2); while traditional dabuwa comprising of 25% fonio and 75% maize served as the Control. The blends and dabuwa were evaluated for functional and sensory properties, and proximate composition. Results indicated a general increase on water absorption capacity (216.76% to 270.34% of the blends) unlike oil absorption capacity (0.97ml/g to 1.09ml/g), and an enhanced bulk densities (0.74-0.86g/ml). Dabuwa samples enriched with soybean were shown to be denser in nutrients than those supplemented with cowpea, though no particular trend was observed. Moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, fat, carbohydrate (by difference) and calorific contents of the blends varied significantly (p≤0.05) from 7.38 to 12.18%, 1.80 to 2.96%, 4.33 to 16. 29%, 1.62 to 6.59%, 2.45 to 9.57%, 53.66 to 82.90%, and 337.12-393.37kcal/100g respectively. Proximate composition of modified dabuwa varied thus:4.86-10.85%, 0.92-2.48%, 10.11-16.38%, 0.96-4.65%, 2.02-10.60%, 58.55-86.54%, and 351.03-421.17kcal/100g for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, fat, carbohydrate contents and calorific value respectively. Sensory scores revealed that rice- and maize-containing dabuwa were liked moderately, but millet containing dabuwa were neither liked nor disliked by the panelists. It was concluded that dabuwa could be prepared not only from maize, but also from rice or millet with legume fortification for enhanced nutrient density without affecting negatively the well known traditional sensory properties of the dabuwa.. Therefore, production and consumption of dabuwa should be re-popularized and its consumption patronized so as to provide macro and micro nutrients to the consumers and avoid the disappearance of a worthy age-old food product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Noodles Produced from Blends of Wheat, Acha (Digitaria exilis), Bambara Groundnut, and Cocoyam Composite Flours

Horsefall D. Mepba, Nkechi Juliet Tamuno Emelike, Emmanuel Agiriga, Emmanuel Uchechi Mary

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830327

The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics and sensory properties of noodles produced from composite flours of wheat, acha, bambara groundnut, and cocoyam. Composite flours of wheat/acha, wheat/bambara groundnut, wheat/cocoyam and wheat/acha/bambara groundnut/cocoyam were formulated by substituting acha, cocoyam and bambara groundnut flours at 10, 20 and 30% each while 100% wheat flour was used as the control. The composite flours were used to produce noodles and the noodles subjected to chroma meter analysis, proximate analysis, culinary and sensory properties evaluation. Proximate analysis revealed that the noodles contained moisture content of 10.11-11.11%, 2.72-3.99% ash, 10.34-17.52% protein, 1.25-7.51% lipid, 0.56-1.64% crude fibre and 59.38-75.03% carbohydrate. There was an increase in the moisture, ash, protein, lipid and crude fibre contents with a decrease in carbohydrate as substitution with cocoyam, acha and bambara groundnut flours increased  without observed significant (p>0.05) differences. With the addition of acha, bambara groundnut and cocoyam composites into wheat flour, water absorption progressively increased from 1.75 (control) to 2.07ml/g (Wheat-Acha-bambara-cocoyam 60:10:20:10). There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the cooking loss of the noodle samples as substitution levels of acha, Bambara groundnut and cocoyam flour increased. Cooking time decreased for wheat: acha flour noodles and increased for wheat: cocoyam flour noodles as substitution levels of acha and cocoyam flour increased.  The composite flour of wheat: acha: cocoyam: Bambara groundnut flour also showed a decrease in cooking time as acha, cocoyam and Bambara groundnut flours were incorporated. There was no significant (p 0.05) difference in the L*, a* and b* values of wheat-bambara composite noodles. L* values of wheat-acha composite noodles increased significantly (p 0.05) with the increase in substitution with acha composite. Substitution of wheat flour with 10% to 30% acha flour and 10% to 20% Bambara groundnut flour resulted in noodles with acceptability sensory attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Quality Characteristics of Complementary Food from Whole Maize Fortified with Bambara Groundnut and Tiger Nut

