Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition and Microbiological Evaluation of Vended Street Foods in Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Oyet Gogomary Israel, Chibor Bariwere Samuel

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i130181

The presence of microbiological pathogens and proximate composition of vended street foods (VSF) in parts of Lagos State were investigated. The experiment was conducted along 3 local government areas of Lagos State (Marina, Apapa and Yaba) using two factorial design. Eight VSF products investigated were roasted (plantain, fish, yam, corn), suya, meat pie, egg roll and doughnuts, purchased from parts of Lagos State. The result for proximate analysis of VSF sourced from Marina, Yaba and Apapa showed that moisture content ranged from 4.81% to 28.56% for Suya from Yaba and roasted plantain from Apapa. Moisture content of roasted plantain from Apapa was significantly different (P<0.05) and higher than those from Yaba and Marina. Moisture content of roasted plantain, roasted fish, suya, meat pie and doughnut from the three different stations (Marina, Yaba and Apapa) were significantly different (P<0.05) with respect to food type. Ash, fat, protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate content ranged from 1.15% – 4.66%, 0.40% – 24.54%, 0.08 – 54.45%, 0.10 – 6.85% and 47.60 – 88.99%, respectively. Significantly higher protein value of 54.45% was seen in suya from Yaba. Suya samples from Apapa (SMA) gave high crude fibre of 6.85% while significantly (P<0.05) high carbohydrate of 88.99%, 87.85% and 87.51% were seen in roasted yam samples from Marina, Apapa and Yaba. Total bacteria count ranged from 3.05 log10CFU/g as seen in egg roll from Apapa to 3.83 log10CFU/g as noticed in roasted fish from Yaba. Total Fungi count ranged from 2.00 log10CFU/g – 2.60 log10CFU/g. Fungi load in roasted (plantain, fish and yam) sourced from Apapa were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those from Marina and Yaba. The energy value ranged from 255.27kcal/100g to 456.90kcal/100g, with suya sourced from Marina and Yaba were significantly different (P<0.05). The presence of high Bacteria and Fungi load in vended foods requires the attention of public health officers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Nutritious Fish Crackers Developed from Three Carp Fish Species

Nabil Nawrose Baishak, Md. Rashedul Islam, Md. Shakir Moazzem, Iftekhar Ahmad, Wahidu Zzaman

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i130182

Aims: A large number of food industries are focusing their interests recently on the commercial production of fish crackers for their nutritional values and health benefits. The goal of this study was to develop a set of formulae for the preparation of nutritious and tasty fish crackers using three low-value carp fish species namely mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis), Mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosis) and Pangasius (Pangasius hypothalamus). 

Methodology: Six different fish crackers were developed and their proximate analysis, linear expansion, oil absorption, texture hardness, color components were analyzed as per standard established methods. Sensory attributes were carried out by 60 naïve panelists to evaluate their consumers’ acceptance. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows (Version 25). 

Results: The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) of all parameters showed significant differences (at P< 0.05) among the prepared fish crackers with significantly better results (at P< 0.05) for Sample 3. The moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate content of the fish crackers ranged from 2.42±0.05–3.18 ± 0.07%, 1.53±0.66–2.87±0.05%, 12.55±0.11–17.82±0.09%, 19.71±0.14–24.26±0.17% and 28.76±0.12–47.56±1.07%, respectively. The linear expansion, oil absorption and texture hardness of the fish crackers varied from 40.86±0.55–60.99±0.65%, 0.98±0.14–7.12±0.21% and 1208.30±109.08–2011.64±98.06 N/cm2, respectively. The range of Hunter lab color components e.g. lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of the fish crackers were 41.96±0.68­–69.15±0.08, 0.89±0.11–9.09±0.08 and 7.51±0.03–30.88±0.06, respectively. For all of the above-mentioned parameters, significantly better results (at P< 0.05) were observed in Sample 3 than the other samples. The 9-point Hedonic scale rating of the fish crackers rated by 200 naïve panelists revealed a significant difference (at P< 0.05) for Sample 3 than the others crackers in terms of appearance (8.30±0.79), taste (8.53±0.78), crispiness (7.63±0.85), aroma (7.91±1.09) and overall acceptability (8.64±0.72).

Conclusion: Significantly better results (at P< 0.05) were observed for Sample 3, whereas the results of other samples were also acceptable. Findings of this investigation can also be helpful for the commercial production of value-added, nutritious fish crackers from low-value carp fishes like Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, Cirrhinus cirrhosis and Pangasius hypothalamus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration of Basic Quality Attributes of Set Yogurts as Added Sugar and Milk Fat Reduction

Imanthika Dias, Amanda Sajiwanie, Udaya Rathnayaka

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 24-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i130183

