Open Access Systematic Review Article

Exploring the Potential of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam)

Sophie Nansereko, John. H. Muyonga

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 97-117
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930346

Background: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) is widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. The tree is highly productive, resilient, and requires minimal care. Jackfruit has a characteristic flavour and is highly versatile. Several studies report the importance of the tree and fruits, ranging from food and medicine to the provision of several value-added products. In spite of the many benefits the plant offers, it has not been sufficiently incorporated in the general food system, partly because of gaps in processing, distribution and knowledge about utilization methods and nutritional and nutraceutical value.

Objective: A comprehensive literature search was done to highlight jackfruit's nutritional, health, and commercial benefits to promote its utilization.

Methodology: The literature search was conducted using three electronic databases with no constraints on publication year. Over 200 studies on the nutritional properties of jackfruit and at least 105 articles on the use of the various parts of the jack tree for their anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects were found.

Findings: Jackfruit has vital nutrients, including phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins,  carbohydrates, and proteins. The literature on utilization shows that the fruit can be processed into commercial products using minimal processing technologies, dried to extend product shelf-life, or processed into various value-added products.

Conclusions: Jackfruit production and value addition are relatively under-developed despite the fruit tree’s high yield potential, high nutritional value, nutraceutical and techno-functional properties. For improved benefits from jackfruit, actors need to adopt the available technologies at different value chain nodes.

Open Access Short Research Article

Unconventional Composite Feed Ingredients on Storage and Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat

U. A. Agugo, U. D. E. Ogbuokiri, K. R. Emereonye, H. O. Anyanwu, L. Anozie, A. N. P. Uchegbulam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 169-174
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930353

Aim: The present study investigated the effect of unconventional (Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta leaf and Brassica oleracea var. capitata leaves) Composite Feed Ingredients on storage and sensory attributes of chicken meat.

Study Design: Quasi Experimental

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics and Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo-Ohaji, June 2020-April, 2021.

 Methodology: Arbor Acres broiler reared with unconventional composite feed ingredients, consisting of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% proportions of Homogenized Vegetable Meal (HVM) was used. After six weeks, the broilers were slaughtered, cleaned and stored in the freezer at the temperature of 30C. Nutrient Agar (NA), Mac Conkey Agar (MCA) and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) were the media used for the determination of bacterial and fungi growth on chicken meats during storage. Sensory evaluation of chicken meats was determined after 14 days of storage.

Results: The result revealed low (3.4x 105-8x105) microbial and fungi (2.1 x105-7 x105) growth on the chicken meat samples. There was no significant difference (P=0.05) in the sensory attributes (taste, colour, aroma and general acceptability) tested. The chicken meats were generally (7.6 -7.8) acceptable by the taste panel members after 14 days of storage.

Conclusion: The inclusion of unconventional (leave) ingredients in broiler feed did not affect the storage of chicken meat, rather some sensory attributes (aroma and colour) of chicken meat were improved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Physicochemical Properties of Cake with Different Ratios of Soy Lecithin

