Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cold Storage on the Nutritive and Microbiological Quality of Fermented Soy Drink from Tamarind and Nono

B. B. Adamu, T. T. Ayisa, H. Babayi, A. I. Adebayo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130371

The effect of cold storage on fermented soy drink from tamarind and nono was assessed. Soymilk was produced by milk extraction from whole soybean seeds and pasteurized at 76oC for 30 minutes. The soymilk was divided into two portions. One portion inoculated with tamarind pulp containing 5.3×103 cfu/mL and the other with nono containing 11.6×103 cfu/mL. They were incubated at 42oC for 12 hours, fermentation was harvested by stirring, packaged, refrigerated at 5oC and subjected to microbial analysis using standard method. Preservation of drink by refrigeration method increased the microbial load of sample A from day 0 (8.7×103 cfu/mL) to day 9 (15.0×103 cfu/mL) but decreased on day 12 (11×103 cfu/mL). Similar results were recorded for samples B and C. However, sample A had neither coliform nor fungal growth. Sample A and B had no significant (p>0.05) difference in energy value (41.91±0.89 and 42.50±1.14) but sample C had the highest energy (96.69±2.03- 77.80±1.17), ash (4.10±0.13- 96.69±2.03), crude protein (0.51±0.01- 0.55±0.03), oil extract (3.44±0.17- 3.65±0.15) and NFE (7.61±0.14- 11.16±0.17) but lowest in moisture (79.84±1.07- 80.27±1.30) contents on day 6– 12. However, sample B had high moisture content ranged (84.43±1.17- 87.15±2.3) but lower in other parameters. Statistical analysis for the vitamin C, potassium and calcium of sample’s A, B and C were carried to determine their significant differences. Refrigeration slows down the bacterial activity hence reducing spoilage thus making fermented soy drink a good source of desired protein in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Cookies Using Cassava-Grey Speckled Palapye Cowpea Composite Flour

Ihemeje Austin, Akujobi, Ijeoma Chidinma, Kabuo Canice Obioma Obinna

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130372

Objective: The study aimed at production and quality evaluation of composite flours and cookies from cassava (Maniholt esculenta) -grey speckled palapye cowpea (Vigna sinensis).

Methods: Flour was respectively produced from cassava and palapye cowpea. The flours of cassava and palapye cowpea were mixed in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively before being analyzed for antinutrient and functional properties. Cookies were produced from the flours and then evaluated for their respective nutrient and organoleptic attributes.  Data was analysed using using spss version 21.0.

Results: The anti-nutrient concentration ranged from 0.83 to 1.25% (phytate), 0.07 to 0.19% (phenol), 0.12 to 0.17% (tannin), 0.09 to 0.21 Tiu/mg (trypsin inhibitor) and 0.28 to 0.88 mg/kg (hydrogen cyanide). The functional properties were found to be within 0.47 to 0.58 g/ml (bulk density), 1.62 to 2.04 g/g (capacity), 1.58% to 2.06 g/g (oil absorption capacity), 1.26 to 1.74 g/ml (swelling capacity) and 10.47 to 14.86% (foaming capacity). Proximate composition of the cookies samples showed 9.43 to 10.77% (moisture), 2.03 to 6.88% (protein), 1.03 to 1.91% (fat), 1.24 to 2.55% (ash), 3.22 to 4.26% (fibre) and 76.01 to 80.82% (carbohydrate).  The sensory scores of the cookies ranged from 6.2 to 7.3 on the hedonic scale.

Conclusion: The cassava-grey speckled cowpea flour proved satisfactory in cookies production and could also serve well in formulations for other food products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pasting Properties of Composite Flour Made from Sorghum, Millet and African Yam Bean

J. N. Okafor, J. N. Ishiwu, J. E. Obiegbuna

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 23-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130373

The aim of this research was to produce acceptable ‘fufu’ from a mixture of sorghum, millet, and African yam bean flours that will have a moderate carbohydrate and protein content with most optimized texture. The functional and sensory properties of flour blends produced from Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean was studied. Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean were processed into flour and mixed at different ratios to obtain composite flours. The flour formulations obtained were analyzed for water absorption capacity, bulk density, least gelation concentration , and viscosity .The  water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00 to 3.00,  the bulk density ranged from 0.56 to 0.82;the least gelation concentration ranged from 5.77 to 6.87,while the viscosity ranged from 0.956 to 9.30.Also proximate composition of the individual flours before formulation  was analyzed, it ranged from 6.13 to 8.46 moisture, 2.00 to 4.67 ash, 0.17 to 8.00 fiber,5.47 to 8.61 fat, 7.57 to 21.84 protein, 58.34 to 69.27 carbohydrate.The sensory values ranged from 5.60 to 6.45 for taste; 4.25 to 6.85  for colour; 5.15 to 6.80 for texture; 3.85 to 5.70 for aroma; 5.45 to 6.45 acceptability. Sample 10 (with the ratio of 40:70:20) had the highest rating for general acceptability. It was observed that sample 1(with the ratio of 60:50:60) had the lowest rating in taste and aroma. The mixture components that could produce optimum texture was determined through optimization plot. This work has demonstrated that acceptable ‘fufu’ with moderate protein and carbohydrate could be successfully produced using composite flours of sorghum, millet and African yam bean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Bactericidal Effect Clove, Cinnamon, and Sodium Benzoate in the Haden Mango and Melon Preservation

