Open Access Original Research Article

Postharvest Handling Knowledge and Practices among Food Handlers on Mycotoxigenic Molds Contamination in Maize Based Diets in School Meals Program in Salima District, Malawi

Gibson Mapopa Jere, George O. Abong, Lucy G. Njue, Kingsley Masamba, Duke G. Omayio

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i330171

Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the postharvest handling knowledge and practices among food handlers on mycotoxigenic molds contamination in maize based diets in School Meals Program in Salima District, Malawi.

Study Design: This was cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative component.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Salima district, Central Malawi, between August and November, 2019.

Methodology: The study used a structured questionnaire which was administered to 124 individual food handlers which were purposively selected from 31 primary schools. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the 31 primary schools among those implementing home-grown school meals program. The food handlers included School Meals Cooks, Food Suppliers, Food Committee members, and Stores Keepers. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (version 20.0).

Results: The results showed that 80% of food handlers had high knowledge of causes of mycotoxigenic molds contamination in maize foods, 47% had moderate knowledge of health effects of mycotoxigenic molds, while 50% had moderate knowledge of control measures of mycotoxigenic molds in maize foods. Eighty-five percent (85%) were not aware of mycotoxins contamination in maize foods. Furthermore, the study revealed that 60% of food handlers practiced poor postharvest handling of maize foods during transporting, storage and processing in schools. There were no significant differences in knowledge of mycotoxigenic molds and postharvest handling practices of maize foods across demographic regions among food handlers (P >0.05).

Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of food handlers had high knowledge of mycotoxigenic molds in maize foods, however they practiced poor postharvest handling which might influence occurrence of mycotoxigenic molds in maize based diets for school children. There is need to educate all stakeholders involved in School meals Programme on mycotoxins and postharvest handling of maize foods to prevent school children from the risk of mycotoxins exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Maize Akamu as Affected by Dehulling, Partial Germination and Oil Seed Supplementation

Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu, Abraham Priscilla, Agbara Helen Ngozi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i330172

Akamu, a starchy cereal-based lactic acid fermented gruel consumed in West Africa was prepared using different processing methods: use of dehulled (D) maize grains, use of partially germinated (PG) maize grains (36-48h) and blends: PG and soybean (S) (90:10), D and S (90:10) and D and Melon (M) seed (90:10). Soaking, wet-milling, wet-sieving, sedimentation (24h), decanting, dewatering were involved and the traditional maize akamu served as the control. The seven different samples were subjected to physicochemical microbiological and sensory evaluations. Crude protein (4.70-10.33%), crude fat (4.12-14.30%), total ash (0.26-0.88 %%), crude fibre (1.51-2.77%) contents were higher in oil seed treated akamu and the carbohydrate contents (<74.41%) were the lowest. The akamu made of dehulled(D) maize had poorer proximate composition. Dominant elements in all the akamu were Phosphorous and Potassium and surprisingly, Zinc (1.98mg/100g), Iron (7.33 mg/g) and potassium (106.83 mg/g) in the akamu made with dehulled maize and calcium higher in the control (14.21mg/100g) and partially germinated (14.71mg/100g) akamu. Low water activity in the dried akamu ensured satisfactory low bacterial and fungal counts (<103cfu/g). The control (U) and D akamu possessed better functional and sensory properties; water absorption capacity, swelling power and pH of the different akamu varied significantly: 7.40—8.10 ml/g, 2.74-5.73 g/g, and 5.41-7.42 g/g respectively. Short period of  germination (<48 h) did not affect negatively the proximate composition, sensory, water absorption capacity and swelling power of the PG, PG+U, PG+S akamu(s). The control (U) and D akamu were adjudged to possess better sensory properties especially U akamu with scores slightly greater than 8 on a 9-point hedonic scale, but the superior nutritive value of oil seed treated akamu(s) were masked by poorer sensory attributes. It is concluded that akamu made from PG maize or its blends with undehulled maize or soybean were better alternatives to traditional akamu which is nutritionally inferior although it possessed excellent sensory and functional properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Nigerian Yoghurt Using Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures

S. Aforijiku, S. M. Wakil, A. A. Onilude

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i330173

Aim: This work was carried out to investigate the influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) on organoleptic quality and proximate composition of yoghurt, and viability of starter cultures in yoghurt.

