Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Blend Formulation on Quality Characteristics of Mordum (A Nigerian Multi-Grain Breakfast Cereal) Fortified with Grain Legume or Powdered Milk

Agbara Ikechukwu Gervase, Goni Kachalla Fatima, Abba Zanna Rukayya, Bulama Usman Halima

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230210

In this present study, mordum a millet-rice based Nigerian breakfast meal was produced from blends consisted of rice, millet or rice, maize, each fortified with cowpea, soybean or powdered milk(cereal1:cereal2:legume/milk or cereal2:cereal1:llegume/milk) in the ratios of 50:30:20 or 30:50:20. Nine spiced multigrain blends were produced and subjected to physicochemical and sensory evaluations. Percentage retentions on sieves revealed that the main mass fraction of the blends was 224-300 µm, however blends containing powdered milk were finer. Solubility (4.85-8.95%) and swelling power (2.71-3.27%) of the blends were generally low while water absorption capacity (159%-221%) and bulk density (0.7895-0.9181 g/ml) were moderately high. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate varied significantly (p<0.05): 5.03-10.30%, 10.46-20.15%, 7.01-12.08%, 2.45-4.20%, 1.52-3.38%, and 52.57-68.50% respectively. In order of dominance, the mineral elements were (mg/100g): 226.08-356.68 K, 220.69-360.34 Ca, 13.32-40.00 Mg, 5.34-9.21 P, 3.67-8.14 Fe, and 3.32-8.34 Zn. Bacterial and fungal populations of the blends were satisfactorily low, less than104cfu/g and 103cfu/g respectively, perhaps due to relatively low moisture contents of the blends. The overall sensory attributes of the gruel containing milk and maize were the best. Although the nutritive value of the blends were generally enhanced, however the study concluded by recommending commercial production of ready-to-cook blends containing rice and maize and fortified with either soybean or milk for improved nutritional status of the mordum consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Biscuits from Mixture of Tiger Nut Flour, Milk Permeate and Soft Wheat Flour

Moustafa El- Shenawy, Ahmed M. S. Hussien, Mohamed Tawfeek Fouad

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230212

This study was carried out to use mixture of permeate and germinated tiger nut flour(GTNF), soft wheat flour(SWF) for production and evaluation of biscuit product. Biscuits made of 100% SWF and permeate was also prepared for comparison. Chemical composition, mixolab parameters, color attributes, baking quality, and sensory properties of biscuits were studied. GTNF was added to SWF at 10,20 and 30% level. Results revealed that GTNF characterized with its higher fiber (5.41%), fat (27.85%) and ash (3.24%).Therefore, increasing mixing level of GTNF with SWF led to increase the nutritional value of biscuits. Mixolab parameters showed that water absorption and dough stability was increased as the percentage of GTNF in SWF increase. Baking quality of biscuits showed that all biscuit samples from mixing GTNF with SWF had lower volume and specific volume than control. Results also showed that Hunter color parameters (L*, a* & b*) of biscuits were darker as mixing level of GTNF increased. This result was confirmed with the obtained sensorial results. Also, the bacteriological parameters were within the permissible bacterial limits, adopted by the Egyptian Standers, until 3-6 months of storage. Moreover, sensory evaluation of biscuits indicated that all treatments were acceptable, moreover mixture contained GTNF had superior nutritional value and could be suitable for child nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Antioxidant Quality of Breakfast Cereal Extruded from Maize Grits, Partially Defatted Peanut and Beetroot Flour Blend