H. O. Agu, R. C. Ejike, J. E. Obiegbuna, C. C. Ezegbe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930337

This research was geared towards producing and evaluating the physicochemical properties of cake with different ratios of soy lecithin. Soy lecithin was produced by the degumming of raw soy oil by adding 2% water content to the oil and heating to 70oC. Soy oil yield was 31% while lecithin yield was 2.18%. The soy lecithin produced had a yellow-brownish colour. Mixture design was used for the experiment. The soy lecithin was used to replace 50% and 100% egg content in two different cake samples while a third sample had no lecithin. The first sample was made up of 250g wheat flour, 100g Margarine, 65g sugar, 5g baking powder, 2 eggs, 1.25g soy lecithin and 2g salt (MEL2), the second sample was made up of 250g wheat flour, 80g Margarine, 65g sugar, 5g baking powder, 2.5g soy lecithin and 2g salt (MEL3) while the third sample was made up of 250g wheat flour, 100g Margarine, 65g sugar, 5g baking powder, 4 eggs and 2g salt (MEL1). The margarine content of sample MEL3 was reduced by 20%. The physical properties of the cake samples were examined and sample MEL2 gave a better physical appeal than the other samples after baking. The specific volume of sample MEL2 (4.21cm3) was higher than those of samples MEL1 and MEL3. The proximate composition of the samples showed that the moisture content ranged from 32.9 – 34.1%, protein content 5.89 – 6.14%, ash content 1.61 – 1.64%, fat content 14.5 – 15.3% and carbohydrate 43.09 – 44.85%. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the samples to determine the most acceptable and analysis of variance was used to check for significant difference. Sample MEL2 was preferred in taste, colour, texture, flavour and general acceptability and was significantly different from samples MEL1 and MEL3 in general acceptability. It was observed that egg and some fat content in cakes could be replaced with soy lecithin. This study forms a basis for new product development for the pastry food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Dakere (A Nigerian Steamed Agglomerated Dumpling) as Affected by Differential Sieving and Fortiftcation with Legume Flour

Umar Sabo Gadzama, Gervase Ikechukwu Agbara, Odera Amin Igwegbe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930338

Dakere is a traditional steamed agglomerated dumpling produced from either millet (M) or sorghum (S) flour or both (MS). In the current study, millet and sorghum flours were separately fractionated into fine (f) (<250um), medium (m) (250-350um) and coarse (350-500um) fractions. Similar fractions from millet and sorghum were blended to obtain MfSf,MmSm and McSc. Each fraction was fortified separately with 30% toasted bambara groundnut or sesame seed flour or both (20% bambara groundnut and 10% sesame seed flour), blends were coded: MfSf, MmSm, McSc, MfSfB, MmSmB, McScB, MfSfSe, MmSmSe, McScSe, MfSfBSe, MmSmBSe and McScBSe. Experimental design corresponding to a 3x2x2 factorial design was used to generate runs and dakere were produced applying the traditional method of agglomeration of stiff dough followed by steaming, and thereafter dried. Traditional dakere was the experimental control. The blends and the dried modified dakere were evaluated for proximate composition and sensory properties. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the  blended fractions and the fortified blended fractions varied significantly (p<0-05): 9.40-10.55%,11.42-15.80%,1.20-2.22%, 0.62-0.96%, 3.62-7.38% and 63.56-72.30% respectively and for the various modified dakere: 9.20-10.255, 11.70-16.82%, 1.23-2.77%, 0.55-0.88%, 4.64-8.30% and 60.22-70.86% respectively. Blended fractions and fortified blended fractions had greater nutrient density than the control, however more in the blends containing both bambara groundnut and sesame seed flours. As for sensory attributes of the modified dakere, the blended fractions especially MfSf had the best appearance, fortified dakere the best aroma and taste scores especially dakere with sesame seed meal despite the dull appearance. Dakere produced with blended coarse fractions or fortified coarse fractions were crispier and were desired more than others. The overall acceptability scores were generally high, the highest score observed in the sesame seed meal treated dakere. The study had succeeded in enhancing the nutrient density and sensory properties of dakere, an agglomerated stiff dough through the blending of similar flour fractions from millet and sorghum and fortification of the same with grain legume flours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acid Profile and Vitamin C Content of Selected Condiments Used as Thickeners in Soup Preparation

Lawal Halima Zubairu, Madu Paschal Chima, Opaluwa Obaje Daniel, Mohammed, Yahaya

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930339

Aim: This study aimed to analyze the amino acid profile and determine the vitamin C content of the condiments named Detarium microcarpum (DM), Cissus populnea (CP), Grewia mollis (GW) and Parkia biglobosa (PB).

Study Design: The condiments obtained from Gwagwa market, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja were used for this study to analyze and determine the amino acid profile and vitamin C content.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Abuja, Nigeria at the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development [NIPRD], from February 2020 to September 2020.

Methodology: The amino acid profile of the condiments was analyzed using methods described by (Maria et al., 2004). The samples were dried to constant weight, defatted, hydrolyzed, evaporated in a rotary evaporator and loaded into the Applied Biosystems PTH Amino Acid Analyzer while the Ascorbic acid content of the condiments was determined by titration method.

