Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Characteristics and Mineral Composition of Bread Produced from Blends of Wheat and Defatted/Undefatted Cashew Kernel Flours

Barber, Lucretia Ifeoma, Emelike, Nkechi Juliet T., Deebom Maureen Dumlebabari

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230259

The present study was aimed at assessing the physical characteristics and mineral composition of breads produced from blends of wheat-defatted/undefatted cashew kernel flours. Cashew kernel was processed into flour and thereafter divided into two portions. One portion was left undefatted while the other portion was defatted using a hydraulic press. Bread was prepared from the blends of wheat and defatted/undefatted cashew kernel flours using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, of wheat flour to defatted cashew kernel flour (DCF) and wheat flour to undefatted cashew kernel flour (UCF), respectively and 100% wheat flour as control. Mineral composition and physical characteristics of the composite breads was determined using standard methods. The study revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the calcium (12.21-24.60 mg/100 g), iron (1.08-5.13 mg/100 g), potassium (4.13-19.63 mg/100 g), sodium (0.27-0.55 mg/100 g), zinc (0.05-2.25 mg/100 g) and magnesium (4.29-23.72mg/100g) contents as the proportion of defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flour increased. Defatting resulted to a significantly (p<0.05) higher increase in the mineral contents of the bread samples. Physical characteristics of the composite bread showed a decrease in the height (8.00-5.20 cm), length (12.30-11.25 cm), width (8.00-7.45 cm), loaf volume (682.50-505.00 cm3) and specific volume (2.62-2.08 g/cm3) as amounts of defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flour substitution increased. Weight of the bread increased as substitution with 10% defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flour. Beyond the 10% level, a decrease in bread weight was observed. The findings of the present study therefore showed that wheat flour bread supplemented with 10% UCF cashew kernel flour produced bread of higher mineral content than 100% wheat flour bread and this level of UCF substitution did not have adverse effect on the bread’s physical characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Wax Coating on Post Harvest Quality Parameters and Sensory Characteristics of Oranges

Victor C. Wabali, Winifred C. Chukwu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230260

Various wax preservatives (Aloe vera gel, polyethene film, Candle wax, and Control) were evaluated to determine their effect on sensory characteristics (color, texture, and overall acceptability) of sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) preserved at ambient temperature for 21 days. The goal of this study is to extend the shelf life of harvested oranges by the application of Aloe Vera wax, paraffin wax and polyethylene film to evaluate the treatment that will enhance physico-chemical parameters as well sensory characteristics. Other parameters examined were weight loss, pH, Total sugar (brix), Total solid, ash, moisture and vitamin C content. Results indicated that weight loss was observed across samples, however the weight loss was least with Aloe vera coated oranges which showed a significantly higher weight value (170.57 gm) after 3 weeks of storage. Sensory profile results showed that Aloe vera coated oranges had higher color and overall acceptability scores of 6.65 and 7.20 respectively. Also, the aloes vera coated oranges showed higher vitamin C content (24.15 mg/100 ml), indicating that oranges coated with Aloe vera gel prevented the deterioration of vitamin C during the period of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interactions between Cocoa Husk Catechin and Casein Micelles and their Impact on Physico-chemical Properties

Premy Puspitawati Rahayu, Abdul Manab, Manik Eirry Sawitri, Ria Dewi Andriani, Mulia Winirsya Apriliyani, Imam Thohari

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230261

Aims: The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of physicochemical properties of interaction casein with different concentration catechin sources of the cocoa husk.

Study design: Casein was added catechin with various concentration treatments (0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 (μg/ml)).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between April until August 2020 at the Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Brawijaya.

Methodology: Casein was added catechin with various concentration treatments (0, 20, 40 and 60 (μg/ml)). An analysis is carried out to determine interaction using UV-Vis detection, chemical structure using Fourier Transform Infra-Red, microscopy analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy, particle size by Zetasizer Nano Series Software Version 7.01, Malvern Instrument and electrophoretic analysis.

