Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Sensory Properties of Bread Made with Wheat and Fermented Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Flours

B. E. Alabi, J. A. Adejuyitan, V. F. Abioye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030354

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the effect of fermented finger millet flour supplementation in wheat on the physical and sensory properties of bread.

Methodology: Finger millet grains were cleaned, washed and fermented in deionized water for 72 h at room temperature (27±2oC), with sampling at every 24 h interval. Fermented grains were washed, drained, dried (65oC, 4 h), milled and sieved (<250 µm) to produce Fermented Finger Millet Flour (FFMF). Composite flour was formulated by supplementing wheat flour with Fermented Finger Millet Flour (FFMF) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (w/w), and used to produce bread samples. Physical (Oven spring, loaf weight, loaf volume and specific volume) and sensory (crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste, mouth feel and overall acceptability) properties of the bread samples were determined.

Results: Physical properties showed less oven spring, loaf volume and specific loaf volume and increased loaf weight with increased FFMF replacement. The sensory analysis showed significant differences (p<0.05) between 100% wheat bread and FFMF supplemented samples in all the determined sensory properties. It was concluded that fermentation period of 24-48 h, and substitution of 5-10% FFMF into wheat gave the bread samples with the best overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Sold in the Markets of Korhogo (Côte d’Ivoire)

Yao Konan Mathurin, Kambire Ollo, Yoro Thierry Dezay, Traore Safiatou, Rose Koffi-Nevry

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030355

Aims: The present work is part of a sanitary quality control of market garden products in Korhogo. The objective of this study was to know the microbiological quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) sold on the markets of the city of Korhogo.

Place and Duration of Study: The analyses were carried out at the microbiology laboratory of Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University during the months of October, November and December 2020.

Methodology: Germs such as molds, yeasts, mesophilic aerobic germs, total coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Clostridium were tested and enumerated on 40 tomato samples from the markets of Haoussabougou, Koko, Sinistré and the big market according to conventional microbiology methods.

Results: The average loads of molds and yeasts range from 1.2x104 to 6x105 CFU/g. The average loads of mesophilic aerobic germs vary from 2.3x104 to 2.3x105 CFU/g. The highest loads recorded for Staphylococcus aureus and total coliforms were 3.1x104 CFU/g and 1.5x104 CFU/g respectively. Escherichia coli (4x101 CFU/g) was isolated only from tomatoes collected in Haoussabougou. As for the Clostridium genus, it was not detected on all the tomatoes analyzed.

Conclusion: In general, the microbial loads of the analyzed samples are higher than the accepted norm. Thus, the tomatoes sold on the markets of the city of Korhogo have an unsatisfactory microbiological quality. It is advisable to clean, disinfect and rinse these tomatoes carefully with drinking water before consuming them raw.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogenic and Spoilage Causing Microorganisms Associated with Traditional Seafood Product Jaadi Manufactured in Southern and Western Coastal Belt of Sri Lanka

Divisekera Mudiyanselage Wasundara Devanmini Divisekera, Samantha Sanath Kumara Madage, Thalawaththe Muhandiramlage Dilini Ayesha Jayawardana, Warnakulasuriyawadumesthrige Uditha Darshana Medis, Ramasinghe Kurunegala Pathiranage Nadeesha Indunil, Jaanaki Gooneratne

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030356

Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate on microbial related food safety issues and microorganisms associated with the production of Sri Lankan traditional seafood Jaadi.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, between December 2013 to April 2016.

Methodology: Seven Jaadi processing centers along the Southern and Western coastal belt of Sri Lanka were evaluated for its compliance to food safety, in terms of environment, processing techniques, hygiene and sanitation, physiochemical and microbiological quality of the final product. 

Samples drawn from all sites were analyzed for its water activity, salt content, pH and microbiological quality.  Microorganisms associated with Jaadi production were isolated in selective media, followed by phenotypical, biochemical and molecular biological characterization.

