Open Access Original Research Article

Madidi was produced from different formulations of pearl millet ogi and bambara nut flours. Five madidi products were produced at the laboratory scale using 100:0 (control), 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 millet to bambara groundnut flours, respectively. Bambara ground nut were cleaned, sorted (to remove foreign materials), soaked in cold water for 2 hours, dried and toasted for 30 minutes by using oven. The five formulated products were subjected to proximate, minerals and sensory analysis. The results showed that the protein contents increased with increased addition of bambara groundnut flour. The protein contents ranged from 1.79 to 3.51% on dry weight basis. The fat contents ranged from 0.26 to 1.22%. Carbohydrate content decreased from 22.00 to 13.21% as the proportion of bambara flour increased. Magnesium and phosphorous increased significantly (p=0.05), however potassium and iron were not significant affected (p=0.05). The 100% millet (0.17 mg/100 g) was significantly high in magnesium (p=0.05) followed by 95% millet and 5% bambara nut (0.09 mg/100 g). The phosphorous composition increased with increase in bambara nut (0.17– 0.22 mg/100 g). The average scores of parameters for all the products are relatively high. Product 85:15 millet to bambara flour was most acceptable. It is concluded that an acceptable madidi can be produced from millet and bambara nut at 15% substitution level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Stirred Yoghurt Flavoured with African Star Apple Pulp (Chrysophyllum albidum)

C. M. Eze, K. O. Aremu, I. S. Asogwa, N. A. Obeta, C. D. Joseph, A. N. Ibrahim

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, Page 9-23
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i430177

Aims: To Investigate the Proximate, Physicochemical and Sensory attributes of Stirred Yoghurt Flavoured with African Star Apple Pulp (Chrysophyllum albidum).

Study Design: Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria between December 2018 and October 2019.

Methodology: The materials, as well as the other ingredients for the preparation of the flavoured stirred yoghurt (African star apple, skimmed milk, sugar, and Starter culture (YoghurmetTM) were sourced from Ogige main market in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The African star apples were sorted to separate the fresh and good fruits from insect-infected and mechanically damaged ones. The fruits were thoroughly washed with water to further eliminate adherent dirt so as to obtain sand-free fruits. Peeling of the fruits was done to remove the back. Each of the peeled fruits was cut into two in order to remove the seeds thereof. The pulps were carefully removed manually with knife and the pulps were blended using a blender after which pasteurization at 83°C for 3 minutes was carried out before being added to the processed yoghurt. Yoghurt flavoured with pasteurized African Star Apple pulp was produced by homogenizing, pasteurizing the milk product followed by cooling to inoculation temperature which is optimum for the starter culture (Yoghurmet). The inoculated milk was made to undergo fermentation after which the pasteurized African star apple pulp at different proportions was added to formulate five samples of stirred yoghurt.  The formulation ratios of yoghurt to African star apple pulp were as follows: 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50. The flavoured yoghurt samples were mixed, smoothened and packaged for cold storage.

Results: The result of physicochemical analysis revealed that viscosity (2.65 ± 0.06 cP – 3.25 ± 0.06 cP), total solids (22.35 ± 0.06% - 30.20 ± 0.06%), total titratable acidity (0.36 ± 0.00% -   0.39 ± 0.01%) and pH (5.20 ± 0.00 - 5.40 ± 0.00) differed significantly (P < 0.05) as the control sample YC (100:0) was compared with the yoghurt samples flavoured with African star apple pulp. The proximate parameters -  Carbohydrate (11.20 ± 0.64% - 21.41 ± 0.10%), moisture content (71.53 ± 0.05% - 80.36 ± 1.17%) and ash content (1.30 ± 0.00% - 1.98 ± 0.03%) of the formulated yoghurt samples showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as concentration of ASA pulp increased while crude protein (3.67 ± 0.01% -  4.92 ± 0.02%), fat (1.21 ± 0.02% - 2.72 ± 0.03%) and crude fibre (0.20 ± 0.00% - 1.40 ± 0.00%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase with increasing concentration of ASA pulp. Among the formulated yoghurt samples, sample YP1 was the most preferred with respect to color (7.25 ± 0.91), taste (7.25 ± 1.07), aftertaste (7.00 ± 1.17), mouthfeel (6.95 ± 1.40), flavour (7.25 ± 0.64) and overall acceptability (7.30 ± 0.73).

