Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cold Storage on the Nutritive and Microbiological Quality of Fermented Soy Drink from Tamarind and Nono

B. B. Adamu, T. T. Ayisa, H. Babayi, A. I. Adebayo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130371

The effect of cold storage on fermented soy drink from tamarind and nono was assessed. Soymilk was produced by milk extraction from whole soybean seeds and pasteurized at 76oC for 30 minutes. The soymilk was divided into two portions. One portion inoculated with tamarind pulp containing 5.3×103 cfu/mL and the other with nono containing 11.6×103 cfu/mL. They were incubated at 42oC for 12 hours, fermentation was harvested by stirring, packaged, refrigerated at 5oC and subjected to microbial analysis using standard method. Preservation of drink by refrigeration method increased the microbial load of sample A from day 0 (8.7×103 cfu/mL) to day 9 (15.0×103 cfu/mL) but decreased on day 12 (11×103 cfu/mL). Similar results were recorded for samples B and C. However, sample A had neither coliform nor fungal growth. Sample A and B had no significant (p>0.05) difference in energy value (41.91±0.89 and 42.50±1.14) but sample C had the highest energy (96.69±2.03- 77.80±1.17), ash (4.10±0.13- 96.69±2.03), crude protein (0.51±0.01- 0.55±0.03), oil extract (3.44±0.17- 3.65±0.15) and NFE (7.61±0.14- 11.16±0.17) but lowest in moisture (79.84±1.07- 80.27±1.30) contents on day 6– 12. However, sample B had high moisture content ranged (84.43±1.17- 87.15±2.3) but lower in other parameters. Statistical analysis for the vitamin C, potassium and calcium of sample’s A, B and C were carried to determine their significant differences. Refrigeration slows down the bacterial activity hence reducing spoilage thus making fermented soy drink a good source of desired protein in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Cookies Using Cassava-Grey Speckled Palapye Cowpea Composite Flour

Ihemeje Austin, Akujobi, Ijeoma Chidinma, Kabuo Canice Obioma Obinna

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130372

Objective: The study aimed at production and quality evaluation of composite flours and cookies from cassava (Maniholt esculenta) -grey speckled palapye cowpea (Vigna sinensis).

Methods: Flour was respectively produced from cassava and palapye cowpea. The flours of cassava and palapye cowpea were mixed in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively before being analyzed for antinutrient and functional properties. Cookies were produced from the flours and then evaluated for their respective nutrient and organoleptic attributes.  Data was analysed using using spss version 21.0.

Results: The anti-nutrient concentration ranged from 0.83 to 1.25% (phytate), 0.07 to 0.19% (phenol), 0.12 to 0.17% (tannin), 0.09 to 0.21 Tiu/mg (trypsin inhibitor) and 0.28 to 0.88 mg/kg (hydrogen cyanide). The functional properties were found to be within 0.47 to 0.58 g/ml (bulk density), 1.62 to 2.04 g/g (capacity), 1.58% to 2.06 g/g (oil absorption capacity), 1.26 to 1.74 g/ml (swelling capacity) and 10.47 to 14.86% (foaming capacity). Proximate composition of the cookies samples showed 9.43 to 10.77% (moisture), 2.03 to 6.88% (protein), 1.03 to 1.91% (fat), 1.24 to 2.55% (ash), 3.22 to 4.26% (fibre) and 76.01 to 80.82% (carbohydrate).  The sensory scores of the cookies ranged from 6.2 to 7.3 on the hedonic scale.

Conclusion: The cassava-grey speckled cowpea flour proved satisfactory in cookies production and could also serve well in formulations for other food products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pasting Properties of Composite Flour Made from Sorghum, Millet and African Yam Bean

J. N. Okafor, J. N. Ishiwu, J. E. Obiegbuna

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 23-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130373