Results: The pH, water activity and salt content of Jaadi samples ranged between 3.60-5.85, 0.73-0.82 and 24.82-40.47%, respectively. Thirteen bacterial strains and one fungal strain detected were strains found to be responsible for human pathogenesis and food spoilage. These include,  Bacillus cereus strain I (MN726935.1), Bacillus cereus strain II (MN901259.1), Bacillus haikouensis strain I (MN901262.1), Bacillus haikouensis strain II (MN726976.1), Bacillus licheniformis (MN726987.1), Acinetobacter baumannii (MN901499.1), Bacillus pumilus strain I (MN901264.1), Bacillus pumilus  strain II (MN901263.1), Bacillus paralicheniformis (MN901167.1), Bacillus thuringiensis strain I (MN901165.1), Bacillus thuringiensis strain II (MN901257.1), Bacillus cereus (MN901161.1), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (MN901156.1) and Trichoderma longibrachiatum (MN907169.1).  Presence of such organisms clearly proclaims the poor hygienic practices and risks related to food safety in this traditional processing technology.

Conclusion: Jaadi processing facilities of Southern and Western coastal belt of Sri Lanka needs scientific and technical knowledge to upgrade their processing in order to assure food safety and product quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activity of Commercially Important Ceylon Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Grades Belonging to Different Elevations: Potential Natural Product for Type 3 Diabetes Management?

Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera, Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya, Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera, Galbada Arachchige Sirimal Premakumara

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030357

Aims: Sri Lankan tea which is known as the Ceylon tea is the world’s finest tea. Currently Sri Lanka remains as the second main black tea (BT) exporter and the main orthodox BT exporter in the world. Although several pharmacological activities of Ceylon tea have been reported, its anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity which has a direct relationship with the management of Alzheimer's disease or type 3 diabetes has not reported to date. Further, there are no comprehensive studies on anti-AChE activity of tea world over. Present study evaluated anti-AChE activity of commercially important Ceylon BT grades belonging to different elevations.

Methodology: Freeze dried hot water extracts of Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings (BOPF), Orange Pekoe (OP) and Dust No.1 BT grades from low, mid and high grown elevations and a Ceylon green tea sample collected from the local market were studied for anti-AChE activity using 96 well micro plate-based assay (n=3 each).

Results: Results showed that all tested Ceylon tea had anti-AChE activity with varying degrees of potentials in a dose dependent manner. The mean IC50 values of BOPF, OP and Dust No. 1 tea grades at different elevations varied from 499.61±10.95 - 569.19±5.78, 598.80±24.95 - 677.81±6.61 and 509.44±3.81 - 621.39±3.29 µg/mL respectively. Interestingly, observed anti-AChE activity of black tea showed significant differences (P< 0.05) among elevations. The order of potency of BOPF, OP and Dust No:1 BT for anti-AChE activity at different elevations was low grown>high grown=mid grown, high grown=low grown>mid grown and mid grown>low grown>high grown respectively. Anti-AChE activity of Ceylon green (433.96 ± 5.95 µg/mL) tea was significantly high (P<0.05) compared to the tested BT and activities of all Ceylon tea were moderate compared to the reference standard Galantamine (IC50:2.52±0.17 µg/mL).

Conclusion: It is concluded that selected Ceylon BT grades had varying levels of anti-AChE activity and it varied with the elevations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Herbal Products (Brahmi, Ashwagandha and Curcumin) Using Plant Extract to Cure Dementia Patients

Shreya Verma, Sunita Mishra

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030360

Memory Loss (Dementia) and Human health is an important issue in elderly people. No one can stay safe without eating herbal and healthy food. The demand of herbal food product is increasing day by day. product is round shape product that is placed in sweet’s category. There are several type of material that is used for preparation of product. Nutritional and medicinal qualities of product can be enriched by addition of ingredients such as herbal and medicinal plant extract. Herbal inclusion not only gives medicinal qualities but can also give new flavor to the product. Brahmi, Ashwagandha and curcumin is valued herbs are used in ayurveda medicine and such was used and cultivated from long periods in India. It possess therapeutic value against a large number of ailments such as brain/Dementia diseases, asthma, inflammation, arthritis rheumatism, tuberculosis, infections, fever, diseases including cancer. Brahmi, Ashwagandha and curcumin powder was incorporated directly with other ingredients of Product. It is helpful in curing the Dementia disease. It decreases anxiety and boosts mood and also has anti-aging power. The result of the analysis and test show that the incorporation of Brahmi, Ashwagandha and curcumin is found to be most acceptable to obtain herbal product with improved nutritional quality and satisfactory sensory attributes. In present study the efforts are made towards the nourishment of herbal product with herbal extract. All three members of panelist were given average score between 7 to 8 points for flavor, color, body & texture and Overall acceptability and with all parameters and shelf life of herbal product was found 30 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional, Physical and Rheological Properties of Composite Cassava-Wheat Flour Produced from Low Postharvest Physiological Deterioration Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

