Open Access Minireview Article

A Brief Review: Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Raw and Parboiled Rice in Sri Lankan Market

D. S. Gunasekara

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930462

Contamination of both raw and parboiled rice in Sri Lankan market with Aflatoxins is a crucial health hazard as Aflatoxins are carcinogenic and immune suppressive. Parboiled rice is found to be more vulnerable for the occurrence of Aflatoxins due to the quality changes happens within the kernel during the process of parboiling. Starch inside the parboiled rice kernel appears to be a better substrate for mould growth and high moisture levels are often available within parboiled rice kernels due to improper drying. Out of the two types of parboiling practiced within Sri Lanka cottage parboiling remains safer with compared to commercial level parboiling. However, Sri Lankans has a potential risk of being exposed to Aflatoxins as a result of consuming both raw and parboiled rice contaminated with Aflatoxins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Nutritional Properties of Unfermented and Fermented Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) Seeds

Fatoumata Tounkara, Mah Mountaga Fane

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930447

The aim of this study was to investigate the Physicochemical and nutritional properties of unfermented and fermented Roselle seeds. Datou is a product of the traditional alkaline fermentation of Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds consumed as food condiment in many African countries including Mali. However, no physicochemical and nutritional data has been reported on fermented Roselle seeds make in Mali. The study was conducted in the faculty of sciences and techniques between June 2021 and February 2022.

The unfermented and fermented Roselle seeds were used to determine their contents in moisture, ash, fat, crude proteins carbohydrate, fatty acids, amino acids and minerals.

The results showed that the studied unfermented seeds were composed 27.32% of crude proteins, 20.83% of crude lipids, 39.23% of carbohydrates and the fermented seeds showed 21.70% for proteins, 18.64% for crude lipids and 47.42% for carbohydrates.

The most predominant inorganic elements were found to be potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in all samples, but in different orders. Phosphorus was relatively low in all samples, however, the fermented compared to the unfermented seeds showed the highest content.

The fatty acids composition analysis showed the high differences in unsaturated compared to the saturated. The most predominant unsaturated fatty acid in both samples was found to be oleic acid.

The nutritional parameters were estimated based on the amino acids composition of our both samples. The results suggested that our samples have high nutritional quality. Based on the results obtained from this study we can concluded that unfermented and fermented Roselle seeds could be a good source for protein deficient consumers as well as a potential food ingredient

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Anti-microbial Study of Whey Protein Concentrate Prepared by Dehydrating Milk Serum

Pal Saurab, Sunita Mishra

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930448

Whey protein concentrate (WPC) are an group of whey (Milk serum) based food ingredient. They are used in confectionary product, ready to eat cereals, nutritional bars,  and sports beverages.                                                                                                                                

Aim: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and antimicrobial study of whey protein concentrate after extraction from milk serum.                                    

Methods: Proximate analysis was done for the determination of protein, ash, fat, and moisture content in whey protein concentrate. Morphological study was done using X-Ray Diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope. The antimicrobial property of whey protein concentrate was evaluated by Agar well diffusion method.

Results: Proximate analysis reveals whey protein concentrates, protein (42%), Fat (4.40), ash (10.37), and moisture (4.27). The whey protein concentrate antimicrobial property also particularly effective against S. aureus (Gram Positive), E. coli (gram negative). SEM and X-RD results reveal micro structure and nature of the compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing on the Antinutrient Content of Extruded Snacks from Cocoyam –Bambara Groundnut Flour Blends

Bulus Daniel Sadiq, Iro Nkama, Omah C. Esther

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930449

Snacks from the blends of cocoyam and Bambara groundnut composite flour blends were developed through extrusion cooking Technology. Response Surface Methodology (RSM), formulations, and optimization of the process variables. The objective was to establish the optimum level of the effects of feed blend composition (X1), barrel temperature (X2), and feed moisture contents (X3) processing on the antinutrients composition of the composite flour blends. The responses were tannin, oxalate, phytates, and trypsin inhibitor. From the results, the tannin content ranged from 0.00 mg/100 g to 0.03 mg/100 g, oxalate 0.18 mg/100 g to 0.25 mg/100 g, phytate 0.23 mg/100 g to 0.69 mg/100 g and trypsin inhibitor 0.12mg/100g to 0.19mg/100g. These studies showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05) for all the processing variables on all the responses. The studies show that high temperatures and low moisture content have the optimum effects on the antinutrient content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Feeding Albino Rats with Acha-Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Blends on the Blood Glucose Level and Hematological Parameters

Adekunle Jerome Ayo, Ajibola Nihmot Ibrahim, Jerry Kyankun Luka

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 42-53
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930451

Aims: To investigate the health and the physiological status of farm animals.