Obaroakpo Joy Ujiroghene, Iwanegbe Izuwa, Akenzua Jennifer

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830329

Complementary foods produced from formulation of whole maize flour (WMF), maize flour supplemented with bambara groundnut and tiger nut flour (MBTF), maize flour supplemented with bambara groundnut flour (MBF) and maize flour supplemented with tiger nut flour (MTF) were evaluated for their quality characteristics. The results obtained showed that MTF was the most acceptable in taste (4.40 ± 0.70), consistency (4.10 ± 1.10) and aroma (4.30 ± 0.67). In moisture and ash contents, WMF recorded the highest mean scores of 9.10 ± 0.12% and 5.05 ± 0.10% respectively. Compared with WMF, MBF and MBTF, MTF had the highest mean scores in carbohydrate (53.62 ± 0.75%) and crude fibre (6.04 ± 0.69%). However, crude protein content was reportedly higher in MBF (32.13 ± 1.22%), while MBTF recorded the highest mean score in fat content (14.13 ± 0.23%). The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) of the products were influenced by the inclusion of bambara groundnut flour; and the results showed that MBTF recorded the highest IVPD and IVSD at mean values of 73.00% and 70.50% respectively. The water absorption capacity of the products were relatively low; and is considered important for the transportation and extension of their shelf stability. The optimization of the protein digestibility and nutritional qualities of observed in the products indicated that bambara groundnuts and tiger nuts could find applications in a variety of complementary food products that are beneficial to infants; especially among rural dwellers and low-income individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Evaluation of Breakfast Meals from Germinated and Ungerminated Blends of Sorghum and Soybean by Cold Extrusion Process

D. B. Kiin-Kabari, Anijekwu, Prisca Obiageli, J. Eke-Ejiofor

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 52-65
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830330

Breakfast meal was formulated from blends of sorghum and soya beans. The mixed blends of (ungerminated and germinated sorghum/soyabean flour blends) was produced into S-shaped granules using a cold extruder in the following formulation ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30,and 60:40 ratio. Proximate composition, total mineral (Magnesium, phosphorous, potassium calcium, iron and Zinc), extractable mineral and mineral bio-availability were carried out on the finished product of different blends. Germinated products showed lowest moisture(7.99 %) and carbohydrate(59.43 %) contents, and high values of Ash (3.64 %), Protein(18.19 %) and fat (8.99 %) contents. The highest value Fiber and Energy were obtained in the ungerminated products with values of 11.22 % and 355.72 %, respectively.Bioavailability of germinated product blends showed higher values for all the minerals analyzed.Onsensory evaluation, the ungerminated sorghum product (100:0) recorded highest values among the samples analyzed and was most preferred in term of colour (4.35) and taste (4.10) while the germinated products received preference in the texture with a highest value of 4.35. The overall acceptability was recorded in the ungerminated products with the highest value of 4.15. The results showed that germination and substitution with soya bean up to 60:40 increased the nutrient content of breakfast meal.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Digestibility, Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Extruded Breakfast Cereal from Maize Grits, Partially Defatted Peanut and Beetroot Flour

T. M. Ukeyima, I. A. Akor, B. Kyenge

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830331

In-vitro digestibility, nutritional and sensory quality of extruded breakfast cereals from maize grits, partially defatted peanut and beetroot flour blends was investigated. Composite flour blends was prepared from maize, peanut and beetroot flour in the following proportions: A= (100% maize flour as control), B = (90:0:10), C = (90:10:0), D = (80:10:10), E= (70:20:10), F = (60:30:10), and G = (50:40:10). The breakfast cereals were analyzed for proximate, vitamins, in-vitro protein digestibility and sensory properties. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in the proximate composition, the values ranged from; 4.46 to 6.82%, 3.22 - 7.32%, 0.98 to 1.23%, 3.32 – 4.55%, 3.7 – 4.34% and 75.7 – 83.96% for moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, and carbohydrate respectively while energy ranged from 343.31 to 357.54Kcal.  Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6 and C values ranged from 1.60–1671.84 IU, 0.95 – 1.43, 0.95 – 1.50, 1.09 – 1.75 and 8.77 – 16.22 respectively. There was increase in in-vitro protein digestibility of the samples with addition of defatted peanut and beetroot. Sensory evaluation results showed that sample C had the highest acceptability on 9-point hedonic scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Different African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Meat Pickles during Storage

H. E. Abdel-Mobdy, H. A. Abdel - Aal, S. L. Souzan, A. G. Nassar

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 76-87
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830332

Fish pickles (made with tomato juice, vinegar, and lemon juice) were made from catfish (Clariasgariepinus) and their nutritional quality were evaluated. The quality of the vinegar pickle was excellent, and the quality of the lemon and tomato juice pickle was satisfactory. The  moisture  content  of  the  pickle  products  ranged  from    67.32  to 67.58%  (Treatment 1 = with  vinegar),  66.60  to  67.03%  (Treatment 2= with  tomato  juice  ),  and  67.18  to  67.55  % (Treatment 3= with lemon juice) up to 90 day storage at ambient temperature. The protein and lipid contents  of  pickle  with  vinegar,  tomato  juice  and  lemon  juice    were  ranged  from  (16.91-16.38  and  13.46-13.78),  (18.01-17.68  and  13.46-13.85)  and  (16.72-16.43  and 13.62-13.97%), respectively; ash content in all sample pickling was ranged from (0.98 to 1.30%). The quality of catfish pickles stored at room temperature was found to be acceptable for consumption after 90 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Efficacy of Hessian Bag on Leafy Vegetables during Distribution in (Aguleri) Anambra State