The aim of this research was to produce acceptable ‘fufu’ from a mixture of sorghum, millet, and African yam bean flours that will have a moderate carbohydrate and protein content with most optimized texture. The functional and sensory properties of flour blends produced from Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean was studied. Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean were processed into flour and mixed at different ratios to obtain composite flours. The flour formulations obtained were analyzed for water absorption capacity, bulk density, least gelation concentration , and viscosity .The  water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00 to 3.00,  the bulk density ranged from 0.56 to 0.82;the least gelation concentration ranged from 5.77 to 6.87,while the viscosity ranged from 0.956 to 9.30.Also proximate composition of the individual flours before formulation  was analyzed, it ranged from 6.13 to 8.46 moisture, 2.00 to 4.67 ash, 0.17 to 8.00 fiber,5.47 to 8.61 fat, 7.57 to 21.84 protein, 58.34 to 69.27 carbohydrate.The sensory values ranged from 5.60 to 6.45 for taste; 4.25 to 6.85  for colour; 5.15 to 6.80 for texture; 3.85 to 5.70 for aroma; 5.45 to 6.45 acceptability. Sample 10 (with the ratio of 40:70:20) had the highest rating for general acceptability. It was observed that sample 1(with the ratio of 60:50:60) had the lowest rating in taste and aroma. The mixture components that could produce optimum texture was determined through optimization plot. This work has demonstrated that acceptable ‘fufu’ with moderate protein and carbohydrate could be successfully produced using composite flours of sorghum, millet and African yam bean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Bactericidal Effect Clove, Cinnamon, and Sodium Benzoate in the Haden Mango and Melon Preservation

Juan Alexander Torres Mejía, Elyn Antonieta Romero, Maribel Medina Barahona, Fredy Torres Mejía, Henry Edgardo Maradiaga Galindo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130374

An experimental study was conducted to determine inhibition and / or destruction of pathogens in the following; Controls, M-EC, MS, Me-EC, Me-S, Treatments M-EC-LC, LC-MS, LC-EC-I, Me-S-CL, M-EC-C, M-S-C, Me-EC, Me-SC, M-EC-B, M-S-B, Me-EC-B and Me-S-B. Where: M = mango, Me = melon, EC = Escherichia coli, S = Salmonella sp, CL = clove, C = cinnamon, B = sodium benzoate. Qualifying each treatment according to the bactericidal power, as: non-effective, minimum, and fulminant lethal effect on days 0 (t0), 7 (t7) and 15 (t15); the bactericidal effect of aqueous extracts of cinnamon, clove in concentrations of 2.5% and sodium benzoate at concentrations permitted by FDA 0.1% was evaluated using the method of quantification or counting of forming colony units (FCU), on two bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, were inoculated in samples of tropical fruits, mango Haden (Mangifera indica) and Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo). The bactericidal effect of clove was different in the two fruits treated; in the mango inoculated with E. coli was observed a minimal effect and in the other hand, the sample inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon sample inoculated with both bacteria, the bactericidal effect of clove was observed. The effect of cinnamon was minimal in both fruits inoculated with E. coli. In the mango inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon, it was a lethal effect. The use of sodium benzoate had a bactericidal effect, in both, the mango and in the melon inoculated with both bacteria. The analysis found that the mango inoculated with E. coli had a devastating effect (death at day 0). Dry matter, matter balance and sensory analysis were determined to have a better conclusion of the investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from some Street Hot Beverages in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Paul Yao Attien, Atobla Koua, Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Ibrahim Konate, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130375

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in street food, including hot beverages. However, information about S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages from coffee carts is very limited in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Aims: We aimed to characterize phenotypically S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages sold in Abidjan.

Methodology: A total of 400 samples of hot beverage were collected and analyzed. The identification was made through conventional microbial and biochemical analysis. Macroscopic identification on the Baird Parker agar supplement with egg yolk tellurite. Microscopic observation through Gram staining as well as biochemical tests such as catalase, DNase and coagulase were performed. To confirm staphylococcal strains, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used. After identification, the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method.

Results: Result showed that most of Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) were isolated from tea. All the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street beverages were sensitive to cefoxitin and vancomycin. All the S. aureus isolated from milk were resistant to Erythromycin. Although beverages are consumed hot, the presence of S. aureus in ready-to-drink beverage transmitted infections to consumers.

Conclusion: This drink need attention for the seller and the user to avoid some infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Antioxidant Potential in Ocimum basilicum Flower

Sadaf Khurshid Kayani

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 56-64
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130376

Aims: The present work is particularly focused on antioxidant properties of flower of Ocimum basilicum plant.

