Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Biscuits from Mango Seed Kernel-Acha Flour Blends

Ibrahim Abdul-Alim Gambo, Ayo Jerome Adekunle, Bessong Sarah

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i630431

Production and quality evaluation of biscuits from mango seed kernel-Acha flour blend were studied. The biscuits were formulated with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50% of mango seed kernel (magnifera indica) flour with acha flour. The biscuits were prepared from the flour blends with other ingredient (fat, salt, baking powder and sugar) and evaluated for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The moisture, ash, protein and carbohydrate content decreased from 14.79-9.03, 2.37-2.17, 16.85-15.5 and 58.08-56.70, while the fat and fibre content increased from 5.67-8.99 and 0.40-0.90 respectively with increased in the level of mango seed kernel flour addition. Minerals and vitamins content result indicated increasing level of potassium, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin K (256.31-486.43, 11.26-12.35, 0.01-0.07 and 0.02-0.51mg/g) respectively with increased in mango seed kernel flour. While decreased level of calcium and vitamin C were 1.10-0.66 and 1.65-1.27 with increased mango seed kernel flour addition. Physical properties result indicated a decreased in the weight, height diameters, thickness and break strength 24.95-21.90, 3.15 - 2.85, 5.25 - 4.85, 1.15 - 0.75 and 1.45-0.30 respectively, spread ratio and volume 5.25-6.25 and 21.66-22.91 of the biscuit sample increased with increased in mango seed kernel flour addition. In sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 10% mango kernel flour had the highest sensory score for all sensory attribute. The biscuit blends were generally accepted up to 15% but most preferred and accepted blend biscuits is that of the 100% acha and 100% wheat flour. The mango seed kernel incorporation had significant effect and could contribute to the improvement of the flour blend biscuits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Water Absorption Kinetics of Abrohemaa, Omankwa, and Akposoe Maize Varieties

Isaac Godfred Antwi

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i630433

The study investigated the effect of temperature and variety on water absorption kinetics of three Ghanaian maize varieties (Abrohemaa, Omankwa, and Akposoe) during soaking and also to generate the required moisture diffusivity data for the varieties. The study employed a gravimetric method at four different temperatures of , and . Varying soaking temperature affected the water absorption rates and behaviours of the varieties and that soaking was reduced by increasing the soaking water temperature. The differences in rate of water absorption by the varieties could be attributed to kernel characteristics such as physiochemical and nutritional composition. The Fick’s diffusion law satisfactorily predicted the absorption kinetics of the varieties at all temperatures and that variety and temperature were the most important factors controlling water absorption rate of the maize kernel. The moisture diffusivities of the kernels varied in the order of Abrohemaa  Omankwa  Akposoe and increased as the soaking temperature increases with values ranging from   for Akposoe,  for Omankwa and  for Abrohemaa. The Arrhenius equation was able to describe the effects of temperature on the diffusion coefficient with activation  energy values of  for Abrohemaa and  for both Akposoe and Omankwa.

The study investigated the effect of temperature and variety on water absorption kinetics of three Ghanaian maize varieties (Abrohemaa, Omankwa, and Akposoe) during soaking and also to generate the required moisture diffusivity data for the varieties. The study employed a gravimetric method at four different temperatures of , and . Varying soaking temperature affected the water absorption rates and behaviours of the varieties and that soaking was reduced by increasing the soaking water temperature. The differences in rate of water absorption by the varieties could be attributed to kernel characteristics such as physiochemical and nutritional composition. The Fick’s diffusion law satisfactorily predicted the absorption kinetics of the varieties at all temperatures and that variety and temperature were the most important factors controlling water absorption rate of the maize kernel. The moisture diffusivities of the kernels varied in the order of Abrohemaa  Omankwa  Akposoe and increased as the soaking temperature increases with values ranging from   for Akposoe,  for Omankwa and  for Abrohemaa. The Arrhenius equation was able to describe the effects of temperature on the diffusion coefficient with activation  energy values of for Abrohemaa and  for both Akposoe and Omankwa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional and Nutritional Properties of Various Flour Blends of Arrowroot Starch and wheat Flour