J. P. Alimi, S. A. Ahemen, J. O. Alimi, P. O. Iluebbey

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 62-72
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030362

The functional, rheological and color (physical) properties of flours are quality attributes determining the usage, suitability and organoleptic characteristics of flours meant for industrial (baking and confectionery) application. This study investigated the functional, physical and rheological properties of composite cassava-wheat flour produced with low (PPD) cassava flours. Wholesome four varieties of yellow-fleshed Low PPD cassava and one variety of high PPD cassava were, washed, grated, pressed, pulverized, flash dried at 120 °C for 8 minutes, milled with cyclone hammer mill to which a screen having aperture size of 250 was affixed and subsequently cooled. The flours were subjected to analysis such as physical (color), functional and rheological. SPSS 25.0 was used to analyze pertinent data generated, significant means were separated applying Duncan multiple range test. The composite cassava-wheat (CCW) flours’ water absorption, swelling power, solubility index, oil absorption, bulk density, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) ranged from 13.53±0.05-13.73±0.05%, 7.00±0.01-8.87±0.03%, 8.27±0.01-9.55±0.06, 101.33±0.87-118.83±0.49%, 0.55±0.01-0.62±0.01 g/cm3, 93.95±0.28-96.01±0.34, 0.36±0.01-0.77±0.10 and 9.94±0.17-11.74±0.24, respectively. The water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance index, dough consistency, farinograph quality number, breakdown time, water absorption for default moisture content and gluten content ranged from 60.70±0.00-63.70±0.14%, 1.28±0.00-1.32±0.00 min, 1.14±0.00-1.37±0.00 min, 75.00±0.00-104.00±0.00 BU, 424.00±0.00-518.00±0.00 mm, 23.00±0.00-26.00±0.00 mm, 2.10±0.00-2.38±0.00 min, 59.90±0.00-62.20±0.00% and 27.00±0.00-32.00±0.00, respectively. Comparable functional, rheological and physical properties to that of wheat flour was obtained from CCW flour prepared with blend of low PPD cassava flour and wheat which are suitable for application in the baking and confectionery industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Phytochemical, Mineral and Sensory Analyses of Moringa oleifera Enriched Bread

Ojokoh Eromosele, Ndukwe Chima Kalu, Asadu Kenneth

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 73-80
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030363

Aim/background: The study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera powder on enriched bread samples produced at various levels. Wheat flour and moringa powder were formulated at different percent ratio (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) to determine the best enrichment ratio.

Methods: Proximate, phytochemical, mineral content and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined using bread made from 100% wheat flour which served as control.

Results: Result for proximate composition showed a progressive drop (p<0.05) in the fibre content of the enriched bread samples with decreasing level of enrichment. The energy value of the bread samples ranged from 392.73 to 394.32 Kcal. For crude protein, sample with 4% moringa enrichment recorded the high protein content  which recorded a value of 12.89 %, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from other samples. The sample with 4% moringa enrichment recorded the highest ash content value of 2.67 % and was significantly different (p<0.05) from the other samples. Result of sensory evaluation using a nine-point Hedonic scale showed that enriched bread samples recorded 5.10 to 7.65 for appearance, 5.45 to 6.85 (aroma), 5.35 to 7.75 (texture), 5.55 to 7.70 (mouth feel) and 5.55 to 7.60 (general acceptability).

