Open Access Opinion Article

The Dialogue between the Intestine-brain Axis: What is the Role of Probiotics?

Karina Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i330131

Introduction: Communication between intestine-brain axis is complex and uses different pathways. This communication forms a bidirectional axis whose equilibrium depends on the composition of the microbial community that inhabits the intestines. This ecosystem has a modulator role on the intestine-brain axis. Because of this, intestine-brain axis becomes a fascinating growing study area. The intestinal dysbiosis hurts the host's health and can lead to several psychiatric diseases.

Aim: The present opinion described highlight an emerging theme in medicine, the interesting communication that is established between the intestine-brain axis. The function that intestinal probiotic microorganisms play in the health and disease of the host's has been gaining prominence. This is a promising area with an increasing number of studies which demonstrates its importance.

Conclusion: In this context, the new class of probiotic microorganisms "psychobiotic" appear to have a significant role in the maintenance of eubiosis, revealing a new therapeutic potential for mental health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) is a widely cultivated and consumed oil-seed in West Africa. Its seeds deteriorate quickly in storage due to microbial attack introduced during the shelling stage of processing.

Aim: This study investigated and compared the microbial and proximate composition of Hand shelled and machined melon seed as sold in the market in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Study Design: The total bacterial, total fungal, Staphylococcal and coliform counts of the machine shelled and hand shelled melon seeds samples were determined. 

Methodology: The mould count was estimated as SFU/g and isolates (Aspergillus) were identified through spore formation, production of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular characteristics.  The proximate and chemical compositions-Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and Peroxide Value (PV)-were determined by standard analytical methods. Data were analysed using analysis of variance.

Results: There is no significant (p<0.05) difference in the proximate composition of both the hand shelled and machine shelled melon seed save the pH. The proximate compositions of hand shelled and machine shelled melon samples were within the recommended limits for Curcubitaceae, both FFA (1.88±0.02%, 1.88±0.01%) and PV(2.64±0.01 meq/kg, 2.65±0.02 meq/kg) values respectively were within the Codex Alimentarius range for oily seeds. The pH value of Hand shelled (5.57±0.09) is significantly higher than Machine shelled (6.10±0.06). The fungal count of machine shelled (92.33x108 SFU/g) was significantly higher than hand shelled (38.00x108 SFU/g). Staphylococcal count of hand shelled (59.00x108 CFU/g) was significantly higher than machine shelled (42.00x108 CFU/g). However, there is no significant difference in total bacterial and coliform counts of both melon samples. The fungal species found in hand shelled and machine shelled melon samples were mainly genus Aspergillus with  A. niger with  percentage of occurrence (30%, 22%) and A. flavus (8%, 11%) respectively. Bacillus subtilis (14%, 40%) and Staphylococcus aureus (43%, 20%) were also found in hand shelled and machine shelled melon. These organisms are of spoilage and food poisoning importance.

Conclusion: The study concluded machine shelled melon harbours more spoilage microorganisms and may spoil faster than hand shelled melon seed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics of Biscuits Produced from Composite Flour of Sweet Potato and Cashew Nut Flour Blends

O. O. Tanko, T. O. Hussaina, N. S. Donaldben

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i330130

The research is aimed at adding value to sweet potato based biscuits using underutilized crops such as cashew nuts. The objective of the study was to add value to sweet potato based biscuits, the sweet potato was processed into flour; while the cashew nuts was unroasted cashew nuts were sorted to remove the stones, dirt’s and unwholesome cashew nuts, roasted, shelled, dried, peeled and processed into flour and sieved. The cashew nuts flour was substituted at 20, 30, 40 and 50% into sweet potato flour to produce sweet potato and cashew nuts composite flour were  used for the production of biscuits. Functional, proximate composition of the biscuits, physical and sensory properties of composite biscuits were determined. Significance difference (P<0.05) was observed Bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity, emulsion activity, foaming stability and gelatinization temperature increased from 0.62 to 0.73 g/cm3, 1.31 to 1.81 g/g, 2.10 to 2.22 g/g, 6.42 to 7.18 ml, 59.71 to 60.51%, 6.19 to 6.43% and 68.20 to 72.10ºC, respectively with an increase in the addition of cashew nuts flour. The crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash increase from 14.65 to 18.31%, 7.88 to 10.21%, 3.21 to 3.51% and 4.10 to 4.76% respectively; while the moisture and carbohydrate content of the biscuits decreased from 13.77 to 13.31% and 56.39 to 49.89%, respectively with increase in the addition of the cashew nuts flour. The physical properties of the composite biscuits such as the weight, thickness, diameter and spread ratio ranged from 16.09 to 17.45 g, 10.87 to 10.96 mm, 38.94 to 40.02 mm and 3.56 to 3.60 respectively. The average means scores for the appearance, crispness, taste, aroma and overall acceptability increase were observed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the appearance, taste and aroma while there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the crispness and overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Biodegradable Films of Starch from Potato Waste