Study Design: Study is basically designed on Column chromatography of extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample collection and all experimental work was done in Chemistry Department Government College University, Lahore. The study comprises duration of 6 months.

Methodology: The flower of Ocimum basilicum were collected, dried and grinded. It was soaked in methanol-water (70:30) in dark bottle for a week. Followed by a scheme (column chromatography). After TLC of extracts, three activities were done. Phosphomolybdate, Ferric thiocyanate (FTC), and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC reagent) for determination of antioxidant capacity, peroxidation, determination of total phenols respectively.

Results: The sample OC2 and crude have maximum absorbance at the concentration of 100µl, 200µl and 300µl. The results show that crude has maximum antioxidant capacity. The phenolic contents are in the increasing order of fraction OC2, OC5, and crude. The maximum phenolic contents are present in crude. Reference has the maximum ability for peroxidation for ferric thiocyanate complex by giving red colour.

Conclusion: Overall it is concluded that Ocimum basilicum flower has antioxidant capacity as good as a standard antioxidant. It is recommended in food/medicine as natural herbal product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermented Maize Residue Addition on the Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Chin-Chin

Owuno Friday, Achinewu Simeon Chituru

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130377

Chin-Chin, a traditional Nigerian snack was prepared utilizing wheat-fermented maize residue composite flour at 0 – 30% replacement levels. Effects of this addition on the functional and pasting properties of the flour composite was evaluated. The snack produced was also evaluated for its sensory attributes, proximate composition and invitro-protein digestibility (IVPD). Functional properties results showed an increase in water absorption capacity (WAC), a decrease in oil absorption capacity (OAC), decrease in Bulk Density (BD), swelling power and solubility index with residue addition. Pasting property results showed a drop in the value of peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity with substitution while set back viscosity increased.Peak temperature decreased, but values for pasting temperature showed no significant difference between the control and the blends. Results for sensory evaluation showed equal preference for overall acceptability. Proximate composition results showed residue addition led to an increase in crude fibre and protein content with a drop in the carbohydrate value. Residue addition did not increase protein digestibility. Addition of fermented maize residue in chin-chin production can be another way of utilizing the fibre rich by-product of the production of fermented maize starch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation, Effect of Whitening Agents on Physico-Chemical and Functional Properties of Sardine Surimi (Sardina pilchardus)

Imen Zaghbib, Soumaya Arafa, Hassouna Mnasser

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 74-89
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130378

The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) treatments on the colour and textural properties of sardine surimi (Sardina pilchardus) were studied. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to investigate their effects and to determine the optimum whitening agents used. Addition of CaCO3 and H2O2 significantly improved whiteness of surimi in comparison to NaHCO3 treatments (p < 0.05). Some textural damage and a reduction in WHC values were observed for surimi treated withH2O2 and NaHCO3 (p < 0.05). PCA biplot showed that 1.5% CaCO3 tended to result in improved whiteness, WHC and textural properties since 1.5% CaCO3 sample sits closer to these functional properties vector lines than the other treatments. Whereas, 2.5% H2O2 had positively affected only the whiteness parameter. Results indicated that treating mince with the appropriate type and concentration of whitening agent can improve the functional properties of surimi, particularly from fish species with darker meat such as sardine.

Aims: In order to improve whiteness and functional properties of sardine surimi (Sardina pilchardus), the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) treatments were studied. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to investigate their effects and to determine the optimum whitening agents used.

Study Design: Experimental Research Design

Place and Duration of Study: Research Unit “Biopreservation and Valorisation of Agro-Food Products” of the Higher Graduate School of Food Industry of Tunisia. The study was conducted in 3 months.

Methodology: Sardine surimi samples were prepared with different treatments at different concentrations: calcium carbonate (CaCO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Proximate composition, total pigment, whiteness, water holding capacity and textural properties were investigated. Optimal levels of each whitening agent were determined using PCA.

Results: Addition of CaCO3 and H2O2 significantly improved whiteness of surimi in comparison to NaHCO3 treatments (p < 0.05). Some textural damage and a reduction in WHC values were observed for surimi treated withH2O2 and NaHCO3 (p < 0.05). PCA biplot showed that 1.5% CaCO3 tended to result in improved whiteness, WHC and textural properties since 1.5% CaCO3 sample sits closer to these functional properties vector lines than the other treatments. Whereas, 2.5% H2O2 had positively affected only the whiteness parameter.