Study Design: We formulated seven (7) samples from ACHA and orange-fleshed sweet potato mixture with two (2) samples serving as control.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Federal University Wukari between February 2022 and May 2022.

Methodology: The orange fleshed sweet potato flour was mixed with ACHA flour separately at different proportions (100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 0:100) while one hundred percent (100%) acha flour and orange-fleshed sweet potato was used as the control. Bone meal (10%), blood meal (10%) and salt (5%) were added to each sample. The albino rats were kept in a cage in five (5) segments, and the blends were fed to the rats for 21 days and 100g of the formulated feed were weighed into plates in each segment. The daily weight of the albino rats was measured. Evaluated bioassay parameters including feed and water intake, and body weight. Hematological properties including hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, mean cellular volume, mean cellular hemoglobin, and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration of the albino rats were also measured.

Results: The result of feed intake/weight gain revealed that the rats fed with 0% OFSP showed the highest values for 21 days. The kidney, liver and heart weight of the albino rats decreased from1.23 to 1.05, 5.65 to 2.65 and 1.28 to 0.23g, respectively, while the carcass increased from 104.55 to 111.55g upon OFSP substitution.

Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that locally available food commodities such as ACHA and orange fleshed sweet potato can be utilized to produce a protein-rich complementary food capable of combating malnutrition among children. A protein and carbohydrate-rich weaning food comparable to commercial weaning food (cerelac) can be strategically formulated from the blends of ACHA and orange-fleshed sweet potato (75:25).

Open Access Original Research Article

Persistent Microbial Contaminants in Hawked ‘OGI’ and Public Health Concerns in COVID-19 Era

O. A. Ajayi, O. M. Ogunleye

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930452

Aim: The guarantee of quality and safety of foods and all the agents involved in the processes of the food chain in the covid times is of public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the safety quality of street vended ‘Ogi’ from selected Street hawkers in Iwo, Nigeria in light of the present COVID-19 pandemic.

Study Design: The experimental design used is completely randomized.

Methodology: Vendors from five locations were randomly selected to procure samples. pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), microbial loads, identification of isolates, and storability studies were carried out using standard methods.

Results: pH ranged from (4.1 to 6.3); TTA (0.6 to 0.75 %) for raw ‘Ogi’ slurry. All the ‘Ogi’ samples were contaminated. Counts ranged from (2.6x107 to 1.3x108 CFU/g); (5.6x106 to 2.0x107 CFU/g); (5.2 to 7.2x107 CFU/g); (6.2x106 to 6.1x107 CFU/g); and (1.2x105 to 4.4x106 CFU/g) for total viable (TVC); Staphylococcal; Salmonella-Shigella; Lactobacillus and fungal respectively. pH of cooked ‘Ogi’ ranged from (4.2 to 6.1); TVC and Salmonella-Shigella count ranged from (2.3to 8.5x 106 CFU/g), (1.7 to 3.3x 106 CFU/g); (5.8x106 to 1.5x107 CFU/g), (3.1 to 7.9x106 CFU/g); and (6.6x106 to 1.6x107 CFU/g), (4.0x106 to 1.0x107 CFU/g) for days 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Conclusion: Even after ‘Ogi’ is cooked, there is still a high probability of survival of some pathogens in this functional food, and consumption could result in gastro-intestinal disorder, thereby creating a food safety concern for consumers who may have other health challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Process Time on the Physicochemical, Antinutrient and Phytochemical Properties of Ficus capensis Moracae Vegetable Drink

E. U. Onwurafor, E. O. Uzodinma, A. N. Nwosu, S. S. Ude

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930453

Aims: To determine the best process time and processing duration effects on the composition of the Ficus capensis drink (infusion).

Study Design:  Experimental design was based on completely randomized design (CRD).

Methodology:  Ficus capensis (Moracae) leafy vegetable drink was processed by immersing the leaves in water (1:10) weight/liquid ratio. Three portions of samples were prepared and boiled separately in a stainless steel pot immersed in a water bath (temperature =100 oC) for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively, and filtered. The samples were evaluated for proximate composition, minerals, phytochemicals, antinutrients, and physicochemical properties using standard methods. 