V. O. Oramunwa, H. O. Agu, F. C. Ogbo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 88-95
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830333

Vegetables are highly perishable commodities that easily get spoilt or deteriorate during handling along the supply chain from the producer to the final consumer. This study aims to compare the microbiological efficacy of hessian bags and non hessian bags on leafy vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis) Ugu and (Ocimum gratissimum) Nchuanwu leaves using hessian bags and non-hessian bagsduring distribution. Standard procedures on microbial count, isolationof microorganisms, purification of microbial isolates, biochemical identification of isolateswasused to identify the microorganisms present. The microbial load of the leafy vegetables from farmland to consumer increased progressively along the distribution chain. Staphylococcus species were the predominant bacteria in the leafy vegetables from the farmland. Other bacteria found were Pseudomonas, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli and fungi Penicillium spp, Aspergillus niger, Rhodotorula spp, Fusarium spp, Mucor spp. The study showed that the microbial contents of the vegetables increased across the distribution line from farmland to consumer irrespective of the use of hessian bags.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extrusion and Steam Pressure on Fiber and Nutritional Properties of Pineapple Peels

Zuwariah Ishak, Noor Fadilah Mohd Bakri, Syahida Maarof, Hadijah Hassan, Rodhiah Razali, Mohd Fakhri Hashim

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 96-105
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830334

Research finding on modification of pineapple peel through extrusion and steam pressure have led to increasing fiber and nutritional properties of the pineapple powder. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of extrusion processing and steam pressure on soluble and insoluble fiber contents, antioxidant activities, sugar profile and proximate contents. The extrusion of Morris pineapple peel increased soluble dietary fiber (SDF-2.8 folds), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF-1.2 folds) and total dietary fiber (TDF-1.3 folds). Steam pressure treatment also show the same trends of fiber modification in Morris peel (SDF-3.4 folds, IDF-1 folds, TDF-1.2 folds). The sugar profile showed that fructose and glucose increased after fiber modification. Total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH test) had been used to determine antioxidant activity in both processing method. The results of the proximate analysis showed that protein, crude fiber and moisture content affected by extrusion and steam pressure process of pineapple peel. It can be conclude that modification of fiber through extrusion and steam pressure is able to alter fiber and nutritional properties of pineapple peel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Behavior of Cashew Genotypes with Regard to Bacterial Disease in Agroforestry Farms in Northern Côte d'Ivoire

Brou Kouassi Guy, Diarrassouba Nafan, Doga Dabé, Oro Zokou Franck, Leki Konan Bertrand, Kouassi Koffi II Nazaire, Dogbo Denezon Odette

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 106-117
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i830336

Notwithstanding the inflows of currency for the populations who practice it, the cultivation of the cashew tree contributes to strengthening the forestry agrosystem in Côte d'Ivoire. However, this culture, with multiple interests, is confronted with attacks from parasites including bacterial disease. Bacterial disease causes extensive damage to vegetative organs as well as fruits and causes yield losses. The objective of this study is to assess the behavior of cashew genotypes in relation to the severity and incidence of bacterial disease in the context of agroforestry production in Côte d'Ivoire.

To achieve this objective, 1.200 branches were observed to assess the tolerance or sensitivity of 30 cashew trees in agroforestry orchards of cashew trees in the localities of Korhogo, Sinématiali and Boundiali. These cashew genotypes were selected and geolocated. The factor studied is the cashew genotype, composed of 30 cashew genotypes, with 6 modalities which are the severity index of bacterial disease on leaves, twigs and nuts, the incidence of bacterial disease. bacterial disease on leaves, twigs and nuts. The data collected that are the index of severity of bacterial disease on leaves, twigs and nuts, the incidence of bacterial disease on leaves, twigs and nuts have made the subject to descriptive analysis and PCA. The ascending hierarchical classification (HAC) and multivariate analysis completed the data analysis. The results obtained revealed three groups of cashew trees. Those of group 3 made up of twelve (12) genotypes, namely SYDN, SDYY, SDYN and KBSD coming from the localities of Sinématiali and Korhogo, differ from the others by a weak infection of the nuts (8.67 ± 2.74). The genotypes in this group are more resilient and their development in an agroforestry system could help promote  agroecological management of bacterial disease, improve and intensify agroforestry practices in C. d'Ivoire.