Results: The interaction between casein and catechin was investigated by the method of UV-Vis detection and chemical structure analysis by Fourier Transform Infra-Red showed that it was indicated that catechin could detected in casein. It is similar with recent research. The interaction of casein and catechin showed to decrease the particle size and showed on microscopy analysis. Protein profile showed to increase the molecular weight with the addition of catechin, it can be indicated that presence interaction both on casein with catechin.

Conclusion: Casein interacted with catechins 60 µg/ml was able to increase casein stability, maintain nano size, casein components were still detected in the protein profile, the resulting microstructure looked compact and functional groups of bioactive compounds were still detected using Fourier Transform Infra-Red.

Open Access Original Research Article

This article investigated the bioaccumulation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and selected heavy metals in the tissue of selected fishes’ species from a stream near a petroleum processing plant in Rivers State, Nigeria. The concentration of TPH and Ni, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr and Co in the fish species’ tissue were measured using standard methods. The TPH concentrations in the fish species were generally high (1.97 to 52.84 mg/kg), greater than the European Union threshold limit of 2μg/kg. Gobius sp and Periophthalmus sp recorded the highest TPH content: 52.84 mg/kg and 28.07mg/kg levelsrespectively. Tilapia sp and Sardinella sp recorded the least and highest concentration of Manganese (0.61 mg/kg and 5.90 mg/kg respectively). The levels of Fe content in the fish tissue were higher than all other metals: 8.27 mg/kg in Gobiussp to 129.7 mg/kg in Sardinella sp. Zn: 4.39 mg/kg in Mugilidae to 11.84 mg/kg in Gobius sp while Co:<0.02 mg/kg in Tilapia sp and 1.51mg/kg in Calinectis sp. The concentrations of Cd:0.24 mg/kg in Pomadasys sp to 0.56 mg/kg in Gobius sp. These values are relatively high because of the metal’s high toxic response factor of 30. The levels of Pb:<0.03 mg/kg in Tilapia sp and Carangidae to 2.69 mg/kg in Calinectis sp. Gobius sp recorded the highest level (3.36 mg/kg) of Ni.  The concentrations of Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni in consumable fish are of great concern because of their high toxic response factors. These results implied that the petroleum processing activities (legal and illegal) are negatively impacting aquatic habitats/ food chains. This calls for caution in the consumption of the fish from this area, the audit of the legal petroleum processing facilities and stoppage of the illegal operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Biochemical Composition of Some Cultivable Cichlids (Tilapia Species) in Nigeria

Adunola Abosede Bello, Oluwafunmike Blessing Adepoju, Oluwasola Toluwalope Moradeyo, Olayinka Josephine Okuneye, Oluwafemi Akinsola Omole

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230263

The biochemical composition of three cultured cichlids (Tilapia zilli, Tilapia guineensis and Orechromis aureus) were evaluated and compared.  The proximate composition of the cichlids was determined using official methods of analysis, mineral composition was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the amino acid composition was analyzed using Amino Acid Analyzer. The proximate composition of the three cultured species of tilapia fish (T. zilli, T. guineensis and O. aureus) indicated that moisture content, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the three species while crude protein and carbohydrate content showed no significant difference (p<0.05) among the three species. The mineral contents such as zinc, magnesium and manganese showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the three species of tilapia (T. zilli, T. guineensis and O. aureus) while sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus and copper contents showed no significant difference (p<0.05) among the three species. The amino acid composition showed lysine as the most abundant amino acids present in all the cultured cichlids studied. This shows that these cultured cichlids are highly nutritious and would be of great value to consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Indian Traditional Sweet ‘Laddoo’ Supplemented with Germinated Pumpkin Seed Flour

Neeta Kumari, Sangeeta C. Sindhu, Varsha Rani, Varsha Kumari

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230266

Aim: The study was planned to evaluate Indian traditional sweet ‘Laddoo’ supplemented with germinated pumpkin seed flour.