Results: Protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents and energy value of the drink were affected differently by process times. Alkaloids, ascorbic acid, and calcium contents were lowest in samples processed by 90 min boiling. Drink processed by boiling the leaves for 60 min had the highest pro-vitamin A (12.51 mg/100ml), zinc (3.18 mg/100ml, flavonoid (18.4 g/100ml), and carotenoid (17.2 g/100ml), and 90 min processed drink had the highest vitamin B1 (0.35 mg/100ml) content. The iron contents ranged from 2.8-8.7 mg/100ml, and the values varied among different boiling times. Cyanide, phytate, and tannin contents decreased progressively as the processing times increased.

Conclusion: The nutrient contents of Ficus capensis (Moracae) drink were affected by process time, however, boiling the leave for 60 min was established as the best process time for the  Ficus capensis vegetable drink processing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram of Extended Beta and Metallo-beta-lactamase E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Pigs and Periwinkles sold in Rivers State

Osakuade, Felicia O., Odu, Ngozi N.

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930456

The emergence of multi-drug resistant and Extended Beta-lactamase producing E. coli O157:H7 is a general public health problem. Food samples of animal origin are undoubtedly the reservoirs of MDR which are in most cases transmitted to humans. The presence of extended beta-lactamase and Metallo-beta-lactamase producing E. coli O157:H7 was investigated amongst food samples and pig dung. A total of 240 samples comprising pig dung, pork, and periwinkles were collected from three different locations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were analyzed for the presence of ESBL, MBL, and AmpC E. coli O157:H7 using standard microbiological methods. The results of the antibiotics susceptibility test of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from various samples revealed that out of the 16 E. coli O157:H7 isolated from the samples, the percentage resistance to Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Amikacin, Cefetrizole, Gentamycin, Streptomycin, and Nalidixic was 62.5, 18.7, 100, 43.7, 50, 87.5, 87.5, 31.2, 50 and 56.3 %, respectively. While the antibiotics susceptibility pattern for E. coli O157 revealed that out of the 35 E. coli O157 isolated from the samples, the percentage resistance to Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Amikacin, Cefetrizole, Gentamycin, Streptomycin and Nalidixic was 60, 22.9, 57.1, 42.9, 34.3, 60, 71.4, 42.9, 68.6 and 45.7 %, respectively. The results of the E. coli O157:H7 with Extended \(\beta\) ─Lactamase, Metallo Beta-Lactamase, and Amp C \(\beta\) ─Lactamase Production revealed that only 25.5 % were ESBL positive, 62.5 % MBL positive while 12.5 % was AmpC positive. The food samples do not only habour enteropathogenic E. coli but are reservoirs of beta-lactamases resistant genes which conferred multidrug resistance to the isolates. These food samples and dungs could serve as vehicles for the transmission of these resistant genes in the food chain. Thus, proper cooking of food samples and avoidance of pig dung is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Coagulants from Moringa Seed Extract (Moringa oleifera) with Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) Method

Gisma Mutiara Putri, Abdul Manab, Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 85-95
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930457

Moringa seed is an alternative coagulant in various industrial fields, generally used for water purification and cheese making. In addition, to obtain the required chemical compounds, Moringa seed can be extracted by conventional or modern methods. This research was conducted to obtain the coagulant characteristics of Moringa oleifera extracts using the Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) method with different extraction times. This research was conducted at the Animal Products Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, and Biochemical Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, between September 2021 and November 2022. The research material used was Moringa seed powder with different extraction times, designed by 4 treatments and 4 replications consisting of P0: maceration for 48 hours (control), P1: extraction for 6 minutes, P2: extraction for 9 minutes, and P3 extractions for 12 minutes with the MAE method. The variables tested were protein content, protein profile (SDS PAGE), milk clotting activity (MCA), and caseinolytic activity (CA), also the ratio of MCA to CA. The research method was a laboratory experiment analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to determine if there were differences. The result showed a highly significant difference (P<0.01) in protein content, milk clotting activity (MCA), and caseinolytic activity (CA). However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the ratio of MCA to CA. The characteristics of Moringa seed extract in this study were protein content ranging from 0.979-1.022 mg/ml, milk clotting activity (MCA) 3.837-3.999 SU/ml, caseinolytic activity (CA) 2.308-2.455 U/ml, and the ratio of MCA to CA 1.627-1.663. In conclusion, the best treatment for Moringa extraction time is 6 minutes with the MAE method, which can be used as a coagulant in the manufacture of mozzarella cheese.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Substitution of Brown Sugar with Honey on Making Beef Jerky