Result: The result indicated that non- essential amino acids are higher in concentration in all the samples (PB - 33.77, DM - 27.51, GM - 18.21 and CO - 25.86) compared to the essential amino acids (PB -27.16, DM - 19.46, GM - 1 6.47 and CO - 22.38) and semi-essential amino acid (PB - 22.22, DM - 16.59, GM - 9.64, CO - 14.01). Among the essential amino acids, leucine is the predominant acid, while glutamic, aspartic acids were found to be the major non-essential amino acids in the samples. High concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid valine, alanine and leucine predominate in all the samples analyzed. The sample Parkia biglobosa has the highest concentration of vitamin C with 0.3 mg/L followed by Detarium Microcarpum 0.18 mg/L, Grewia Mollis 0.12 mg/L and Cissus populnea 0.11 mg/L.

Conclusion: Results indicate that these condiments contained amino acids in appropriate quantities that can serve as supplementary potential sources of essential amino acids to man and appreciable amount of vitamin C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effects of Back Sloping on Some Starter Culture Strains and the Organoleptic Qualities of their Yoghurt Products

G. B. Olukotun, S. A. Salami, I. J. Okon, J. H. Ahmadu, O. O. Ajibulu, Z. Bello

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930340

Fermented milk is an essential commodity in Africa and beyond. Many techniques have been developed over time for the manufacture of different forms of yoghurt products. One of these Traditional methods includes back slopping). The advantages of this method include faster fermentation rates due to reduction in lag time, and subsequent production of relevant metabolites as well as allowing for a more reliable product formation on a consistent basis. The aim of this study was to better understand, the effects of back sloping on the microbial community as well as on the organoleptic characteristics of the yoghurts produced using the method. The model from this work could be used to study the dynamics of the microbial community associated with back-slopping practices and the understanding of possible associated defects in order to allow better control over the application of the method on commercial levels. We characterized the yoghurt produced from both microbial compositional study using culture-dependent morphological examinations on MRS, M17, Nutrient Agar and Potato dextrose Agar, as well as from organoleptic point of view. The results show that back sloping up to three-fold (batch) gave increasing acceptance but decreased afterwards. Acidification activity which determines proteolysis of casein for coagulation to take place also increased up to three folds. Residual lactose, syneresis and moisture content also decreased favourably by three fold order. Therefore, back sloping could be recommended on commercial level especially in the developing countries where facilities for consistent supply of pouched starter culture are limited because, aside the above mentioned advantages, this process also favours the growth of bacteria which release antimicrobial substances thereby ensuring the growth of the same species while reducing the growth of other organisms thereby preserving the products’ quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Properties of Complementary Food from Millet (Pennisetum glaucum), African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), and Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Flour Blends: A Comparative Study

Joy N. Eke-Ejiofor, Adelaide E. Ojimadu, Gabriel O. Wordu, Chigozie E. Ofoedu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 45-62
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930342

The progress towards exploring the potentials of underutilized indigenous food sources via product development to curb food wastage and agro-food extinction is a way of attaining food nutrition and security within a region. In this context, a comparative study involving some functional properties of complementary food from some underutilized foods (millet, African yam bean, and jackfruit) was carried out. Briefly, millet, African yam bean, and jackfruit were subjected to series of processing treatments such as malting, pre-gelatinization, drying, and milling, followed by blending into various ratios to obtain different samples of composite flours as a complementary food. From these, the functional properties, that is, water absorption capacity (WAC), loose bulk density (LBD), packed bulk density (PBD), foam capacity (FC), swelling index (SI), dispersibility, wettability, and sinkability were determined. Results showed that malting and pre-gelatinization influenced the intrinsic functional properties of the flour blends. In addition, composite flours containing malted samples had significantly lower (p<0.05) dispersibility, SI, WAC, LBD, and PBD, but significantly higher (p<0.05) wettability and sinkability. The variations in flour substitution showed no impact on the flour functionality except for SI and dispersibility. All composite flours exhibited an appreciable level of functionality and suitability to be used as a complementary food for weaning purposes. Overall, this research has demonstrated the potentials of utilizing millet, African yam bean, and jackfruit as sustainable nutrient-dense food materials for the production of complementary food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Stiff Porridge (Ruam nahan) Produced from Composite Flour Blends of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)