Conclusion: Results indicated that treating mince with the appropriate type and concentration of whitening agent can improve the functional properties of surimi, particularly from fish species with darker meat such as sardine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Four Rice Varieties in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Gabriel O. Wordu, Achese Catherine Orisa, Mercy Ameka Hamilton China

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 90-100
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130379

This study evaluated the nutrient and anti-nutrient content of four rice varieties in Port Harcourt metropolis. Four rice varieties (Tomato gold TG, Mama’s pride MP, Ultimate gold UG and daily choice DC) were used in this study. The rice varieties were purchased, milled into fine flour and evaluated for proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. Proximate composition of the rice varieties revealed that moisture content ranged from 11.51-12.80%, ash (0.45-0.60%), fat (0.39-1.39%), crude protein (5.73-6.07%), crude fibre (0.90-6.85%) and carbohydrate (73.67-80.09%). Mama’s pride rice variety contained higher ash and fat contents while Tomatoes gold had significantly higher crude fibre. On the other hand, ultimate gold rice variety contained higher protein and carbohydrate; however, ash, protein and moisture contents did not vary significantly (p>0.05) between the rice varieties. Mineral composition of the rice varieties also showed that magnesium content ranged from 6.28-9.63 mg/100 g, calcium (3.74-8.23mg/100g) and iron (1.50-5.48mg/100g). The concentration of these mineral elements was found to be superior in ultimate gold rice variety. Phenol content of the rice varieties ranged from 9.92-14.58mg/100g, phytate (1.22-1.53g/kg), saponin (5.86-6.37%), tannin (47.03-66.89 mg/100 g) and flavonoid (2.29-2.80%). Ultimate gold rice variety also contained higher concentrations of phenol and tannins while saponin content was higher in daily choice rice variety. Phytate content on the other hand did not vary significantly (p>0.05) between the rice varieties. The result therefore revealed that ultimate gold rice variety contained a considerable amount of nutrients and should be highly recommended to consumers for derivation of the above-mentioned nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Functional Properties of Sri Lankan Ambarella (Spondias dulcis Forst. syn. Spondias cytherea Sonn.) Fruit and Development of Vacuum Dried Ambarella Fruit Powder and Incorporated Soup Mix

N. P. G. D. Navoda, M. D. W. Samaranayake, S. L. Liyanage, H. M. T. Herath, J. M. J. K. Jayasinghe

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 113-122
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130381

Objective: To develop vacuum dried (VD) Ambarella fruit powder and Ambarella fruit incorporated soup mix from large and miniature Ambarella and investigation of antioxidants and anti-diabetic properties.

Methods: Ethanolic extracts of two Ambarella varieties were analyzed for antioxidant potential in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), radical scavenging activities of DPPH and ABTS and α-amylase inhibitory activity.

Results: Fresh dwarf Ambarella showed a significantly (p<0.05) high TPC (3.35±0.10 mgGAE/g) while fresh large Ambarella showed a significantly (p<0.05) high FRAP (0.71±0.13 mgTE/g) and DPPH (3.57±0.31 mg TE/g). In comparison of ethanolic extracts of VD Ambarella powders, a significantly (p<0.05) higher antioxidant potential in terms of FRAP (4.19±0.06 mgTE/g) exhibited in dwarf variety while significantly (p<0.05) higher ABTS (4.03±0.27 mgTE/g) and DPPH (3.00±0.49mgTE/g) exhibited in large Ambarella. Alpha amylase inhibition activities of fresh fruits of large and dwarf were 46.30±4.07% and 49.55±3.18% where as in VD powders were 27.59±5.03% and 15.58±5.86% respectively. An instant soup mixture was developed incorporating 20% of VD powder from large variety due its abundance. The antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of the soup mixture in terms of TPC, TFC, ABTS, and FRAP were 0.55±0.00 mgGAE/g, 0.04±0.00 mgQE/g, 1.65±0.06 mgTE/g, and 0.04±0.15 mgTE/g. Alpha amylase inhibition activity of soup mixture was 39.49±0.29%.