Maria Apriliana Ade Karlina, Agus Susilo, Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 79-84
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930458

This research aimed to evaluate the possibility of using honey as a substitute ingredient in beef jerky in terms of pH, water activity, moisture content, protein content, and fat content. This research was conducted from January to March 2022 at the Animal Products Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Animals Science and Biochemical Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia. The research material used was beef, with supporting ingredients such as salt, onions, spices, and honey concentrations of 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30%. The research method used an experimental design with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were (P0) 30% brown sugar, (P1) 24% brown sugar + 6% honey, (P2) 18% brown sugar + 12% honey, (P3) 12% brown sugar + 18% honey, (P4) 6% brown sugar + 24% honey, and (P5) 30% honey. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and if there was a significant influence, Duncan's Multiple Range Test Method (DMRT) was used to test it. The results showed that substituting brown sugar with honey had a highly significant difference (P 0.01) on pH, water activity, moisture content, protein content, and there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the addition of honey to the fat content of beef jerky. The addition of 24% honey produced the best quality beef jerky with a pH of 5,36%, water activity of 0,57%, moisture content of 10,68%, protein content of 28,25%, and fat content of 4.25%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Women in Rural South-West Nigeria Become Pregnant with Sub-optimal Haemoglobin Concentrations?

Adewumi Adediran, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Adesola Oyelese, Daniel Ogbaro, Adeola Adetola, Ibironke Awodele, Abidoye Gbadegesin, Chimezie Mbah, Sunday Ocheni

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 96-106
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930459

Background: Anaemia is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. In a previous study on determinants of prenatal anaemia, we found out that the majority of our respondents had dietary iron intake below the recommended value of 27mg∕day and all of them belonged to low socio-economic class. We opined that many of our respondents could have become pregnant with sub-optimal haemoglobin concentrations.

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and the socio-economic determinants of anaemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age in our community.

Materials and Methods: The study which was descriptive and cross-sectional, involved two hundred consenting non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic information and 24-hr dietary recall data which was used to determine the dietary diversity score (DDS) and daily dietary iron intake (DDI). Using a finger prick, the haemoglobin (Hb) concentration of each respondent was determined with a Haemoglobinometer DG-300HB. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 32.04±8.99 years while the age range was 18-43years. The mean and range of Hb concentrations were 11.77±1.02 g∕dL and 8-16.67 g∕dL respectively. The prevalence of anaemia obtained from this study was 54% (mean 11.77 SD1.02). The prevalence of anaemia was highest amongst respondents who were farmers. There was a statistically significant association between Hb concentration and body mass index (BMI) p=0.009. Of the 200 respondents, 193 (96.5%) had inadequate dietary iron intake (<18mg/day). There was statistically significant association between Hb groupings and daily dietary iron (DDI) intake. P=0.003. With a mean of 2.96±0.95 food groups and range of 1.0-5.0 food groups, 95 % of respondents had low DDS (< 5 food groups). Hb concentration was also significantly associated with DDS as only 1(20%) of 5 respondents that had adequate DDS had Hb concentration below cut-off value.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age was high in the community studied making it possible for majority of them to enter pregnancy with sub-optimal Hb concentration. The prevalence was highest amongst respondents who were farmers. The majority of the respondents had inadequate DDS and daily DDI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Garri Produced from Cassava Mash and Soybean Flour

J. I. Okoye, N. U. Ihiasota, A. E. Egbujie

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 107-118
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930461