Fat and sugar-free is a popular health claim for yogurts. However, eliminating these two components may alter the inherent quality attributes of the product. Knowledge of these alteration patterns is vital in the product development process. Present study was designed using general full factorial design, with two factors (and levels) as milk fat (0%, 1.5%, and 3.3%) and added sugar (0%, 3.5%, and 7%) to investigate individual and combined effects of fat and sugar levels on fermentation kinetics, total solid content, instrumental color values, lactic acid bacterial viability, texture profile, and rheology of set yogurt. Milk fat 3.3% and added sugar 7% yogurt was considered as the control. Results showed that fermentation kinetics not largely influenced by fat levels. Fermentation time not significantly differ with the fat/sugar alteration. Total solid content increase with milk fat and added sugar levels. Whiteness (L*) of the yogurt reduces with milk fat content but not significantly affected by added sugar levels. Yogurt bacteria counts were reduced with added sugar and milk fat levels. Full cream low sugar (3.3%, 3.5%) better texture profile over full cream high sugar (3.3%,7%) yogurts. Texture integrity reduces with the reduction of fat content. The consistency index also increased with fat levels. Both milk fat and added sugar have interaction effects on tested quality parameters. Accordingly, the reduction of added sugar and milk fat is favorably influenced some quality attributes of yogurt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Functionality and Pasting Properties of Orange Flesh Sweet Potato and Red Bambara Groundnut Flour Blends for Snacks Formulation

Obomeghei, Abdulkareem Adamu, Ebabhamiegbebho, Peter Akhere

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i130184

Successful use of non-wheat flours for snacks production depends on their functional and pasting properties. The use of orange fleshed sweet potato and red Bambara groundnut flour blends for snack production have not been explored. The objective of this work was to formulate flour blends using orange fleshed sweet potato and red Bambara groundnut and to evaluate their proximate compositions and processing properties for possible application in the production of high protein and pro-vitamin A enriched  snacks for consumers especially children in developing countries. Flour blends were formulated in ratio 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 (orange fleshed sweet potato to red bambara groundnut). The protein and fat increased from 12.95±0.05% (60:40) to 16.87±0.02% (30:70) and 2.17±0.03% (60:40) to 3.05±0.04% (30:70) respectively. Ash and carbohydrate decreased from 2.52±0.04% (60:40) to 2.27±0.05% (30:70) and 60.38±0.44% (30:70) to 69.09±0.30% (60:40). The water absorption capacities for the flour blends ranged between 28.03±0.17% and 50.40±0.40%. Oil absorption capacity was between 16.70±0.12% and 31.40±0.13%. Swelling capacities was highest in 30:70 (2.48±0.06%) and lowest in 60:40 (2.13±0.07%). Solubility was between 9.27±0.59% and 11.67±0.70%. Bulk density ranged between 0.77±0.01 g/ml and 0.87±0.02 g/ ml. Peak, breakdown, setback and final viscosities increased from 92.88±3.47 to109.34±0.23; 20.33±3.66 to 21.75±1.17; 32.16±0.84 to 44.59±0.25 and 102.71±1.00 to 132.00±1.06 RVU respectively. This study indicate that the 50% sweet potato and 50% red bambara groundnut flour blend will make a better product judging from its functional and pasting properties compared to other blends but will require a little more energy to cook comparing their pasting temperature and time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moisture and Aflatoxin Contents of Kenyan Market Peanuts and Decontamination with Water, Lime and Ultraviolet Radiation Treatments

Joyce W. Wanjiru, Jasper K. Imungi, Lucy G. Njue

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i130185

In the recent past, aflatoxin in peanuts and products has been a subject of controversy in Kenya. In the early 2019, some brands of locally manufactured peanut butter were withdrawn from the market shelves on account of containing aflatoxin higher than the national tolerance. It has been established that Kenyan market peanuts contain high levels of aflatoxin. Roasting is reported to have little effect on the aflatoxin content. This study was designed to assess the effect of specific treatments prior to roasting in reducing the aflatoxin levels to below the tolerance. This would then ensure compliance of the toxin levels in the roasted peanuts and the products with the national tolerance. The treatments included soaking in water, in lime, and UV irradiation. The peanut samples were collected from 20 vendors in the Main Cereal Market in Nairobi and brought to the laboratory of the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). They were analysed for moisture and aflatoxin content. Each sample was subjected to the treatment and reduction was evaluated in aflatoxin to the tolerance. The moisture content of the peanuts varied from 5.2 – 8.4% with mean of 6.5%. Moisture almost complied with the optimum for storage of 8.0%. The total aflatoxin contents varied from 3.3 – 38.5 ppb with mean of 14.8 ppb. Up to 45% samples had aflatoxin above tolerance of 10 ppb.

There was positive and significant (p < 0.01) correlation between aflatoxin levels and moisture content. Treatment of the peanuts with water (cold & warm) and warm lime and irradiation with UV all managed to reduce the aflatoxin contents to below the tolerance, in the order lime>warm water>cold water>UV irradiation. The study concluded that the moisture content of the market peanuts in Kenya, almost complies with recommended optimum for storage the tolerance, but the mean aflatoxin content was well above the tolerance. However, the aflatoxin levels can be lowered effectively by soaking in water, lime, and by irradiation with UV.