Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Propolis Coating on Oil Uptake and Quality Properties of Fried Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Strips

Sara Jafarin, Pooya Mohammadnejad

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i130139

The use of edible coatings is a suitable method to reduce oil uptake in fried foods. In this research, the effects of propolis gum on the physicochemical properties of fried potato strip were evaluated.

The propolis coating was performed at three concentrations 1%, 1.5%, 2% w/v. Potato strips were dipped in the coating solutions followed by air drying. Viscosity of coating was measured in two shear rate 0.048 and 62.11 1/s. The treatments were fried in canola oil and analyzed for fat uptake and moisture retention.

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used and mean comparison was performed by Duncan’s new multiple range test.

The results showed that by increasing in shear rate, viscosity of coating was decreased. By increasing in propolis concentration, the coating pick up, moisture content, frying yield, were increased while oil uptake were decreased.

According to the results, 2% concentration propolis gum reduced oil absorption in fried potato strips. Due to their facility to use, propolis gum suggested for coating and usage in industrial potato fries production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Margarine Quality Prepared from Sunflower and Coconut Oil

Maria Afroz Toma, Md. Ruhul Amin, Md. Abdul Alim

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i130142

The study was conducted to prepare healthy and nutritious margarine from sunflower oil (SO) and coconut oil (CO). Quality evaluation of the prepared margarine samples were done by determining the nutritional value and sensory evaluation. Three samples of margarine were formulated from sunflower oil and coconut oil on a 100 gram basis. The average composition of margarine was found as follows: 84% fat, 10.5% moisture, 4.75% protein and 0.58% total carbohydrate. The three formulations are: A (sunflower oil: coconut oil=1:1), B (sunflower oil: coconut oil=3:2), C (sunflower oil: coconut oil=2:3). The three formulations were analyzed for chemical composition. A sensory evaluation of the processed margarine was also done with the help of 10 panelists on the basis of organoleptic properties such as color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. Both the statistical analysis and proximate analysis (moisture, fat, protein, total carbohydrate and ash content comparison) showed that formulation B (sunflower oil: coconut oil=3:2) is more acceptable than other formulations. So, it may be concluded that by processing margarine (sample B) in Bangladesh, it will be helpful for both vegetarian and general people to consume butter like nutritious product and to fulfil the daily intake of fat per capita to ensure good health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Rural Households Food Insecurity in Southern Ethiopia

Fassil Eshetu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i130144

Aim: This study aimed at examining the level and determinants of food insecurity of rural households in Southern Ethiopia using a sample of 574 households and two-stage least square estimation.

Materials and Methods: A total sample of 574 rural households was selected from the three Districts proportionately: 160, 262 and 178 sample households from Demba Gofa, Kamba and Chencha District respectively. Samples of 11 kebeles or Peasant Associations were selected from the three Districts proportionately depending on the number of kebeles in each District.

Results: The mean level of household food insecurity access score is 7.1847 or about 79.83 per cent of households in the study areas are food insecure. The study found that rural households at moisture stress low lands are more food insecure compared to households at middle lands and high lands. The two-stage least square estimation also revealed that food availability theory related factors such as family size and land size significantly affect food insecurity in the study areas. Moreover, food entitlement theory related factors like market access, education, livestock ownership, off-farm participation and productive safety net participation also significantly influenced food insecurity in Southern Ethiopia. Thus, both the demand and supply side factors are the main causes of food insecurity in Southern Ethiopia.

Conclusion: Government has to invest in infrastructure so as to link production centres with consumption centres. Transforming the highly vulnerable rain-fed agriculture to more resilient irrigation-based agriculture is crucial so as to boost agricultural productivity and set an end to food insecurity in the country. Provision financial services and off-farm job opportunities for rural unbanked people, population control via family planning or adult education and ensuring political stability can reduce the vulnerability of the population to food insecurity in the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Intake and Micronutrient Status of School Children in Enugu-South L.G.A., Enugu State, Nigeria

J. I. Ugwu, N. C. Ejiofor, I. E. Ezeagu, C. P. Okorie, N. E. Nwankwo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i130145

This study sought to assess the dietary intake and serum Zinc, Iron and Copper status of primary school children aged 5-13 years living in Enugu- South Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. This study is a community-based cross-sectional study, adopting multistage random sampling techniques. Dietary intakes of the micronutrients were assessed using the 24 hours dietary recall. The micronutrient intakes of the children were evaluated using Dietary Requirement Intake as a reference. Two milliliters (2 ml) of non-fasting venous blood was taken from the children for serum micronutrient analysis. Three hundred and thirty (330) children were analyzed for serum micronutrient status; 155 (47%) were male while 175 (53%) were females, with their mean age 8 ± 1.09: The mean micronutrient intakes of the subjects were 4.98 ± 3.7, 4.53 ± 1.63, and 0.42 ± 0.20 mg/d for Fe, Zn and Cu respectively. Only the male group aged 5-9 years met 100% of the DRI for Zn while the 5-9 years females, 10-13 years males and 10-13 years female did not meet up with the DRI for Zn, Fe and Cu. The mean serum micronutrients of the total children were 63.16 ± 18.06, 62.27 ± 17.3 and 69.9 ± 14.99µg/dl for Fe, Zn and Cu respectively. Of the 330 children studied, 32%, 43% and 23% of them seem to be deficient in Fe, Zn and Cu respectively. The food intakes of the children did not supply the recommended Dietary Requirement Intake for school children. There is, therefore, an urgent need to educate the public on good eating habits and the need for diversification of diets with animal products, fruits and vegetables to ensure adequate intake of these essential micronutrients.

Open Access Review Article

Meat: Valuable Animal-Derived Nutritional Food. A Review

Evans Frimpong Boateng, Mustapha Muhammad Nasiru, Mary Agyemang

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i130140

This article reviews meat as an animal-derived protein food needed in the diet for improved human nutrition. To achieve high-quality biological protein that offer health-promoting effect in the human system, meat accordingly, is a rich source of nutrient matrix in a diet for the human system nourishment. Mechanisms associated in obtaining meat from animal skeletal muscle through the chemical and biochemical process are reviewed whereas, major nutritional constituents offered by meat concerning amino acids, minerals and vitamins and a good origin of energy functionalities it supplies in any healthy and balanced diet that can aid in human life development stages through quality meat intake are addressed.