Aaron Mutlong Amak Damak, Peter Isah Akubor, Charles Chukwuma Ariahu, Goodluck Obioma Okereke

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 12-25
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i630432

Flour blends of arrowroot starch and wheat flour were developed in the ratios of 100:0, 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, and 60:40. These flour blends were investigated for their functional and nutritional properties to determine their potentials for utilizations in a variety of wheat flour-based products. The range of values of the results obtained were for: bulk density (0.37 – 0.91 g/cm3), foaming capacity (21.20 – 82.00%), foaming stability (20.80 – 80.00%), emulsion capacity (18.27 – 54.85 %), emulsion stability (12.39 – 60.29%), water absorption capacity (101.41 - 106.77%), oil absorption capacity (94.70 – 107.80%), least gelation capacity (6.00 – 10.00%), protein (6.5 – 11.28%), ash (1.37 – 3.60%), moisture (4.30 – 10.50%), fat (1.63 – 4.60%), crude fibre (2.60 – 4.20%), carbohydrate (69.70 – 78.81%), vitamin C (0.70 – 2.80 mg/100g), vitamin A (0.00 – 0.66 mg/100g), zinc (1.6 – 3.3 mg/100g), iron (0.3 – 1.2 mg/100g), copper (2.6 – 5.0 mg/100g), sodium (10.4 – 43.0 mg/100g), potassium (16.2 – 74.6 mg/100g), calcium (5.2 – 33.2 mg/100g), magnesium (4.9 – 13.6 mg/100g) and phosphorus (45.0 – 317 mg/100g). Bulk density, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability and least gelation capacity of the flour blends decreased as the incorporation of arrowroot starch increased, while the water absorption capacity of the flour blends increased as the concentration of the arrowroot starch increased. Protein, carbohydrate, vitamin C, vitamin A, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents of the flour blends decreased as the substitution with arrowroot starch increased; whereas ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, zinc, iron and copper contents increased with increased substitution. These results obtained highlighted the potentials of arrowroot starch in substituting wheat flour in wheat flour based products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extrusion Cooking Variables on the Proximate Composition of Extruded Snacks from Blends of Cocoyam and Bambara Nut Flours

B. D. Sadiq, I. Nkama, E. C. Omah

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i630434

Flour blends of cocoyam and Bambara groundnut were produced through extrusion cooking. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was adopted for the formulations. Association of Analytical Chemist procedure was used to determine the proximate composition. The main objective was to determine the effects of the processing variables; feed blend composition (X1), barrel temperature (X2), and feed moisture content (X3), on Snacks and the proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipids, fibre, ash, and carbohydrate) of the extrudate. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significance (p< 0.05) of the models fitted in describing the relationship between the input and output in its natural state. There was a non-significant lack–of–fit test. The result of the moisture showed that the model X1, X2, (linear) X12, X2 2, (quadratic) were all significant (P ≤0.05) while the interactive terms X12, X22, X32, had an anta gonistic relationship at (P <0.05). An upward increase in moisture at the linear and quadratic levels will positively affect the product quality. Moisture content ranged between 2.65 to 4.02%, protein content ranged between 3.40 to 7.01%, the ash content ranged from 1.36mg/100g to 2.33mg/100g, the fibre content varied between 0.18mgand100 to 1.94mg/100g, The ANOVA showed that the processing variables were significant (P< 0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating an Oryza sativa L. Based Fermented Beverage ‘Pendam’: A Source of Sustainable Diet to Gadaba Ethnic Community of India

Arup Kumar Mishra, Ranjana Bajpai, Amrita Swain

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i630435

Focussing on the need of sustainable diet, this research aimed to understand the nutritional feature of a traditional fermented beverage named as ‘Pendam’. As it is widely consumed in study region, participant observation method applied to understand the complete preparation process. In order to understand the quality of Pendam, the nutritional compositions were analysed using standard methods. With pH value of 3.6, this beverage reflects a protein and carbohydrate content of 1.614 mg/ml and 3.01 mg/ml respectively. Fat and yeast are absent in the beverage. The energy value stands at 1.8496 Cal/100 ml. Having cultural importance within the community, Pendam is considered sacred and play strong role in rituals and festivals. The nutritional features ensure it as a sustainable beverage.