Study Design: The traditional recipe was supplemented by replacing the whole wheat flour and bengalgram flour with 10, 20 and 30% of germinated pumpkin seed flour. The developed products were subjected to organoleptic and nutritional evaluation. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried in Department of Foods & Nutrition and was part of doctoral research work carried out between 2017-19.

Methodology:  Sensory evaluation of developed products was carried out using 9-point hedonic scale.  The samples were further analysed for moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and crude fiber, total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, total and available minerals using standard methods.

Results: The supplementation resulted in a significant (P≤0.05) increase in ash, crude fat, crude protein and crude fiber while total carbohydrates decreased. The supplemented product had crude protein ranging from 19.39-25.59 g; crude fibre 2.21 -3.24 g and ash 5.70-8.19 g/100 g at different levels of incorporation as against 16.53, 1,64 and 3.66 g/100 g respectively in control product. Significant increase was observed in mineral content also. The supplemented products had calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium and phosphorus ranging from 63.47-95.46, 132.63-133.58, 3.58-7.51, 6.49-11.33, 639.53-884.34 and 343.32-356.63 mg/100 g on dry matter basis. The developed products were acceptable to judges.

Conclusion: Incorporation of germinated pumpkin seed flour significantly (P≤0.05) improved the nutrient and mineral profile of whole wheat flour Bengal flour Laddoo. Such developed products can be very useful in combating the macronutrient and micronutrients deficiency problem in population of all age groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Fermented Milk with the Addition of Gembili (Dioscorea esculenta) Flour

Ria Dewi Andriani, Premy Puspitawati Rahayu, Mulia Winirsya Apriliyani, Abdul Manab, Manik Eirry Sawitri, . Purwadi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 56-65
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230267

Aims: Objective of this study was to determine the effect of addition gembili (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on the fermented milk was then evaluate the characteristics of fermented milk by analysis of pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, total phenolic content, crude fiber, sugar total, and total lactic acid bacteria.

Study Design: This study employs a completely randomized design with five treatments adding gembili flour and three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Animal Product Technology Laboratory, Animal Product Technology Department, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Brawijaya, between April-October 2020.

Methodology: Fermented milk is prepared by pasteurizing of skim milk and gembili flour. The concentration of gembili flour added were (0 (P1); 0.5% (P2); 1% (P3); 1.5% (P4); 2% (P5). Furthermore, the characteristics of fermented milk is carried out including pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, total phenolic content, crude fiber, sugar total, and total lactic acid bacteria of fermented milk using combination of three bacteria namely, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophillus, and Streptococcus thermophilus as a starter culture.

Results: The results in this study revealed that the pH value ranged from 3.5-4.3; titratable acidity 1.98-2.35%; viscosity 849-1856 cps; sugar total 2.8-4.11 g/100g; total lactic acid bacteria 3.05 x 107 - 3.21 x 108 cfu/ml respectively. Total phenolic content and crude fiber in P1 was not detected, but in P2-P5 had total phenolic and crude fiber ranging from 108,58 – 670,75 mg/kg and 0.57-2.16 g/100 g, respectively.

Conclusion: The addition of gembili flour to the fermented milk contributes to the quality of fermented milk product which include pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, total phenolic content, crude fiber, sugar total, and total lactic acid bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Antioxidant and In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Citrus Maxima Leaf Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Swiss Albino Diabetic Mice

Ariful Islam, Most. Naoshia Tasnin, Md. Wasim Bari, Md. Ismail Hossain, Mohammad Amirul Islam

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 66-79
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230270

Aims: The current study aimed to explore in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo antidiabetic property of Citrus maxima leaf.