Conclusion: Although the control sample YC (100:0) had most preferred sensorial qualities, yoghurt samples flavoured with African Star Apple pulp would rival the “used-to plain yoghurt” with improved awareness, and usage lower than 20% of the ASA pulp in yoghurt samples would maintain the product’s acceptability among the variety-loving dairy consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Sweet Potato - Acha Flour Blend Biscuits

J. A. Ayo, E. Agen

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i430178

The study investigates the chemical, physical and sensory properties of sweet potato and acha flour based biscuits. The work was aimed at ameliorating the quality of acha-based biscuit with addition of sweet potato flour. Flour blends were produced by substituting sweet potato into acha flour at 20, 40 and 60%. Proximate, physical and sensory properties of the biscuit were analyzed. The carbohydrate, moisture content, fat content, fibre and ash increased from 67.21 to 75.94, 5.69 to 6.74, 13.81 to14.87, 1.4 to 1.68, and 2.48 to 3.45 respectively with an increase in added sweet potato flour (20-60), while the protein decreased from 8.14 to 3.73. The relative decrease could be due to the low inherent protein of sweet potato. Magnesium, phosphorus and potassium increased from 220.33 to 375.22, 0.438 to 0.632 and 218 to 252.33mg/100g respectively with added sweet potato flour. There was an increase in break strength and spread ratio from 1.35 to 2.95 kg 4.80 to 5.13, respectively, with an increase in the level of sweet potato flour substitution. The reverse was observed for thickness and diameter of the biscuit which decreased from 0.70 to 0.60 and 4.28 to 4.13 cm, respectively. The average mean score of texture, colour, taste, flavour and general acceptability ranges from 6.05 to 7.65, 6.55 to 6.40, 5.55 to 6,25, 6.70 to 5.75 and 6.10 to 6.95, respectively. The sample 40:60 sweet potato-acha flour blend biscuit with average means scores of 6.95 was most preferred and acceptable with the corresponding increment of 3.45, 14.87, 8.14, and 1.68 of ash content, fat content, protein and crude fibre, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiogram Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in Chicken Carcass Rinse Water at Artisanal Slaughterhouses in Abidjan District, Côte d’Ivoire

Goualié Gblossi Bernadette, Konan Marie-Pierre Laure, Bakayoko Souleymane

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i430179

Aims: The aim of the current study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from rinse water of chicken carcass in artisanal slaughterhouses in Abidjan.

Place and Duration of Study: Chicken’s rinse water samples were collected between January and March 2020 in three areas of Abidjan district.

Methodology: A total of 75 rinse water samples were collected from three markets of Abidjan district. Enumeration and isolation of S. aureus were carried out on Baird Parker agar supplemented with egg yolk tellurite emulsion followed by morphological and biochemical identification. Antibiotics resistance profiles were performed by using disks diffusion methods.

Results: Out of 75 samples, 21 (28%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Among the isolates, 21 (one by positive sample) were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 14 most commonly used antibiotics. All strains were resistant to two antibiotics (minocyclin and fusidic acid). However, some drugs such as gentamiycin, norfloxacin, and Tigecyclin showed great activity on tested isolates.

Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that rinse water could consist of a major critical point of chicken carcass contamination by S. aureus with high drugs resistance capacity. Therefore periodic control is need to good hygiene practice and improving the poultry meat sanitary quality produce from these slaughterhouses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional, Sensory and Cooking Qualities of Acha-Tigernut Noodles

J. A. Ayo, D. M. Atondo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i430180

The functional, sensory and cooking characteristics of noodles from blends of Acha-tigernut composite flour were investigated. The flour blends and noodles produced were analyzed for functional properties and cooking characteristics. The tiger nut flour was substituted into acha flour at 5, 10, 15 and 20% to produce Acha-tigernut composite flour which was used with other ingredients (salt and powdered ginger) to produce acha-tigernut based noodles. The functional properties of the flour, sensory and cooking characteristics of the noodles produced were determined. The water absorption capacity and swelling capacity increased from 210.59 to 215.53 (g/g) and 524.43 to 586.57, respectively with increase in tigernut flour. While oil absorption, solubility and bulk density decreases from 209.80 to 192.72 (g/g), 10.17 to 5.19 and 0.79 to 0.61 (g/ml) respectively. The swelling capacity ranged from 524.43 to 586.57 (%) with an increase in tigernut flour. The final viscosity of the samples was found to range from 2833.00to 2201.00 (m2/s). The peak properties decreased from 2680.67 to 1580.33 (RVU). The pasting temperature increases from 82.47to 87.57°C. The addition of tigernut decreased the trough, breakdown and peak time from 1730.67 to 1205.67, 985.67 to 434.67, and 5.84 to 5.71 RVU, respectively. The average mean scores for colour decreased from 6.95 to -6.30(%) While that of taste, flavor, texture and general acceptability increased from 5.55 to 6.60, 5.95 to 6.85 (%), 5.95 to 6.44 (%) and 6.70 to 6.83 (%), respectively, as the percentage of tigernut increased.