Conclusion: The enrichment of bread products could be best achieved at moringa levels of 2 % and 4%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Three Nigerian Onion Varieties Using a Fabricated Electrically Powered Dryer

O.O. Oniya, A. B. Fashina, A. O. Adeiza, O. Ogunkunle, A. O. Adebayo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 81-94
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030364

The research work is done to evaluate the effect of temperature on drying characteristics and quality of red, cream and white varieties Nigerian onion using a locally fabricated electrically powered dryer. Clean onion samples of 1.5 kg from each of the three varieties were sliced into 3 mm thickness. Fresh samples of the three onion varieties were analyzed to determine the initial values of protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, and moisture content on a dried basis (m.c.d.b.) using recommended AOAC methods.. Vitamin C and microbial loads content were determined before loading into a locally fabricated electrically-powered dryer. The onion samples were dried at varying pre-determined temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 oC. After drying, the proximate compositions, vitamin C and microbial loads were also determined. The protein, fat, ash and crude fibre of the fresh onion samples were 1.5, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.5%, respectively, while m.c.d.b, vitamin C content and microbial loads ranged from 85.1-88.2%, 8.1-8.3 mg/100 gm and 4.45-5.39 mg. Red onion samples were dried for 13:15h, 12:10h and 10:30h; white onion samples for 13:00h, 12:25h and 10:40h; while cream onion samples for 13:10h, 12:35h and 10:15h at 50, 60, and 70 oC, respectively. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, m.c.d.b, vitamin C content and microbial loads of the dried onion samples at all the drying temperatures ranged from 10.110.4, 1.1-1.5, 3.3-3.5, 5.5-5.8, 5.5-6.9%, 3.1-4.9 mg/100 gm, 1.314.17 mg, respectively. The drying temperature had a significant effect (p-value < 0.05) on the quality of all the onion samples. At 70 oC, protein, fibre, ash, fat and pungency retention were significantly (p< 0.05) high and within acceptable limits while microbial loads were low with the reduction in Vitamin C contents in all the onion varieties. Therefore, onion can best be dried at 70 oC to achieve the optimum quality and flavour required for its use as a spice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Estimation of Protein from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and its Interaction with Glucose Molecule

Sumayya Ahmed Ayuba, Ahmad Shehu, Mustapha Isah, Tijjani Ibrahim, Abdullahi Muhammad Labbo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 95-99
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030365

Aim: To evaluate the protein composition in the ginger rhizome and its interaction with glucose molecule.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria, between April 2021 and May 2021.

Methodology: Protein was extracted from the rhizome of ginger using 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The protein concentration of the sample was estimated using Biuret method while using xanthoproteic test, the presence of aromatic amino acids was ascertained. The crude protein sample was interacted with glucose using UV interaction study.

Results: The protein concentration of the sample (2 g) was found to be 1.702 mg/ml, it was identified that ginger rhizome contains aromatic amino acids. UV interaction study between the crude protein sample and glucose molecule showed an increase in absorbance at the range of 280 nm.

Conclusion: The interaction of ginger with glucose shows that it possesses a hypoglycemic effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of a Maize-based Snack (Kokoro) Enriched with Defatted Sesame and Moringa Seed Flour

Matthew Olusola Oluwamukomi, Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu, Korede Timothy Olapade

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 100-113
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030366

