Open Access Original Research Article

Pectin Strength of Common Varieties of Plantain Peels Used in the Production of Jam/Marmalade

O. M. Akusu, B. S. Chibor

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i330238

The pectin strength of peels from four plantain cultivars; Horn Plantain (sample B), French Plantain (sample C), False horn Plantain (sample D), and French Horn Plantain (sample E) and its effect on Jam and Marmalade produced was investigated. Pectin was extracted from the plantain peels with distilled water and EDTA at pH 4.3 and 60°C, precipitated with acidified ethyl alcohol and 0.5N HCl. The pectin strength of peels from the French plantain (sample B) was higher than the others. Peels from False horn and French horn plantain both had medium pectin strength. Jam and marmalade produced were evaluated for proximate composition, chemical properties and acceptability. Jam and Marmalade from sample C were high in moisture content with mean values of 43.19 and 41.33%, respectively. Sample E (in both variants) had significant high crude protein (0.33%) compared to all other samples. Marmalade samples had crude fiber values ranging from 0.75% for sample B to 2.25% for sample E. The ash and carbohydrate content of jam and marmalade produced with pectin from French Plantain, False Horn Plantain and French Horn Plantain were significantly higher than the commercial jam and marmalade. Crude fat ranged from 0.45 to 1.15% for both variants (jam and marmalade). They both recorded low protein contents ranging from 0.14 to 0.32% and 0.16 to 0.33% respectively but high carbohydrate content ranging from 50.97 to 67.48% and 52.29 to 69.41% respectively. pH content maintains 3.0-3.10% for all samples. Total sugar content ranged from 55.00 to 63.80% for both Jam and Marmalade. Sample C was most preferred in terms of colour, taste, aroma, appearance, spreadability and overall acceptability, for Jam and Marmalade. All its sensory attributes were compared favorably with the commercial brands. Pectin extracted from plantain peel is strongly recommended for use as gelling agent in Jam and Marmalade production.

Open Access Original Research Article

In the olden days, there was no refrigeration for meat preservation and sausage making was a way to solve this problem. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat which could not be consumed immediately after slaughter. This study evaluated the effect of replacement levels of wheat flour on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities of smoke-dried sausage. Beef, wheat flour, sodium chloride, seasonings (Table 1) were bought, pre-processing operations were carried out. Sausage was processed by adding wheat flour, seasonings, salt to minced meat at different replacement levels (5%, 10% and 15%) with 0% as control and later smoke-dried. Sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties were determined. Data generated were analyzed. The results from sensory evaluation showed that Product A had the highest response (5.00) to sausage colour. Product A (5.00), B (5.00) and C (4.90) had the highest response for product juiciness. Product A (5.00) and product B (5.00) had better response to taste. For overall acceptability, Product A (5.00) was not different from other products. The addition of wheat flour resulted in higher and greater elasticity and increased acceptability due to higher scores for texture and colour. The protein content showed that Product D (56.33%) had the lowest value, followed by Product B (58.23%), next was Product C (59.57%), and the highest was observed in Product A (60.42%). Product C had the highest value for potassium and phosphorus (122.0 mg/100g and 13.40 mg/100g). Product B and C had the same value (6.17) for pH, next was product A (6.13), the least pH was observed in Product D (6.07). Sausage manufacture is a means of adding value to off-cuts and thereby increasing the utilization of meat. The incorporation of 10% wheat flour to sausage is highly nutritive with better sensory qualities and better economic value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Substrates and Mother Cultures on Yield and Yield Attributes of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

M. Mubasshira, F. M. Aminuzzaman, N. Sultana, J. F. Tanni

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i330241

Aim: This study was aimed to compare the performance of different substrates and mother culture materials on yield and yield parameters of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).

Study Design: This is an experimental study following Complete Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted in the Laboratory, Department of  Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka and Mushroom Development Institute, Savar, Dhaka from January 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: Accordingly, three substrates (sawdust, rice straw, sawdust + rice straw (1:1)) and three mother cultures (rice, maize, sawdust) were used in oyster mushroom cultivation.

Results: Among the substrates and mother culture components, using rice straw and sawdust mother spawn, the maximum length of stipe was recorded (23.27 mm and 24.29 mm, respectively). Applying sawdust + rice straw (1:1) and maize mother spawn, the peak diameter of stipe was calculated (9.90 mm and 10.01 mm, respectively). The maximal diameter of pileus was observed in sawdust + rice straw (1:1) and rice mother spawn (72.90 mm and 67.57mm, respectively). With the application of rice straw and maize mother spawn, thickest pileus was viewed (5.60 mm and 5.47mm respectively). The sawdust and sawdust mother spawn delivered peak number of fruiting body (6.67 and 7.33, respectively). Among the substrates, rice straw gave the highest biological yield (44.40 g/packet) and sawdust gave the lowest (41.73 g/packet). Among the mother spawn, sawdust mother spawn presented the highest biological yield (45.47 g/packet) and maize mother spawn gave the lowest (39.16 g/packet). In the comparison of  combined effect of substrates and mother spawn, sawdust mother spawn performed best in the biological yield (50.80 g/packet) with rice straw as substrate material and maize mother spawn showed comparatively lower biological yield (37.60 g/packet) with both sawdust and rice straw as substrate material.

Conclusion: Rice straw and sawdust mother spawn can be recommended for its suitability in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

The quality and safety aspects of two commercially important species Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Harpodon nehereus were evaluated on this study by examining organoleptic properties, proximate composition, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) and tri methyl amine-nitrogen (TMA-N) contents of the samples. Both the species showed excellent sensory quality with the defect point 1.57 and 1.4 for M. rosenbergii and H. nehereus, respectively. The moisture content of M. rosenbergii and H. nehereus were 80.89±0.23% and 78.56±0.39%; the protein content were 11.76±0.3% and 13.74±0.04%; the lipid content were 2.15±0.007% and 1.89±0.34% and the ash content were 1.24±0.35% and 1.97±0.31% respectively. The TVB-N and TMA-N was found 19.3±0.45 mg/100 g and 3.19±0 mg/100g for M. rosenbergii and 22.37±0.15 mg/100g and 2.09±0.04 mg/100 g for H. nehereus respectively. The result showed the nutritional composition and quality attributes of these two species.

Open Access Review Article

Comparative Study of Chemical Composition of Three Different Eggplant Fruit Species

Amadi Benjamin, Kanu Winner, Nwadike Constance, Ezekwe Ahamefula, Eboagwu Ijeoma, Onyeabo Chimaraoke, Onuoha Nchekwube

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i330239

Chemical composition of three different eggplant fruit species was studied using standard methods. Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum melongena and Solanum macrocarpon fruit species were used as samples. Results obtained showed high moisture, phytate and oxalate contents in the investigated fruit species. Vitamin concentrations of the investigated fruits ranged from high to low. One or two of the investigated fruits possessed a higher amount of the chemical compounds than others. This study has shown the comparative study of the chemical composition of three different eggplant fruit species.