T. A. Dendegh, B. M. Yelmi, R. A. Dendegh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930343

Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Pearl millet and African Yam Bean (AYB) flour blends were studied. Various ratios such as A (100% pearl millet), B (90:10), C (80:20), D (70:30), E (60:40) and F (50:50) of pearl millet and African Yam Bean (AYB) composite flours were mixed and analyzed for functional, proximate composition, mineral elements and sensory properties. The blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of African Yam Bean with Pearl Millet led to increases in moisture (24.29 to 37.50%) protein (10.90 to 19.70%), fibre (1.30 to 2.00%), Ash (0.43 to 0.55%) and fat (3.80 to 5.20%) while the carbohydrate content of the blends decreased (from 62.07 to 39.85%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density decreased with increase in AYB from (1.80 to 0.72 g/ml, swelling index also increases from 0.75 to 0.56 g/ml, water absorption capacity decreases from 2.20 to 2.64 g/ml) and Least Gelation Concentration (6%). The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by African Yam Bean flour. Therefore, it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of legumes such as African Yam Bean with Pearl Millet in the preparation of stiff porridges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin-C and Mineral Composition Analysis of Some Fresh Vegetables in Patuakhali, Bangladesh

Sadman Sakib Sabuj, A. K. M. Faruk-E-Azam, Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Nizam Uddin, Md. Nazrul Islam, Md. Shajadul Islam

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 78-88
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930344

Aims: This comparative study was carried out to evaluate the vitamin-C and mineral content of twenty-two different sorts of nutritious and low-cost fresh vegetables.

Methodology: The study was conducted in the agricultural chemistry laboratory, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali during the period of January to June 2019. Vitamin C, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) contents were determined with the flame emission spectrophotometer.

Results: Vitamin-C was higher in Momordica charantia (87.0 mg/100 g) and lower in Vigna unguiculata (0.10 mg/100g). Calcium and magnesium of the green leafy vegetables were in the range of 191.0 - 12.0 mg/100g and 210.1- 9.0 mg/100g respectively. Sodium content largely varied from 58.1- 2.1 mg/100g in which Amaranthus cruentus content higher and Cucumis sativus had the lower content. The highest potassium content was recorded in Cucurbita pepo (384.0 mg/100g) and the lowest potassium content was found in Cucumis sativus (144.20 mg / 100g). Phosphorus content was ranged between 108.0 -13.0 mg /100 g in all the green leafy vegetables. There were significant correlations between mineral contents.

Conclusion: These results revealed that selected vegetables contain an appreciable amount of vitamin C and minerals and should be included in diets as a supplement of daily allowance needed by the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Nature of Postharvest Losses of Rice among Rice Farmers in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State Nigeria

Emmy Owoicho Okadonye, Alamveabee Efihraim Idyorough, David Gomez, Mluna Charles Korinjoh

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930345

This study examined the nature of postharvest losses of rice in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. The study specifically examined the stages of the postharvest losses of rice. A sample of 399 rice producers were drawn in Makurdi using the Taro Yamane formula. Quantitative data collection techniques were used to elicit information from respondents. The findings from the study revealed that, the nature postharvest losses of rice start from harvest to consumption stage, with threshing recording the highest loss of 27%. However, the total losses from all the stages are between 37%-40%. The study therefore recommended sensitization of farmers through the relevant agricultural agencies on postproduction of rice, establishment of reserves for the preservation of rice, linking farmers with agro-processing equipment available in state or those at national research institute at an affordable price, plus farmers to take advantage of cooperatives to benefit from agricultural projects establish by the government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Mineral and Sensory Properties of Orange-Flesh Sweet Potato Starch, Soybean and Groundnut Flour Complementary Food

P. C. Obinna-Echem, J. Eke-Ejiofor, M. B. Vito, G. O. Wordu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 118-130
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930347

Aims: This study was aimed at formulating and evaluating the proximate, mineral and sensory properties of complementary food from blends of orange flesh sweet potato (Ipomea batata) starch, soybean (Glycine max) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) flour.