Kokoro, a maize-based snack was made from maize flour and supplemented with Moringa
seed flour (MSS) and defatted sesame flour (DSF) flours with the aim of improving its nutritional quality. An experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which yielded 16 formulations in which three blends in terms of the best proximate composition and the control sample (100% maize) were selected. The snacks were analyzed for proximate, mineral, amino acid composition, sensory and antioxidant properties. Proximate analysis results showed significant (p<0.05) increase in protein (9.25–24.23%), fat (15.07–35.25%), ash (2.25–4.25%) content, and energy value (508.43–607.71 KJ/ g), while crude fiber (7.58–5.80%), moisture (4.58-3.64%) and carbohydrate (61.27–26.83%) content decreased with inclusion of MSF and DSF. Potassium (4.02-5.03mg/100 g) was the predominant mineral, followed by calcium (3.31-5.41mg/100 g) and potassium (1.67-3.75mg/100 g). Glutamic acid was the most abundant non–essential amino acids while leucine was the predominant essential amino acid in the enriched kokoro. There was an increase in the amino acid content (except for aspartic acid, arginine and histidine) of the kokoro samples as the proportions of MSF and DSF increased. The result also showed that the essential amino acid index, predicted biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index of the enriched kokoro were higher than the control sample with values ranging from 0.6108-0.8944, 54.88-85.79%, 1.63-3.49g/100g and 5.65-21.67%, respectively. The result also showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the flavonoid, phenolic content and DPPH of the kokoro as supplementation with MSF and DSF increased. The control sample compared favourably with kokoro supplemented with 6.25% and 17.5% MSF and DSF, respectively, in terms of sensory evaluation. Hence, acceptable and nutritious kokoro snacks from this blend can be formulated which could enhance the nutritional wellness of consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Physico-Chemical, Nutritional, Mineral, Functional and Phytochemical Analysis in Functional and Nutraceutical Marked Cereals

. Shilpa, Sangita Sood, Farhan Mohiuddin Bhat

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 114-124
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030367

The present research was done to analyse the physico-chemical, Nutritional, Mineral, functional and phytochemical analysis in Functional cereals; oats, pearl millet, sorghum and finger millet. The protein content of the analyzed cereals varied from 7.45% to 14.69% with oats having higher concentration of protein content. The higher fibre content in oats accounted for its highest WAC while as the lowest fibre content in sorghum (2.35%) masked its WAC despite containing the highest carbohydrate content. Neutral detergent fiber that gives the measurement insoluble fibre was found highest in sorghum (11.29%) and lowest in pearl millet (5.56%). Total sugars comprising of reducing and non reducing sugars were found highest in pearl millet (2.88%) followed by sorghum (2.14%) and the least content was found in finger millet (1.69%). Oats were found to possess highest content of phosphorus (381.02mg/100g) and finger millet the lowest (8.21mg/100g). Resistant starch that is inaccessible to enzymes was found highest in oats (2.69g/100g) and lowest in sorghum (1.74g/100g).

Open Access Original Research Article

Reliability of the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire among Head Teachers from Schools in Uganda

Richard Bukenya, Beatrice Ekesa, Jeanette M. Andrade, Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint, Robert Mugabi, John Muyonga, Juan E. Andrade

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 125-136
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030368

Valid and reliable questionnaires are necessary to improve the existence and quality of nutrition information, which determines interventions in low-resource settings, especially among decision makers and change agents.

The present study evaluated the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the data collected among 255 head teachers from schools in Mukono and Wakiso districts in Uganda using a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) earlier developed. Cronbach alpha (α) was used to determine internal consistency. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to measure test-retest dependability on scores (ICC2,1).

Overall internal consistency on 94 items was α = 0.89 at time one and 0.92 at time two. All items yielded data with a satisfactory internal consistency (α > 0.7). Two domains, Expert advice (ICC = 0.64) and Selecting food (ICC = 0.41), were determined to have insufficient test-retest reliability (r < 0.7 and ICC = 0.7), and their items were removed from the next analyses. The remaining nutrition knowledge topics with adequate test-retest reliability were food groupings (ICC = 0.9), nutrition and sickness (ICC = 0.91), and food fortification (ICC = 0.95). According to the findings, the prototype nutrition knowledge questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

These findings indicate that the previously established questionnaire can be used to assess general nutrition knowledge among head teachers. To boost generalizability, future studies could use the questionnaire on a different group of adults.

Open Access Review Article

Oats: Its Biologically Active Compounds as Functional Food Source

Yamini Bhatt, Hemlata Pandey

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030358

Oats are known to be a healthy food for the heart mainly due to their high β-glucan content. Besides, they contain more than 20 unique polyphenols, avenanthramides, which have shown strong antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. The polyphenols of oats have also recently been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-itching activity, which may provide additional protection against coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and skin irritation. Oats have been labelled as a functional food as they contain β-glucan, minerals, and antioxidants. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like bread, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes, and infant food are gaining increasing consideration.