Dhan Bahadur Karki, Yadav KC, Hemanta Khanal, Prabesh Bhattarai, Bandana Koirala, Sabin Bahadur Khatri

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i330132

Starch was extracted from potato wastes and its peels to prepare bio-degradable films using glycerol and sorbitol at various concentrations of 35%, 45% and 55 (w/w) of dry starch. The properties of films prepared with modification techniques (hydrothermal treatment (HTT) and acid-alcohol treatment (AAT)) were analyzed. Biodegradability test was done by incubating with amylolytic bacteria (Bacillus lichneformis and Streptococcus bovis) for 24 hours and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer) for 72 hours. All microbial species were isolated from soil except S. bovis which was from calf stool and identified by conventional methods. The properties of modified starches were significantly different from non-treated starches. Tensile strength (10 N/m2) and elongation (9.47%) were significantly (p<0.05) superior in HTT starch films whereas solubility (25.8%) was superior in AAT starch films.  Elongation (8.91%) and solubility (29.98%) were significantly (p<0.05) superior in 35% and 55% glycerol used films respectively but tensile strength (13.02 N/m2) was superior in 35% sorbitol used films. WVTR (999 g/m2/d) was higher at 91% RH in 55% glycerol used films. Micro-organisms used showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on biodegradation of starch based films. Highest degradation was observed by B. lichneformis i.e, 57.85% while A. niger had minimum of 25.13%. Films prepared with 35% glycerol was significantly (P<0.05) degraded by B. lichneformis i.e, 78.86%. Films prepared by using glycerol with acid alcohol treatment was significantly (P<0.05) degraded by S. bovis (55.57%). Although the starch of same variety of potato waste was not studied, results of the study suggest possibility of preparation of starch based bio degradable films potato waste and its peels by using glycerol and sorbitol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Thermal Treatment on Physicochemical Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Locally Available Underutilized Star Fruit Juice

Jahid Hasan Shourove, Wahidu Zzaman, Razia Sultana Chowdhury, Md. Mozammel Hoque

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 41-53
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v14i330133

Industrial processing of the fruit juice is responsible for the changes in some quality attributes. Thermal treatment is a most applicable operation for any processing and it affects the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the juice. This study was conducted to observe the changes in some physical properties and the bioactive compounds of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice during thermal treatment at 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min by a temperature-controlled water bath. During thermal treatment of the juice pH and browning index increased significantly (P≤ 0.05) with time and increasing temperature whereas the Cloud index of the juice decreased. No significant variation (P≥ 0.05) noticed in the case of total soluble solids. Color differences gradually increased in case of color parameter (0 to 7.83 ± 0.20) and negatively increased in case of (0 to -7.33± 1.00). Irregular results observed for  and maximum difference (3.01±0.08) noticed at 90°C for 40 min. The highest overall color change (∆E= 11.04±0.76) observed when the juice treated at 90°C for 40 min. In consideration of the bioactive compounds, maximum ascorbic acid estimated (24.17±0.70mg/100ml) in fresh juice and with rising temperature and time it decreased. β-carotene also decreased significantly during heat treatment. The Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) found in fresh juice as (540.08±16.64 mg GAE/100 ml) and it was not changed in a regular manner with temperature change. Flavonoid content increased significantly (P≤0.05) when the juice was heat-treated at 70°C and 80°C while no significant change observed at 90°C. Maximum DPPH scavenging activity found in fresh juice (60.19±1.39%) and decreased to (53.83±1.43%) when 90°C temperature was applied for 40 min. This study may help to find out the nutritional value of locally available star fruit and physicochemical changes of this fruit juice during thermal processing.