Methodology: Orange flesh sweet potato starch (OFSP), soybean flour (SB) and groundnut flour (GN) were blended in the ratio of (OFSP:SB:GN): 90:5:5, 85:10:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, 70:25:5, 65:30:5, 60:35:5, 55:40:5, 50:45:5 and designated as PSG1 – PSG9, while 100% OFSP served as control. Evaluations were carried out following standard analytical methods.

Results: Moisture, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P<0.05) from 7.53 – 10.74, 1.33 -17.22, 1.20 – 1.94, 4.34 – 19.58 and 53.10 – 70.53% respectively. Protein content (7.62 – 21.91%) of the blends will meet >75% of safe level of protein intake for infants and children.  Energy ranged from 339.45 – 373.07 Kcal/100g and will meet >55% of energy requirement for infants at 6 months. Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn varied respectively, from 0.68 - 6.07, 0.28 - 0.62, 4.40 - 11.94, 1.87 - 2.04, and 1.26 – 2.10 mg/100g. PSG complementary food in comparison to the recommended intake of minerals was found to be excellent in Cu, adequate in Fe and Zn but low in Mg and inadequate in Ca. Degrees of likeness for the sensory attributes: aroma, appearance, colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability varied from 5.00 - 7.00, 3.80 - 7.56, 5.04 - 7.20, 3.84 - 7.33, 3.88 - 7.56 and 4.29 - 6.96 respectively. These degrees of likeness from 3.84 - 7.56 indicated dislike moderately to like moderately. PSG7and PSG8 had significantly (P<0.05) the highest degrees of likeness for all attributes except for texture in PSG7 with neither liked nor disliked.

Conclusion: This work showed that enriching orange flesh sweet potato starch by substituting with soya bean and groundnut, increased nutritional composition of the complementary food and addition of soybean flour up to 35 and 40% was acceptable to the assessors. This implies that this complementary food can be recommended as diet for newly weaned and older children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Functional Characterization of Flour and Protein Isolates from Nigeria Cultivated Solojo Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP]

Olubamike Adetutu Adeyoju, Kayode Oyebode Adebowale, Bamidele Iromidayo Olu-Owolabi, Henry Okwudili Chibudike, Chinedum Eunice Chibudike

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 131-148
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930348

Cowpea, an important protein food, is used for its nutritional and functional properties. A study was carried out to determine the physico-functional characteristics of Flours and Protein Isolates from Two (2) Varieties of Nigerian Cultivated Solojo Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp), to assess their potential use in the food industry. Functional properties were analysed which include Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate and dry matter which were in the range of 9.15-9.83, 26.53-29.00, 2.50-3.99, 2.95-3.22, 4.24-4.80, 50.95-53.98 and 90.17-90.85% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.69 and 0.80 g/dm3. Water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 1.89 and 2.15, and 1.95 and 2.31 ml/g, respectively. Swelling power had values varying from 265 to 268% while foam capacity varied from 10.00 to 21.00 ml. The effect of ionic strength on foaming capacity (FC) and stability (FS) of the protein isolates using standard methods was carried out. Amino acids and molecular weight of the protein isolates were determined by amino acid analyser and sodium-dodecyl-sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis. Surface morphology, functional group and thermal properties were determined for protein isolates by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the two varieties of cowpea have great potential as functional agents in the food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization and Standardization of Fermented Maize Waste Liquor as a Coagulant for Tofu Production and Its Effect on Tofu Quality