This study was designed specifically to evaluate the chemical composition, functional and sensory properties of garri samples prepared from blends of grated cassava mash and soybean flour. The grated cassava mash and soybean flour were blended in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50, respectively and used to produce soy-garri samples. The samples of soy-garri produced were evaluated for chemical composition, functional and sensory properties using standard methods. The moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fibre and fat contents of the soy-garri samples increased significantly (p<0.05) with increased substitution of soybean flour from 7.19 - 8.92%, 2.64 – 15.10%, 1.25 – 2.64%, 1.65 – 2.82% and 2.37 – 4.32%, while the carbohydrate, energy and cyanide contents decreased from 84.90 – 66.20%, 371.49 – 364.08 KJ/100g and 24.05 – 8.12%, respectively. The mineral content of the samples showed that the calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and iron contents of the products ranged from 1.16 – 14.32mg/100g, 3.35 – 18.71mg/100g, 1.17 – 16.37mg/100g, 12.17 – 35.73mg/100g, 1.25 – 12.62mg/100g and 1.61 – 3.90mg/100g, respectively. The control (100% cassava garri) and the sample produced from 50% grated cassava mash and 50% soybean flour had the least and highest values for all the minerals evaluated. The vitamin content of the samples also revealed that the thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and vitamin E contents of the products increased significantly (p<0.05) with increased substitution of soybean flour in the samples. The control (100% cassava garri) had the least values for all the vitamins evaluated. The functional properties of the samples also showed significant (p<0.05) increases in bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and solubility index with increased substitution of soybean flour in the products with the exception of swelling and gelation capacities which had least values, respectively. The sensory properties of the samples showed that the control sample was the most acceptable to the panelists and also differed significantly (p<0.05) from the other samples in colour, texture, taste and flavour. Although, the control sample was scored highest in all the parameters evaluated, it recorded least values in nutrient contents and some functional properties compared to the substituted samples. The study, therefore, showed that soybean flour could be used to improve the nutrient contents, bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and solubility index of soy-garri samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Property of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf

O. T. Okugbo, A. Braie, V. T. Komolafe, R. Amiebenomo

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 125-136
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930463

Aims: This study investigates the phytochemicals, nutritional and antioxidant constituents of methanol extract of C. olitorius leaf using standard biochemical procedures.

Methodology: Corchorus olitorius (213.81 g) powdered leaves sample was soaked in 2.4 L of methanol respectively for 72 hr. Afterwards, the sample was filtered through a double-layered muslin cloth to obtain a filtrate which was placed in a rotary evaporator to dry off the solvent and stored. The proximate analysis, phytochemicals screening, mineral contents, antioxidant ability and phenolic compositions were determined for C. olitorius.

Results: The proximate analysis revealed that the C. olitorius extract contained 25.00% ash, 2.55% fat, 25.80% moisture, 5.50% crude fibre, 10.15% crude protein and 38.00% carbohydrate contents. Phytochemical screening indicated that flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenols and steroids were present in appreciable concentrations except for quinones and terpenoids. The mineral analysis of the extract showed considerable levels of potassium (1715.69 mg/100 g), calcium (33.43 mg/100 g), (sodium 49.62 mg/100 g), iron (16.78 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.44 mg/100 g) while magnesium (4.39 mg/100 g), copper (2.11 mg/100 g), zinc (2.94 mg/100 g) and lead (0.21 mg/100 g) were reduced. The extract showed high reducing power, diphenyl picrylhydrazine and H202 radicals scavenging abilities. However, the total antioxidant capacity was low compared to the standard, ascorbic acid. High performance liquid chromatography result revealed that quercitrin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin and kaempferol were present in high amounts in the extract.

Conclusion: Altogether, findings from this study indicated that C. olitorius leaf extract is a rich source of phytonutrients and mineral elements with ample antioxidative property (in vitro) that may be of relevance in the management of some degenerative conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Nutritional Charactistics of Gowe Flour, a Traditional Fermented Food Produced from Corn in Benin

Tchekessi C. K. Celestin, Djogbe A. Anayce, Assogba T. Karl, Banon S. B. Jultesse, Bleoussi M. T. Roseline, Sachi S. A. Pivot, Choucounou I. Ornella, Bokossa Yaou Innocent

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 137-143
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930464

The objective of this study is to develop an adequate preservation process for gowé, a fermented paste of germinated maize grains. To do this, drying experiments and physicochemical and nutritional analyzes were carried out. The results of the physicochemical analyzes showed that the pH, the dry matter and the proteins decrease during the fermentation. After 12 hours of fermentation, the dough obtained showed on average a pH of 3.9, an acidity of 13.31%, a moisture content of 67.15% and a protein content of 9.18%. Moreover, the evaluation of the nutritional characteristics revealed that gowé was richer in magnesium than in calcium and iron. In addition, the introduction of the drying system in the gowé production technology made it possible to obtain a product in the form of a biscuit with a pleasant aroma, which was ground by a disc mill to obtain the gowé flour. Analyzes showed that this flour had a pH of 3.95 with a moisture content of 9.7%. It contained proteins, calcium, iron and was richer in magnesium with a content of 73.72mg/100g. Statistical analysis of the data obtained indicated that apart from the dry matter, there was no significant difference (P≤0.05) found between the fermented dough and the gowé flour. This drying technology therefore makes it possible to maximize the nutrients and can therefore be recommended to producers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Physicochemical Quality of Jelly Produced from Blends of Beetroot and Pineapple Juice