I. A. Akor, T. M. Ukeyima, B. Kyenge, P. Ochele

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230213

The mineral, essential and non essential amino acids contents and the antioxidant capacity of extruded breakfast cereal from maize grits, partially defatted peanut and beetroot flour blends was investigated. Composite flour blends were prepared from maize, peanuts and beetroot flour in the following proportion A= (100% Maize flour as control), B= (90:0:10), C= (90:10:0), D= (80:10:10), E= (70:20:10), F= (60:30:10), and G= (50:40:10). There was significant difference in the mineral composition of composite flour blends, the values ranged from 6.05-62.32 mg/g, 0.83-4.53 mg/g, 1.03-3.14 mg/g, 163.81-640.03 mg/g for calcium, iron, zinc, potassium respectively. The esstenial amino acids values of the four blends for isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, alanine, threonine, tryptohan and valine ranged from 0.24-1.25, 0.04-1.08, 0.08-0.40, 0.13-0.49, 0.28-0.48, 0.22-0.44, 0.4-0.24 and 0.30-0.69 respectively. There was increase in antioxidant capacity of the sample with beetroot and peanut inclusion. The 2.2 diphenyl 1-1 picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ranged from 4.03-16.83 while the ferric reducing antioxidant power ranged from 15.65-45.53 MgGAE/Mol with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was from 10.21-37.01 mmol trolox/Mol and the total phenohic sontent 5.01-22.01 MgGAE/g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Properties of Fresh and Boiled Solanum torvum Consumed in East of Côte d’Ivoire

Kouakou Kouadio, Kouassi Martial-Didier Adingra, Martin Kouadio, William Kwithony Disseka, Oscar Jaures Gbotognon, Eugène Jean Parfait Kouadio

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230214

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and anti-nutritional factors composition of the Solanum torvum fruit.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing laboratory of Nangui Abrogoua University (Côte d’Ivoire), between June 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: Proximate composition, mineral element profile and phytochemical composition of fresh and boiled S torvum berries were investigated. The S torvum fruit were harvested fresh. One part was cooked in boiling water for 25 min while the other part did not undergo any treatment. These two samples were dried in an oven at 45°C for 72 hours, ground and analyzed according to official analytical method.

Results: The results indicated that the boiling caused the loss of nutrients except moisture, fibers and lipids. It was noted a significant reduction of nutrient and anti-nutrients content of berries after boiling. Boiled berries showed a higher energy value (57.07 Kcal) than fresh ones (53.12 Kcal). Despite the boiling, S torvum berries showed high levels of polyphenols (142.54 mg GAE/100g DW (dry weight)), carotenoids (12.96 mg βCE/100g DW), vitamin C (12.03 mg/100 g FW), fibers (6.88%) and ash (7.23%). Minerals analysis of S torvum berries indicated that it is rich in potassium (2046.77 mg/100 g DW), calcium (340.92 mg/100g DW), phosphorus (238.71 mg/100g DW) and magnesium (234.97 mg/100g DW) with high predicted bioavailability for calcium, magnesium and zinc. S torvum fruit contains also iron (7.97 mg/100g DW) and zinc (8.10 mg/100g DW) which are essential for organism.

Conclusion: These data indicated that this Solanum torvum fruit consumed in East of Côte d’Ivoire could constitute a potential good source of nutrients for local population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Cookies Produced by Partial Substitution of Margarine with Avocado (Persia americana) Pulp

P. A. Adie, D. E. Enenche, T. M. Atsen, C. O. Ikese

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v18i230216

The production and determination of the nutritional properties of cookies produced by partial substitution of margarine with avocado pear pulp was studied. Well cleaned avocado pear was blended into paste and used to substitute margarine in the prepared cookies. The ratio of avocado pear pulp substituted was 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The substituted products and the control (100% margarine) were subjected to physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The results of the proximate analysis showed that the protein content ranged from 6.93% -7.83% with sample A having the highest protein content and fat content. Moisture content and ash content of samples were seen to be higher in sample E (50:50 ratio). Sample A had the least value of moisture, ash and crude fibre with moisture content of 11.13%, ash content of 1.40% and crude fibre value of 0.29%, while sample E  recorded the least value of crude fat  (16.00%). The carbohydrate content was recorded to be higher in sample C. The physical properties showed that cookies made with higher avocado pear pulp had less thickness compared to the control cookies. The sensory evaluation results showed that sample A had the highest values of 8.05%, 7.85% and 7.95% for appearance, taste and aroma respectively while sample E (50:50 ratio) had the least values in crunchiness, taste and aroma. The overall acceptability of the results showed that sample A recorded the highest value but not significantly different (p<0.05) from sample B (80:20 margarine avocado). The research concluded that the partial substitution of avocado improved the nutritional value of the cookies by lowering the saturated fat content.