Conclusion: The both types of fresh fruits exhibited higher antioxidant potential except FRAP and higher anti-amylase inhibition than VD Ambarella powder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Particle Size and Transparent Solar Dryer Cover on the Proximate Analysis of Dried Onion

O. O. Oniya, C. O. Olatunji, M. I. Olatunji, K. O. Aremu, O. A. Adeiza

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 123-141
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130382

In this work, we investigate effect of particle size and transparent solar dryer cover on the proximate analysis of dried onion.

A solar drying unit was developed and constructed for drying the of red onion slices in order to determine the proximate composition of fresh and dried red onion using multi-crop direct solar dryer. Also, the evaluation and effect of particles size and multi-crop transparent solar dryer cover on the proximate analysis of red onion during drying. Consequently, the higher efficiency of the solar collector was obtained at the higher airflow rate. The moisture content of dried onion slices was strongly affected by the thickness of the onion slices and the density of the polyethylene. The final moisture content of dried onion slices ranged from 10.85% to 13.01%, 4.95% to 6.01% ash, 4.69% to 5.26% fibre, 11.17% to 13.09% fat, 6.70% to 5.60% protein and 68.64% to 68.03% carbohydrate for particle sizes of 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm dry-basis depending on drying temperature cycle for low density polyethylene cover. While the final moisture content of dried onion slices ranged from 9.85% to 12.01%, 5.96% to 6.01% ash, 3.69% to 4.26% fibre, 13.17% to 12.09% fat, 5.70% to 6.60% protein and 61.64% to 58.03% carbohydrate for particle sizes of 3 mm, 5mm and 7mm dry-basis depending on drying temperature cycle for high density polyethylene cover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological, Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of the three Main Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivated in the Poro Region (North of Côte d'Ivoire)

Guédé Séri Serge, Adombi Caroline Mélanie, Touré Abdoulaye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 142-153
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130383

Mango processing in Côte d'Ivoire is limited by data failure on characteristics of mango varieties. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the valorization of the main varieties of mango (Amelie, Kent and Keitt) cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire through the evaluation of their morphological, physical and biochemical parameters.

Between May and June 2020, ten ripe fruits of each variety were randomly selected from ten batches of mangoes from different producers in the Poro region. After sampling, morphological, physical and biochemical parameters were determined at the biochemistry - microbiological laboratory of Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University in the month of June 2020.

This study showed that the mangoes Kent and Amelie were bigger than those of Keitt. However, when ripe, the three mango varieties studied had each a specific gravity close to 1 g/cm3; they could therefore float on water. They were elongated in shape and corresponded to the caliber group B of mangoes exportable to the European market. The high values of pulp proportions (82.70 to 83.62%), pulp/stone ratios (12.71 to 13.33) and waste indices (4.69 to 5.20) gave them interesting aptitudes for industrial processing. With high moisture contents (77.80 to 84.80%), low fiber contents (0.53 to 0.84%) and acidity values (0.20 to 0.50%), interesting ascorbic acid contents (45.02 to 46.25 mg/100g ), TSS contents (15.51 to 18.50 °Brix) conforming to standard for fruit juices and nectars, the mango varieties studied would be suitable for making puree, juice or ice cream. However, with a higher sugars/acidity ratio (73.46), mango variety Kent would be more suitable for drying and making frozen or canned mango pieces; while those of Amelie and Keitt would be suitable for the manufacture of purees, concentrates and drinks.

The results of this study could guide processors in the choice of varieties according to the types of derived products. They are interesting and should be deepened by including other varieties (improved and local) cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Acid/Alkaline Tolerance of Lactic Acid Bacteria Present in Fermented Rye, Wheat, Oat and Barley

Ijeoma Chidinma Akujobi, Austin Ihemeje

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 154-161
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130384

Objective: This study determined the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in fermented rye, wheat, oat and barley grains, and evaluated their survival in simulated gastric juice and pancreatic juice.