Juan Alexander Torres Mejía, Elyn Antonieta Romero, Maribel Medina Barahona, Fredy Torres Mejía, Henry Edgardo Maradiaga Galindo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130374

An experimental study was conducted to determine inhibition and / or destruction of pathogens in the following; Controls, M-EC, MS, Me-EC, Me-S, Treatments M-EC-LC, LC-MS, LC-EC-I, Me-S-CL, M-EC-C, M-S-C, Me-EC, Me-SC, M-EC-B, M-S-B, Me-EC-B and Me-S-B. Where: M = mango, Me = melon, EC = Escherichia coli, S = Salmonella sp, CL = clove, C = cinnamon, B = sodium benzoate. Qualifying each treatment according to the bactericidal power, as: non-effective, minimum, and fulminant lethal effect on days 0 (t0), 7 (t7) and 15 (t15); the bactericidal effect of aqueous extracts of cinnamon, clove in concentrations of 2.5% and sodium benzoate at concentrations permitted by FDA 0.1% was evaluated using the method of quantification or counting of forming colony units (FCU), on two bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, were inoculated in samples of tropical fruits, mango Haden (Mangifera indica) and Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo). The bactericidal effect of clove was different in the two fruits treated; in the mango inoculated with E. coli was observed a minimal effect and in the other hand, the sample inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon sample inoculated with both bacteria, the bactericidal effect of clove was observed. The effect of cinnamon was minimal in both fruits inoculated with E. coli. In the mango inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon, it was a lethal effect. The use of sodium benzoate had a bactericidal effect, in both, the mango and in the melon inoculated with both bacteria. The analysis found that the mango inoculated with E. coli had a devastating effect (death at day 0). Dry matter, matter balance and sensory analysis were determined to have a better conclusion of the investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from some Street Hot Beverages in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Paul Yao Attien, Atobla Koua, Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Ibrahim Konate, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130375

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in street food, including hot beverages. However, information about S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages from coffee carts is very limited in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Aims: We aimed to characterize phenotypically S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages sold in Abidjan.

Methodology: A total of 400 samples of hot beverage were collected and analyzed. The identification was made through conventional microbial and biochemical analysis. Macroscopic identification on the Baird Parker agar supplement with egg yolk tellurite. Microscopic observation through Gram staining as well as biochemical tests such as catalase, DNase and coagulase were performed. To confirm staphylococcal strains, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used. After identification, the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method.

Results: Result showed that most of Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) were isolated from tea. All the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street beverages were sensitive to cefoxitin and vancomycin. All the S. aureus isolated from milk were resistant to Erythromycin. Although beverages are consumed hot, the presence of S. aureus in ready-to-drink beverage transmitted infections to consumers.

Conclusion: This drink need attention for the seller and the user to avoid some infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Original Research Article Investigation of Antioxidant Potential in Ocimum basilicum Flower

Sadaf Khurshid Kayani

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 56-64
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130376

Aims: The present work is particularly focused on antioxidant properties of flower of Ocimum basilicum plant.

Study Design: Study is basically designed on Column chromatography of extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample collection and all experimental work was done in Chemistry Department Government College University, Lahore. The study comprises duration of 6 months.

Methodology: The flower of Ocimum basilicum were collected, dried and grinded. It was soaked in methanol-water (70:30) in dark bottle for a week. Followed by a scheme (column chromatography). After TLC of extracts, three activities were done. Phosphomolybdate, Ferric thiocyanate (FTC), and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC reagent) for determination of antioxidant capacity, peroxidation, determination of total phenols respectively.

Results: The sample OC2 and crude have maximum absorbance at the concentration of 100µl, 200µl and 300µl. The results show that crude has maximum antioxidant capacity. The phenolic contents are in the increasing order of fraction OC2, OC5, and crude. The maximum phenolic contents are present in crude. Reference has the maximum ability for peroxidation for ferric thiocyanate complex by giving red colour.

Conclusion: Overall it is concluded that Ocimum basilicum flower has antioxidant capacity as good as a standard antioxidant. It is recommended in food/medicine as natural herbal product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermented Maize Residue Addition on the Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Chin-Chin

Owuno Friday, Achinewu Simeon Chituru

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130377

Chin-Chin, a traditional Nigerian snack was prepared utilizing wheat-fermented maize residue composite flour at 0 – 30% replacement levels. Effects of this addition on the functional and pasting properties of the flour composite was evaluated. The snack produced was also evaluated for its sensory attributes, proximate composition and invitro-protein digestibility (IVPD). Functional properties results showed an increase in water absorption capacity (WAC), a decrease in oil absorption capacity (OAC), decrease in Bulk Density (BD), swelling power and solubility index with residue addition. Pasting property results showed a drop in the value of peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity with substitution while set back viscosity increased.Peak temperature decreased, but values for pasting temperature showed no significant difference between the control and the blends. Results for sensory evaluation showed equal preference for overall acceptability. Proximate composition results showed residue addition led to an increase in crude fibre and protein content with a drop in the carbohydrate value. Residue addition did not increase protein digestibility. Addition of fermented maize residue in chin-chin production can be another way of utilizing the fibre rich by-product of the production of fermented maize starch.