Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Resistance of Salmonella spp. in Eggs for Human Consumption

Sharan Sarawgi, Shrey Sarawgi, Jyoti Dubey, Shweta Gupta, Anish Chakraborty, Tamanna Sultana, Arup Kumar Mitra

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i330217

Aim: The present investigation aims to construct a comparative analysis based on isolation, identification and observation of resistance of Salmonella spp. in eggs for human consumption.

Study Design: This is an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in the Microbiology laboratory of Department Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Kolkata (West Bengal, India), from January to March, 2020.

Methodology: In this study, a total of 48 poultry (chicken) eggs from local and super markets (24 samples from each market) were examined to study the diversity of microorganisms in eggshell surface as well as in the internal contents with the specific objective to isolate Salmonella spp. and to study their resistance against a range of antibiotics-  Cefotaxime (30 mcg), Levofloxacin (5 mcg), Aztreonam (30 mcg), Imipenem (10 mcg), Amikacin (30 mcg) and Ceftazidime (30 mcg).

Results: Microscopic and biochemical observations revealed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 68% egg samples. About 22% of the identified Salmonella spp. cultures were resistant to the antibiotics used in the study. Further, the total and the outer membrane proteins of specific isolated Salmonella spp. were isolated, few of which exhibit antibiotic resistance. More than 50% of the cultures exhibited biofilm formation which is a clear indication of the potential risk that it may pose after egg consumption. A 33 kDa and a 36 kDa protein was isolated from the resistant cultures and analysed by SDS-PAGE that could serve as promising vaccine development agents and the level of toxicity was checked on Human Cheek Cells (HCCs), of which 15% caused morphological distortions in the cells.

Conclusion: The study was conducted to isolate, identify and observe the antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. from eggs obtained from local and supermarkets. The study clearly indicates the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. contamination in eggs that may be detrimental for human consumption. Thus, appropriate measures should be adopted by vendors and poultry farm workers to ensure supply of egg samples suitable for human consumption. From the research and development point of view, the results hold a promising prospect to develop potential therapeutics and vaccine candidates against selected Salmonella spp. to reduce the incidence of food-borne infections in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Fresh Fluted Pumpkin Leaves Stored in Evaporative Coolers

A. A. Balogun, C. C. Ariahu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i330218

A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of fresh fluted pumpkin leaves stored in two different types of evaporative coolers- aluminum-cladded burnt-clay-brick evaporative cooler (ABBEC) and non-cladded burnt-clay-brick evaporative cooler (NBBEC) compared with ambient storage as control. The evaporative coolers consisted of double walled rectangular brick construction (1.29×2.55×2.56) m external and (1.13×1.27×2.08) m internal, (length × width × height) with the inter-space filled with riverbed sand saturated with water. Physiological weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, beta carotene, microbial load and organoleptic qualities of the leaves were the parameters determined. Ascorbic acid, beta carotene and titratable acidity decreased while TSS, pH and microbial load increased with storage duration. The shelf life of fluted pumpkin leaves increased to four days in ABBEC from only two days in ambient storage. ABBEC stored leaves retained its freshness better than leaves in NBBEC and ambient storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Ready-to-Bake Whole Grain Barley Cake Mix with Improved Quality

Mokhtar Harb Abd-El- Khalek

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i330219

Due to the busy and fast paced lifestyle in modern times, the demand for healthy and ready-to-cook foods has increased to a great extent. In the present study, ready-to-bake whole grain barley cake mix formulas were developed by the use of different additive (i.e. carboxymethyl cellulose CMC, maltodextrin and emulsifier), and were assessed with the aim of achieving nutritional benefits, shorter preparation times and improved cake quality.  Results showed that incorporation of the aforementioned additives into the dry mix formulations led to the production of cakes with lower fat content and caloric value (up to 7.1%) less than the control cake, with improved physical characteristics such as higher volume and specific volume. Texture profile analysis showed an enhancement in cake textural properties such as lower hardness, springiness and chewiness. Sensory evaluation of test cakes demonstrated a general improvement in sensory attributes like cell structure, crumb grain and softer texture. Flavor of cakes in which 100% of fats was replaced by maltodextrin received significantly lower score. However, and in term of total sensory score, most of the developed cake mix formulas had significantly higher sensory scores than their control counterpart.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Awareness and Preference towards Finger Millet in Sri Lanka

Sooriya Arachchige Sachini Jayawardana, Dineth Suharda Samarawickrama, Jayanetti Koralalage Ramani Radhika Samarasekera, Gardhi Hettiarachchige Chamari Madhu Hettiarachchi, Mahavidanage Jaanaki Gooneratne

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i330220

Aim: This survey was conducted to evaluate Sri Lankans’ awareness and attitudes towards finger millet and preferences towards finger millet-based foods.

Methodology: Pre-tested, self-administrated questionnaires were formulated in the three main languages used in Sri Lanka, namely Sinhala, English and Tamil. The questionnaires consisted of different sections to obtain data on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, health and food related lifestyles, attitudes towards finger millet and preferences towards finger millet-based food products.  Printed and online forms were distributed covering all 25 districts from August to November in 2017 and after excluding incomplete responses 1016 respondents were selected for the study. Data were analyzed using Frequency analysis and Chi-square analysis.

Results: Although the majority of the respondents (57.5%) were aware of the nutritional value of finger millet, a considerable percentage of the respondents have stated that they are not aware of the nutritional value. The majority of the respondents who were suffering from non-communicable diseases rarely added finger millet to their diets. The majority of the respondents (66.6%) liked to consume finger millet regardless of gender, age, educational level and residing district. However, limited availability of finger millet flour incorporated food products in ready-to-eat form has restricted their regular finger millet consumption. Only 33.9% of the respondents were aware of the finger millet flour incorporated food products currently available in the local market. The majority of the respondents wished to purchase finger millet flour incorporated novel ready-to-eat products to increase their finger millet consumption.

Conclusion: The findings evidently indicated the importance of educating the general public on nutritional value and various health benefits of finger millet. Further, the findings revealed the necessity of effective advertising and promoting approaches for the finger millet flour incorporated products currently available in the local market and reflected market opportunities for novel finger millet flour incorporated ready-to-eat products.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of Nutrition in Infancy: A Review

Rama Maurya, Renu Mogra, Sandeep K. Mauriya

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 45-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i330221

Nutrition has been linked to positive child development and nutritional status. In this review paper we briefly describe the role of exclusive breastfeeding and its importance in the brain development of infants. Breastfeeding has important for the development of central nervous system in infants First, six months of Breastfeeding is essential for the newborn child for improving the immune system of a newborn. Breastfeeding serves significant health benefits for the infant, promotes mother-infant bonding so Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for around six months. Then we briefly describe the role of Complementary feeding, its importance in the physical development of the child in earlier life. This is also termed as ‘weaning food’, which has been used to describe the curtailment of breastfeeding. Complementary feeding entails the addition of solid foods to the diet, alongside, without replacement for the milk component. Apart from nutrition and feeding practices, certain other rearing practices also influence the health of infants and are widely prevalent among families or communities. Familiarity with rearing practices is of considerable significance to the promotion of infant health. The review also focuses on good nutrition for breastfeeding women, who have additional nutritional requirements. Breastfeeding mothers have increased energy needs and typically require additional energy intake. Apart from the energy the additional intake of good fat and vitamin C and minerals essential fatty acids etc. requirements are increases.