Methods: The LAB starter cultures were selected based on their ability to produce diacetyl and lactic acid.

Results: Lactobacillus caseiN1 produced the highest quantity (2.72 g/L) of diacetyl at 48 hrs of incubation while Pediococcus acidilacticiG1 had the lowest amount (0.50 g/L). The pH of produced yoghurt ranged between 4.40 and 5.58 while the corresponding lactic acid contents ranged between 0.70 and 0.96 g/L. Yoghurt produced with cow milk inoculated with L. PlantarumN24 and L. BrevisN10 had the lowest pH (4.40) at significant level of P≤0.05. Yoghurt with mixed culture of L. PlantarumN24 and L. PlantarumN17 had the highest protein content (5.13%) while spontaneous fermentation (control) produced the least (0.48%). Yoghurt produced from cow milk inoculated with L. PlantarumN24 and L. PlantarumN17 was rated best with overall acceptability (9.0) during first day of storage while the commercial yoghurt (5.8) and spontaneous fermentation (6.8) had least overall acceptability at P≤0.05.

Conclusion: Yoghurt samples stored in refrigerator had more viable LAB counts for a period of 21 days while the samples stored at room temperature had a day count except for yoghurt produced with cow milk inoculated with L. plantarumN24 which retained its viability at the second day. The yoghurt produced with selected LAB starters are better than commercial yoghurt in terms of sensory properties, proximate composition, pH and viability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction of Mango Juice with Pectinase Influences Quality

O. E. Adelakun, M. O. Oke, E. A. Akande, A. O. Adebiyi- Olabode

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v16i330174

The production of mango juice is usually characterized with high percentage of pulp which is conventionally reduced with enzymatic treatment in processing. The use of pectinase in fruit juice processing however has not been fully explored in Nigeria. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of pectinase on the yield and some quality attributes of juice produced from mango varieties. Two varieties of mango (Ogbomoso and Sherry) fruits were locally procured. Juices were produced from each of the fruits and pectinase powder or liquid was added at three different concentration levels (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g – powdered; 1, 2 and 4 ml - liquid) while juices without pectinase served as control.  The yield, physicochemical composition and microbial analyses were carried out. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on the juice. The study showed that 0.75 g pectinase addition increases the yield of mango juice, with improved physicochemical composition and with high acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

This study investigated the nutrient composition and functional properties of flour blend of acha and amaranth grains. The amaranth flour was substituted into acha flour at 5, 10, 15, and 20% and to produce acha-amaranth flour blend. The chemical composition and functional properties of the flour blend were determined. The protein, crude fibre, fat and ash content ranged from 7.66 - 12.93, 0.44 - 0.59, 0.15 - 1.01, and 0.11 - 0.96% with increase in added amaranth grain flour (0-20%). The moisture content and carbohydrate ranged from 12.46 – 11.7, 77.41 - 4.33% and decreased with increasing added amaranth flour.   The potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin B3, vitamin E and vitamin B6 content ranged from 0.09 - 0.14, 0.06 - 0.12, 0.19 - 0.34.14 - 0.24,  0.39 - 0.75 and 0.54- 0.69 mg/100 g increase with increasing in amaranth flour. The bulk density, swelling capacity ranged from 0.79 - 0.76 g/cm3 and 295.00 -275.00 ml/g, respectively with increases in added amaranth flour. The water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and foaming capacity ranged from  120.00  – 145.00, 110.00  – 135.00,  0.06  - 0.09, ml/g, respectively, with increasing acha substitution using amaranth flour. the 20% amaranth flour addition had the highest values of protein, fat, ash and crude fiber at 7.66 - 12.93, 0.44 - 0.59, 0.15 - 1.01, and 0.11 - 0.96% respectively. Amaranth incorporation had significant effects and contributed to the improvement of the flour blend.