Open Access Original Research Article

The aim of this study was to investigate the proximate composition, mineral bioavailability and functional properties of defatted and undefatted avocado pear seed flours. Avocado pear seed was processed into flour and thereafter defatted using n-hexane. The proximate composition, total and extractable minerals and functional properties of the seed flours were determined using standard methods. Proximate analysis revealed that the defatted seed flour contained significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (11.90%) and ash (2.60%) than the undefatted sample (7.24% and 2.12%, respectively). The undefatted seed flour recorded higher values of moisture (4.84%), fat (3.28%), crude fibre (7.99%), carbohydrate (74.71%) and energy (406.08 kcal) than the defatted sample. Mineral composition of the seed flours also showed that undefatted sample contained significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of sodium (24.56 mg/100 g) and iron (9.05 mg/100 g) than the defatted while defatted sample was significantly (p<0.05) higher in potassium (103.15 mg/100 g), phosphorus (7.80 mg/100 g) and calcium (56.50 mg/100 g). Defatted seed flour gave the highest bioavailable sodium (53.88%), potassium (51.69%), iron (26.07%), phosphorus (47.12%) and calcium (43.47%) while undefatted seed flour had the lowest bioavailable sodium (51.41%), potassium (50.49%), iron (17.45%), phosphorus (45.35%) and calcium (36.35%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) among these values. Results of the functional properties of the seed flours showed that the defatted seed flours were high in water and oil absorption capacities (1.87 g/g and 1.87 g/g, respectively), bulk density (0.85 g/ml) and swelling power (6.75 g/g). However, these values were significantly (p<0.05) similar except for bulk density. Least gelation concentration was 4% for both flours while solubilities were 14.57% and 14.63% for defatted and undefatted seed flour, respectively. The result from this study indicates that avocado pear seed flours may be useful in some food formulations. Defatted avocado pear seed is a good source of protein and can be incorporated into existing food products to provide a protein rich diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends

Mustapha O. Alebiosu, Badiu A. Akinbode, Iyanuoluwa S. Oni, John O. Oladele

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i330192

The use of wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends in the production of whole meal cookies was investigated with the aim of encouraging the use of sorghum and coconut flour in producing value-added products. Enriched cookies were produced from the blends of wheat flour (WF) and sorghum flour (SF) in varying proportions of 100:0, 90:5, 85:10, 80:15, 75:20, 70:25, 65:30, 60:35 with 5% of defatted coconut flour (CF) added to each sample and were labelled AMUS, BMUS, CMUS, DMUS, EMUS, FMUS, GMUS, HMUS respectively. Cookies with 100% wheat flour (AMUS) served as a reference sample. The proximate, physical, mineral and sensory properties of the cookies samples were examined using standard laboratory procedures. The proximate results of the cookies showed that protein, ash, fat, crudefibre, moisture and Carbohydrate ranged from (9.18–12.25%), (0.88–1.15%), (9.59–11.19%), (2.77–3.74%), (7.10–10.89%) and (64.20–66.71%) respectively. The physical characteristics of the cookies; weight (9.69–18.20 g), diameter (272.0–333.0 mm), thickness (7.72–11.40 mm), spread ratio (23.87–41.09) differed significantly (p < 0.05). However, the sensory results showed that the cookies varied in colour (6.85–7.80), taste (6.90–8.15), aroma (7.10–7.75), crispness (6.65–7.75) and overall acceptability (7.25–8.45). The reference sample had the highest sensory scores for all the attributes except for aroma and crispiness, while cookies with 15% sorghum flour (SF) and 5% defatted coconut flour (CF) incorporation had highest score for crispness and 30% sorghum had highest score for aroma respectively. Based on the parameters evaluated 15% sorghum flour and 5% defatted coconut flour incorporation could be utilized for cookies production owing to its baking potential abilities. However, the high protein, ash and fibre contents of the cookies made with sorghum and defatted coconut flour substitution is very important as this could make a great contribution to the nutrient intake by consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Mycotoxins during Maize Grains Storage in Triple Bags Containing Plants Biopesticides (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens)

Yao Vanessa Gaël, G. Henri Marius Biego, Konan K. Constant, Niamketchi G. Leonce, Adama Coulibaly