Methods: Samples of rye, wheat, oat and barley grains were fermented for 72 hours at room temperature. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated using MRS agar and were enumerated. Isolated LAB strains were cultured with MRS broth and the fermentation patterns of the isolated strains were characterized using API 50 CH kit (Biomerieux, France). Each isolated LAB strain was exposed to simulated gastric juice at pH of 2.0 for 80 minutes at 370C, followed by exposure to simulated pancreatic juice at pH of 8.0 for 120 minutes at 370C. Aliquots were taken at 0 minute and 80 minutes at pH of 2.0 and 0 minutes and 120 minutes at pH of 8.0 for enumeration of LAB strains.

Results: The total LAB cell count ranged from 6.6 * 108 ± 11 cfu/ml in the rye sample to 9.5*109 ± 7 cfu/ml in the oat sample. 13 LAB strains were isolated from the four selected cereal grains and were characterized as six strains of Lactobacillus plantarum1, five strains of L. brevis 1 and one strain each of L. collinoides and Leuconostoc citreum.  All the isolated LAB strains from the four selected cereals survived in the simulated gastric juice at pH of 2.0 (before and after incubation at 0min and 80a min) and after addition of simulated pancreatic juice at pH of 8.0 (before and after incubation at 80b min and 200 min respectively). The mean viable counts of all the strains ranged from 2.0 *108 in R3 at 80b min to 1.54 * 1010 in B4 at 80b minutes.

Conclusion: LAB associated with fermentation of rye, wheat, oat and barley grains are likely to survive transport through the harsh acidic and alkaline conditions of the GIT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Three Isolation Experiments for Campylobacter Bacteriophages from Chicken Skin: A Comparative Study

Yasaman Kordi, Nazanin Khakipour

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 162-171
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130385

Background: Campylobacter strains are of the leading pathogens causing bacterial gastroenteritis, whose infections are generally considered to be one of the most common foodborne illnesses of animal origin. The etiology of this infection often goes back to eating contaminated raw meat or infected poultry. The bacteria are present in abundance in chicken skin. The use of appropriate bacteriophages is one of the most effective experiments in eliminating Campylobacter strains. Phage therapy refers to the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections.

Aim: Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare three experiments of bacteriophage isolation in chicken skin.

Experiments: Thus, 15 samples of chicken skin were collected from five different fresh chicken suppliers in Ghaemshahr, Iran. The samples were transported to the laboratory aseptically in the vicinity of ice, and then cultured in blood agar medium, and the isolates were identified by various tests including gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests.

Results: The results were compared before and after three bacteriophage isolation experiments. Out of 15 chicken skin samples tested in all three experiments, 6 (40%) strains were identified in the first experiment, 8 (53.4%) strains in the second experiment and 12 (20%) strains in the third experiment after bacteriophage therapy.

Conclusion: The bacteriophage isolation experiments alone or in combination with other intervention strategies are recommended as promising tools for greater food safety. These experiments can be useful to increase food safety and reduce the risk of infection in humans through the consumption of potentially infected edible parts of chicken. According to the results of this study, among the three proposed experiments, the experiment of chicken skin enrichment in Bolton selective media containing target isolates was the most efficient approach, which showed a high limit of detection at low concentrations and the highest rate of phage recovery. This can be a more reliable way to isolate the Campylobacter bacteriophages and eliminate the Campylobacter strains.

Open Access Review Article

Developments on the Bioactive Compounds and Food Uses of the Tubers: Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott (Taro) and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott (Tannia)

C. J. Mba, H. O. Agu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 101-112
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130380

Two varieties of Cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott (Taro) and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott (Tannia) are experiencing renewed interest not only in Africa but also in the rest of the world. They are considered to be cheaper sources of carbohydrates than cereals or other bulbous crops because of their high calorie yield per hectare, low production costs, and relatively low susceptibility to insect and pest infestation. In addition to their nutritional benefits, they contain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, proteins, mucilage, polysaccharides, lipids and anti-polyphenol antioxidants. These bioactive compounds have been shown to provide consumers with health benefits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and dyslipemic properties. Interestingly, you don't need to consume the raw tubers or leaves to get these numerous health benefits, as the different parts of the plants which are nutrient-dense, have been used in various food applications such as flour, chips, poi, syrup, weaning foods for babies, local delicacies, and starch production. These products compete favourably with products from other root and tuber crops. Therefore, this article describes various value-added products made from Cocoyam that can be consumed to reap the numerous health benefits associated with consuming Cocoyam.