N. Nwosu, Adaora, E. Azuka, Chinenye, E. Kalu, Chinedu

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 144-154
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930466

Fruit Jelly was produced from beetroot and pineapple fruits as a value-added product for addressing their gluts during its peak season. The fruits were cleaned and their juices were blended using the following beetroot: pineapple ratio; 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10. The fruit juice blends were then labeled I, R, O, H, and A, respectively, while the commercial jelly sample K, and beetroot jelly were used only as control. Proximate composition showed that the fruit jellies had a higher nutritional profile than the commercial jelly. The result revealed variation in moisture content (35.11 to 36.17%), Ash content (0.12 to 0.26 %), Carbohydrate content (61.22% to 63.74%), Energy value (257.26 KJ to 262.72 KJ) and protein content (0.88 to 1.77 %). The energy value (262.72 KJ) and carbohydrate content (63.74 %) of the commercial jelly were however significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the beetroot - pineapple fruits jelly. The protein content of the jelly ranged from 1.52 to 1.76 %. Overall, increasing the blending ratio increased the fat, ash, protein, and moisture contents of the jellies. Besides, the jellies with the least amount of beetroot I (50 % beetroot and 50 % pineapple juice) had the highest carbohydrate content (62.69 %) thus providing the highest amount of energy 261.30 KJ. Physicochemical properties showed the following ranges total soluble solid content 63.84 to 64.89 °Brix, total sugar 43.23 to 43.94 %, reducing sugar 28.30 to 28.77 %, and non-reducing sugar 14.94 to 15.18 %. Titratable acidity and pH showed that an inverse relationship existed between them. The beetroot and pineapple jelly blends produced compared favourably with proximate composition and physicochemical properties of commercial jelly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Composite Flours of Finger Millet, Bambara Groundnut and ‘Khain’ (Lecaniodiscus Cupanioides) on Blood Glucose Response, Lipids, and Liver Enzymes of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Doris G. Ibrahim, Ifeyinwa S. Asogwa, Eucheria U. Onwurafor, Jane C. Ani

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 155-172
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930467

Aims: This study is aimed at determining the effect of composite flours of Finger millet (Fm), Bambara groundnut (BGN) and ‘Khain’ (Kh) (Lecaniodiscus cupanioides) on the blood glucose response, lipids and liver enzymes levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: The experiment was designed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology and Department of Home Science Nutrition and Dietetics,University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Enugu State. May 2019 and July 2019

Methodology: Sixty rats were grouped into ten groups (six rats per group), housed individually in metabolic cages and were fed commercial rat chow for two weeks. After inducement with alloxan, eight groups of diabetic rats were fed with the composite flours [FK1 (95% Fm/5% Kh), FK2 (90% Fm/10% Kh), FB1K1 (95% [90% Fm/10% BGN]/5% Kh), FB1K2 (90% [90% Fm/10% BGN]/10% Kh), FB2K1 (95% [80% Fm/20%bBGN]/5% Kh), FB2K2 (90% [80% Fm/20% BGN]/10% Kh), FB3K1 (95% [70% Fm/30% BGN]/5% Kh), FB3K2 (90% [70% Fm/30% BGN]/10% Kh)] for four weeks while the two control (positive and negative) groups continued on commercial rat chow for four weeks also. The blood glucose response, blood lipids, total serum protein, albumin, urea, creatinine content, and liver enzymes were determined in the rats. The flours of Finger millet, Bambara groundnut and ‘Khain’ were analyzed for dietary fibre (DF) and phytochemical content.