Methods: Citrus maxima leaf extracts were prepared using methanol (MECML) and ethanol (EECML) in this study. Antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated using total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and ABTS free radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity of MECML and EECML was assessed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. To explore the in vivo antidiabetic property of MECML and EECML, diabetic mellitus (DM) was induced in Swiss albino mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Then diabetic mice were treated with both extracts for 28 days. Effects of both extracts on serum levels of glucose, liver function enzymes, and parameters of lipid profile associated with DM were evaluated.

Results: In TAC and FRAP assays, MECML and EECML represented gradually increased reducing capacity in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH and ABTS assays, both extracts showed notable free radical scavenging activity with lower IC50 values. Additionally, MECML and EECML showed very low toxicity with LC50 values of 80.46 and 105.59 μg/mL, respectively in brine shrimp lethality assay. Moreover, both extracts significantly augmented altered levels of serum glucose, parameters of lipid profile, SGPT, SGOT, and C-reactive protein with the treatment of MECML and EECML. 

Conclusion: This study suggests Citrus maxima leaf possesses significant antioxidant and antidiabetic properties and they might play a potential role to prevent diabetic mellitus and diabetic mellitus associated complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Effects on Physicochemical Compositions, Microbial Load and Heavy Metal Content of Retailed Cut Fruits in NsukkaMain Market Enugu, Nigeria

Obeta, Nwamaka Alexandra, Ugwuona, Fabian Uchenna, Uchegbu, Nneka Nkechi, Oguamanam, Chinenye Sybil

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230271

The study evaluated the environmental effects on physico-chemical compositions, microbial load and heavy metal content of cut fruits retailed in Nsukka main market. Whole fruits were procured from fruit vendors in the market. They were washed, peeled (except watermelon) and divided into three portions each and designated as PA0, PA4, PA8; PP0, PP4, PP8 and WM0, WM4, WM8 for pineapple, pawpaw and watermelon collected at 0,4,8 hours respectively. A portion from each fruit was picked at three different times (8 am, 12 noon and 4 pm designated as 0, 4, 8 hour) and were analyzed for physicochemical (proximate, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix value, vitamin content) properties, microbial (total viable, mold and coliform count) load and heavy metal (lead, cadmium and nickel) content. The proximate analysis showed that all the fruit collected at 8 am had the highest moisture content (78.83% - 93.29 %) and gradually decreased at 12 noon and 4 pm. There were significant (p<0.05) differences only in carbohydrate 25023.content and energy value for proximate parameters. The pH, brix and vitamins all showed significant differences in all fruits and at different collection time. The pH for pawpaw and watermelon increased with increase in exposure time while °Brix value and vitamins significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Microbial analysis indicated the presence of microbes in all fruits with total viable count range of 0.83× 103 – 2.9 × 103 CFU/g. The result of cadmium and nickel detected ranged from 0.015 – 0.08 mg/kg and 0.103 – 0.82 mg/kg respectively. This study showed that cutting and exposing of fruits affected their proximate, pH, °Brix value, vitamins, microbial load and heavy metal accumulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactivity of Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonaris) Extract on Some Food Pathogens

Victor C. Wabali, Victoria O. Ekpo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i230272

The interest in discovering and developing natural antimicrobial has significantly increased due to consumer preferences for food that are free of chemical preservatives while still microbiologically safe. One of the best sourced natural antimicrobials is certain mushrooms as many of them not only have nutraceutical functions but also possess antimicrobial properties. For this work, matured mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonaris) was harvested, clean, dried, and milled into powder. Bioactive extracts were done in ratios of 25 g +200 ml, 50 g + 200 ml, and 100 g + 200 ml both for water and ethanol extracts. The treatments were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to water extract of mushroom at the concentrations used. Ethanol extracts showed that sample C containing 50 g of milled mushroom compounds had the highest diameter of inhibitory zone of 1.8 cm for Escherichia coli and 1.3 cm for Staphylococcus aureus. Results also indicated samples B and D were not significantly different from each other though there were microbial inhibitions. This report concludes that further study should be carried out to determine the effective of the extract on field crops and stored produce.