China, Mercy A. H., Amadi, Gift Amukeru

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 149-158

Coagulation of soymilk is the most important step in the production of tofu. Industrially, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgSO4 and MgCl2 are many of the different types of coagulants. Effluent from pap produced from maize is a local coagulant used; however, this has not been standardized. This study therefore aimed at standardizing fermented maize waste liquor (FMWL) as a local coagulant for tofu production. FMWL at ratios of 600 ml, 550 ml, 500 ml, 450 ml to 1000 ml soybean milk was used to prepare tofu and compared with tofu coagulated with lemon juice. The result revealed that the tofu coagulated with 550 ml of FMWL exhibited higher fat (47.78%) while tofu coagulated with 600 mls of FMWL had significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (31.75%). On the other hand, sample coagulated with 500 mls FMWL had significantly (p<0.05) higher crude fibre content. Soymilk coagulated with 400ml of FMWL exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of magnesium (75.42 mg/100g) and calcium (46.32 mg/100g) and iron (15.85 mg/100g) while the sample coagulated with lemon juice (control) had higher potassium content (201.17 mg/100g) The sensory evaluation result revealed that the control sample was highly acceptable to the panelists and this was followed closely with the sample coagulated with 550mls of FMWL. Hence, FMWL when utilized at a level of 550 mls will yield soybean curd that is acceptable and comparable to soybean curd coagulated with lemon juice. The use of FMWL will serve as an alternative, cheap and natural coagulant for soybean curd preparation at household and commercial levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Processing Conditions on Bioactive Compounds of Selected Grape Varieties

M .M. W. Aponso, R. A. U. J. Marapana, A. T. Abeysundara, G. O. De Silva, R. Manawaduge

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 159-168
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930352

Bioactive compounds in grapes vary in terms of cultivar and processing conditions. Raw juice and treated grape juices from locally grown Israel blue and locally available, imported, Red Globe and Michele Palieri varieties in Sri Lanka were used for the analysis. Grape juices were subjected to different processing conditions such as pasteurization and pectinase enzyme treatment. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin content (TAC), Total Phenolic Content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed. Compared to the imported grape varieties, the locally grown, pectinase enzyme-treated Israel blue grape juice with 2% pectinase enzyme concentration, 40 0C incubation temperature, and 2 hours incubation time, under dark condition had the significantly highest values (p < 0.05) for TAC at 177.03±4.15 mg/L of malvidin-3-O-glucoside (M3G), TPC at 527.07 ± 3.55 mg/L of Gallic acid equivalents and antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value at 7.05±0.35 mg/mL Gallic acid equivalents and ABTS radical scavenging assay with IC50 value at 0.31±0.01 mg/mL of Trolox equivalents. TAC, TPC, and antioxidant activity of three grape varieties showed the highest values in pectinase enzyme-treated grape juice which was followed by raw juice and the pasteurized juice respectively. This research has taken an approach to enhance the bioactivity of grape juices via pectinase enzyme treatment and evaluate the suitability of locally grown Israel blue grape variety in Sri Lanka to form as a functional beverage to meet nutritional and health requirements.

Open Access Review Article

Aspergillus Producing-Ochratoxin A During Coffee Processing in Cameroon: A Short Literature Review and Analysis

Nganou Donkeng Nadege, Nodem Sohanang Steve Francky

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i930341

The present study was aimed at determining the distribution of ochratoxin A (OTA) in different types of coffee using short review and analysis. Mycotoxins have undoubtedly presented a global challenge to human health since the earliest times, and this threat will mainly increase as the demand for the available food supply increases in response to the growth of the world population. The most important naturally occurring mycotoxins in human food are aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin. OTA is the most prevalent and toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus and Penicillium. Coffee production has high socio-economic importance in most African countries. However, postharvest treatment and storage conditions represent optimal environments for the occurrence of fungi responsible for mycotoxins production in coffee beans. Preliminary data revealed the wild diversity of coffee beans with the presence of other fungal genera such as Mucor, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Wallemia and Acremonium. In addition, the authors found the production ability of A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus to produce Ochratoxin-A at concentrations of 0.31, 5.07 and 13.08 µg.kg-1. The outcome of this short review can be used for the building of a risk evaluation procedure aiming to provide specific actions to reduce the exposure to OTA in coffee beans and to improve the exchange of coffee products throughout the world.