Results: The total DF was higher (12.615 %) in finger millet and lower (5.375 %) in BGN. Khain had a value of 10.31 % total DF. Phenol content of samples ranged from 37.99 mg/100g for khain seed flour to 36.09 mg/100g in finger millet and tannin content of the samples ranged from 2.22 - 2.28 mg/100g. The diabetic rats groups fed with composite flours had significant (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose levels (60-86 %) compared to the positive control group (35 %), significantly reduced liver enzymes levels were observed in blood of diabetic rats groups fed with composite flours when compared to positive control group, diabetic rats groups fed with composite flours also showed weight loss, Total Cholesterol values of 149.62 – 235.3mg/dl, Triglycerides (97.96 – 153.72mg/dl), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (46.91 – 72.53mg/dl) and Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (73.45 – 153.38mg/dl) values. Urea and creatinine values of the diabetic rats groups fed with composite flours were within acceptable range.

Conclusion: The reduced blood glucose and liver enzymes levels in blood of diabetic rats fed with composite flours showed that composite flours of Finger millet, Bambara groundnut and ‘Khain’ have the potentials to be used as dietetics for the prevention and management of hyperglycemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multifaceted Health Benefit of Ficus capensis Fruits and Vegetables

N. N. Umerah, P. N. Ani, N. M. Oly-Alawuba

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 173-182
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930468

This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical properties of Ficus capensis fruits and vegetables. Ficus capensis vegetables and fruits were separately plucked, sorted, cleaned and milled using electric blender until the desired particle size was obtained (150 - 850 microns). Analyses of the proximate, mineral, vitamins, phytochemicals and anti-nutrient contents of the vegetables and fruits were carried out using standard methods. Proximate analysis showed that Ficus capensis had a protein mean value of 6.11and 8.02 g/100 g, ash 7.63 and 2.92 g/100 g, fibre 9.82 and 6.33 g/100 g, moisture 43.28 and 45.20 g/100 g, carbohydrate 31.48 and 35.61 g/100 g and fat content of 1.68 and 1.92 g/100 g for the vegetables and fruits respectively. Mineral constituents were iron 14.24 and 11.68 mg/100 g, calcium 25.46 and 24.20 mg/100 g, magnesium 21.48 and 28.10 mg/100 g, zinc 2.42 and 5.22 mg/100 g, sodium 0.51 and 1.25 mg/100 g, potassium 126.80 and 5.01 mg/100 g and phosphorus 0.62 and 1.24 mg/100 g for the vegetables and fruits respectively. However, Ficus capensis had some anti-nutrients such as tannin 4.28 and 1.67 mg/100 g, cyanide 1.97 and 0.09 mg/100 g, oxalate 5.10 and 2.64 mg/100 g, phytate 9.26 and 7.01 mg/100g and saponin 2.97 and 1.20 mg/100 g for the vegetables and fruits respectively. The results showed that the fruits and vegetables of Ficus capensis is an underutilized fruits and vegetable with high nutrient profile especially iron which when incorporated to the diet could help to fight iron in a community with high prevalence of anemia.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Factors and Processing Methods Affecting Antihypertensive Properties of Legumes, and Antihypertensive Properties of Selected Legumes

Tan Wan Xin, Chong Li Choo, Yan See Wan

Asian Food Science Journal, Page 28-41
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i930450

Hypertension is one of the major risk factors which leads to cardiovascular diseases, and the typical treatment for hypertension is drug therapy. However, as there are side effects to drug therapy, there has been an increase in research on legume proteins as biopeptides have shown antihypertensive effects. Many species of legumes have been cultivated for consumption as they are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber. Bioactive compounds of legumes potentially improve factors that affect antihypertensive properties, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity, renin inhibition activity, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. The processing method of enzymatic hydrolysis can improve ACE inhibition activity, as can be seen with horse gram, pigeon pea, and lentil hydrolysates containing potent ACE inhibitory peptides of Thr-Val-Gly-Met-Thr-Ala-Lys-Phe, Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg, and Asn-Ser-Leu-Thr-Leu-Pro-Ile-Leu-Arg-Tyr-Leu, while pigeon pea and kidney bean hydrolysates have shown good renin inhibition activity. Fermentation can also be used to process legumes as potent ACE inhibitory peptide Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg was identified from fermented pigeon pea, while kidney beans and lentils demonstrated good GABA production through natural fermentation and fermentation with microbial cultures. The germination processing method could also help improve ACE inhibition activity as horse gram has shown good inhibition activity. In vivo study of pigeon pea, kidney bean, and lentils showed potential antihypertensive properties as a significant lowering of systolic blood pressure of test subject was observed. Research done on the structure and function of antihypertensive properties of legumes can help in the development of functional food products which will be beneficial to human health.