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i330193

In Côte d’Ivoire, maize plays an essential role as subsistence, commercial and socio-cultural culture. To consume good quality corn, it is necessary to preserve the sanitary quality through a good storage method. The aim of study was to evaluate sanitary quality of stored maize in triple bags containing plants biopesticides. Maize grains were collected in March 2016 in the north of Côte d’Ivoire. The fresh leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens were collected and dried in sunlight for 7 days in the center of Côte d'Ivoire. Triple bags were bought in Abidjan market. All this material was sent to the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire, to perform the experiment. A central composite design was used for sample constitution. Ten treatments were obtained for the experimentation. The first treatment was conservation of 50 kg of maize grain in a polypropylene bag. The second treatment was conservation of 50 kg of maize grain in a triple bag. The other eight treatments were carried out with PICS bags each containing 50 kg of maize grain and different proportions of chopped leaves Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens. Thus, a control group with polypropylene bag (TPPB0), a control group in triple bag without biopesticides (TPB0) and 8 experimental lots of triple bags noted TB1 containing 0.625kg L. multiflora and 0.625kg H. suaveolens, TB2 with 0.40 kg of L. multiflora and 1.60 kg of H. suaveolens, TB3 with 1.60 kg of L. multiflora and 0.40 kg of H. suaveolens, TB4 with 0.10 kg of L. multiflora and 0.40 kg of H. suaveolens, TB5 with 0.40 kg of L. multiflora and 0.10 kg of H. suaveolens, TB6 with 2.5 kg of L. multiflora and 2.5 kg of H. suaveolens, TB7 with 1.25 kg of L. multiflora and TB8 with 1.25 kg of H. suaveolens have been used. The contents of moisture, water activity, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fuminosin B1 (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) were studied. The levels of AFB1, OTA, FB1 and ZEA resulted from maize grains treated with biopesticides were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control bags. The results show AFB1 levels (from 4.17 ± 0.05 to 5.15 ± 0.06 μg/kg), OTA levels (from to 4.58 ± 0.25 to 6.10 ± 0.01 μg/kg), FB1 levels (from 4.96 ± 0.07 μg/kg to 7.42 ± 0.06 μg/kg) and ZEA levels (from 4.66 ± 0.10 μg/kg to 8.78 ± 0.14 μg/kg). Maize samples stored in triple bagged bags with different proportions of biopesticide were significantly lower than those recorded in the polypropylene woven sample bag (TPPB0) and in the triple bagged control bag (TPB0) during the storage period. Storage of maize grains in triple bags with the leaves of L. multiflora and H. suaveolens appears as a method of effective and inexpensive conservation to ensure the sanitary quality of maize. This inexpensive and easy-to-use treatment should be popularized among farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization and Nutrient Composition of Melon and Groundnut Soups as Consumed in Cross River State, Nigeria

S. O. Bassey, L. C. Aburime, G. E. Ijokgwung, V. Onabe, M. A. Agiang

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i330194

Aim: The variability in the methods of preparing indigenous foods have led to uncertainty in the nutrient composition, sensory properties and quality of many foods consumed in Nigeria. This study is aimed at standardizing the different methods of preparing melon and groundnut soups and assessing their nutrient compositions as consumed in Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria.

Methodology: Melon (Citrullus vulgaris) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) seeds were purchased in Calabar, CRS, Nigeria in the month of February. Twelve Local Governments Areas (LGA) were randomly selected from the Eighteen LGAs in CRS. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in each of the communities to determine common methods of cooking melon and groundnut soup and variations in recipes. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized and prepared as described. Nutrient compositions were determined using standard laboratory methods. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The least significant difference (LSD) was accepted at P<0.05.

Results: All the soup samples were liked and accepted. For melon soup, method 1 and 2 had better rating and similar values for all the sensory parameters, although, method 1 had better general acceptability score. For groundnut soup, method 1 and 3 had better ratings and similar values for aroma, taste, colour, texture and general acceptability. The range for the proximate compositions were as follows; for melon soup, moisture 68.8- 70.9%; protein 10.1-11 %, fat 9.5-11.2%, ash 2.3-2.7%, dietary fibre 5.5-6%. For the groundnut soup, moisture ranged from 68.6-71.1%, protein 10.1-10.9%, fat 9.4-12.1%, ash 2.2-2.5%, dietary fibre 6-6.8%. 

Conclusion: The standardized methods of preparing these soups will be useful in maintaining quality and quantity for easy reproducibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Effects of Full-Fat Soy Flour as an Extender on Cooked Beef Sausage Quality

Amadi, Allbright Ovuchimeru

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i330195

The effect of full-fat soy flour as an extender on the nutritional composition and sensory properties of cooked beef sausage was investigated. Sausage samples were produced using beef and full-fat soy flour (FFSF) as extender at 5%, 10% and 15% substitution levels while 100% beef sausage served as the control. The proximate, mineral and vitamin composition as well as sensory properties of the formulated sausages were determined using standard methods. Proximate analysis revealed an increase in moisture content (63.66-65.59%), protein (15.87-17.66%) and fat (4.22-6.37%) as beef was partially replaced with FFSF. Ash content also increased but at 15% FFSF, a decrease which was not significantly (p>0.05) different from control sample was observed. Crude fibre content was highest for sausage extended with 15% FFSF (1.03%) while carbohydrate content decreased significantly (11.93-7.25%) on partial replacement with FFSF. Mineral results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in magnesium (9.80-15.34 mg/100 g) and decrease in zinc (0.92-0.79 mg/100 g) as beef was partially replaced with FFSF. Calcium, sodium and phosphorus contents of beef sausages extended with 10% FFSF (18.74 mg/100 g, 52.78 mg/100 g and 95.82 mg/100 g, respectively) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other sausage samples. Vitamin analysis also revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in vitamin A (4.23-5.32µg/100g) while vitamin B3 (0.037-0.033 mg/100 g) and vitamin B1 (0.023-0.013 mg/100 g) decreased as beef was extended with FFSF. Vitamin C content of sausage extended with 10% FFSF (2.76 mg/100 g) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other samples. This same trend was observed for vitamin B2 content of sausage with 15% FFSF (0.034 mg/100 g). FFSF had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the sensory properties of the sausages. Thus, the use of full fat soy flour as an extender for cooked beef sausages is feasible as this will reduce the amount of meat used, thereby reducing the cost of the cooked beef sausage and at same time producing nutritious sausages.