Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Retail Kola Nuts in Ibadan Metropolis

O. O. Akande, O. O. Kolawole, A. A. Afolabi, S. A. Okewole, L. O. Oyekunle

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730315

Aim: This study was designed to determine Aflatoxins present in kola nuts sold in Ibadan metropolis.

Study design: Kola nuts were randomly purchased from different markets in Ibadan, Oyo State.

Methodology: Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometric method were used for the determination of aflatoxins in the kola nuts samples.

Results: All the samples collected were contaminated with aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were present in the kola nuts samples ranging from 9.73 - 25.43 μg/kg and 10.90 - 29.67 μg/kg respectively.

Conclusion: The levels of aflatoxins in the sampled kola nuts were mostly above recommended tolerable limits. It is imperative to enlighten stakeholders on possible ways of handling kola nuts towards reducing the aflatoxin incidences to the barest minimum in order to safeguard the health of the populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inherent Microorganisms Affects the Quality of a Nigerian Fermented Beverage “Agadagidi” During Production

K. J. Mogaji, D. J. Arotupin, O. Mogaji, A. O. Arogunjo, O. B. AJayi-Moses, I. M. Akinwunmi, P. O. Gabriel, E. S. Orekoya, O. L. Olajesu, H. J. Adeleye, J. O. Aribisala

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 6-17
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730316

This research produced wine from unripe plantain fruits using spontaneous fermentation method. The period of production was five days. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify microorganisms associated with unripe plantain fruits, determine the physicochemical parameters of the fermenting medium. Microbial count, foaming density, alcohol content, enzymes assay, sensory analysis, physicochemical properties, mineral content, antioxidants properties, and antinutrient content of the sample were investigated every 24 h for 5 days. A total of seven bacteria and four fungi consisting of yeasts and moulds were isolated during the study. The microbial loads of bacteria and fungi of the unfermented plantain fruits were 8.0 × 106 ± 0.01 cfu/mL and 14.2 × 104 ± 0.01 sfu/mL respectively. The temperature (ºC), pH and titratable acidity (%) ranged from 25.55-32.50, 4.51-5.50 and 0.99-3.50 respectively. The sample was observed to be colourless all through the fermentation periods. Turbidity of the samples increased during fermentation from 43.50 to 111.00. The data obtained from this work has shown the importance of unripe plantain micro-flora in the production of “Agadagidi”. It is also concluded that consortium of microorganisms inherent within the plantain fruits are involved in plantain fruits fermentation. This information can contribute to a better understanding of the “Agadagidi” production process for a consistent quality beverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Composition of Two Zinziberaceae: Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

Ekissi Alice Christine, Dago Gnahé André, Kouame Kan Benjamin, Beugre Grah Avit Maxwell, Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730317

The objective of this work is to analyze the biochemical parameters of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma Longa (turmeric) found in the locality of Daloa. The samples were purchased in the markets of Daloa. The dry matter, ash and lipid contents were determined by the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method. Those of proteins, total sugars, reducing sugars were carried out respectively by the methods of Kjeldahl, Bernfeld and Dubois. A phytochemical study was done by Evans method. The contents of total flavonoids and total polyphenols were determined respectively according to the methods of Wood and Marinova. It emerges from the analyzes that the contents of dry matter (27.66 ± 0.06%), total sugars (31.25 ± 0.6 mg / g) and fibers (8.21 ± 0.01%) are higher in ginger than in turmeric. The lipid contents of the two species are less than 8%. The results also reveal the presence of tannins, saponins, polyphenols, alkaloids and flavonoids. Ginger has a high content of total polyphenols (53.55 ± 0.45 mg EAG / g) than turmeric (35.25 ± 0.52 mg EAG / g). However, the flavonoid values ​​are high in turmeric (92.52 ± 0.54 µg EQ / g) than ginger (86.27 ± 0.62 µg EQ / g). Both turmeric have revealed that ginger and turmeric are low in fat, reducing sugars, and high in fiber and polyphenols. Both rhizomes have the same protein content. The presence of secondary metabolites in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric justifies the therapeutic importance of these two plants, hence the importance of consuming them to take full advantage of the beneficial effects of its active ingredients. However, the compounds vary from species to species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Organoleptic Assessment of Asian Stinging Catfish (Heteropnuestes fossilis) in Two Storage Conditions

Umme Salma, Sharmin Suraiya, Lilatul Isra, Monjurul Haq

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730318

The proximate composition, rigor-index, organoleptic quality, and pH of Asian stinging catfish stored at iced condition (SIC) and stored at ambient temperature (SAT) were studied. Rigor mortis for both ice and ambient temperature started immediately after death and the rigor-index was maximum 82.35 % and 63.42% at 4 hrs and 8 hrs storage in SIC and SAT, respectively. Fish SIC showed a remarkably extended maximum rigor-index period of 14 hrs and 2 hrs in fish SIC and SAT, respectively. Fish SIC showed post-rigor period for upto 30 hrs, it was shorter in fish SAT for 18 hrs, though in both storage the rigor-index of the fish did not ceased completely. The moisture, protein, lipid, and ash content of fresh, SIC and SAT fish were 77.30%, 75.57%, and 78.81%, 15.04%, 15.34%, and 14.42%, 6.10%, 6.30%, and 3.47%, 1.99%, 2.67%, and 2.95%, respectively. The initial pH of fresh fish muscle was 6.89 which decreased to 6.32 and 6.12 after 18 hrs in fish SIC and SAT, respectively. The organoleptic quality assessment was in acceptable condition up to 12 days in fish SIC whereas a very short period of 10 hrs at fish SAT. Considering the findings of present study, it is highly recommended to store Asian stinging catfish at iced condition for maintaining shelf-life and quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Risk Analysis of the Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 through Manure Trade in Côte d'Ivoire

Tokpa Cyril, Acapovi-Yao Geneviève Lydie, Kallo Vessaly, Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Bakou Serge

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730319

The contamination with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses occurs via the digestive tract following the ingestion of water or food contaminated with droppings of asymptomatic carriers or sick birds. Regarding the local practice of the use of poultry manure as an agricultural fertilizer, this study focuses on the risk of spread of the HPAI through the manure trade pathway in Côte d'Ivoire. For this purpose, epidemiological data and 96 poultry droppings samples were collected from 18 farms. The droppings samples were tested using the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The qualitative risk assessment (QRA) took into account event patterns by integrating all the pathways involved in the spread of HPAI. From the diagnostic test, all the 96 samples tested negative. Further investigations revealed that 74% of the Agnibilékrou farms experienced HPAI outbreaks in the past two years. The main risk factors identified were the movement of people, animals and fomites from one infected area to another. Additionally, the duration of storage of droppings and the distance between stockpiles and farms were potential risk factors. The QRA identified two levels of risk: moderate to high (60%) and low to negligible (40%). The estimated high risk occurs when the dropping is fresh and is low after an optimal period of storage. It is therefore necessary to make storage systematic and mandatory as a measure of treatment before the adoption of other complex measures such as composting and industrial processing.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mycotoxin Risks Lurking in Breads Sold in Abuja Metropolis

G. B. Olukotun, Z. Labbo, O. G. Abakpa, B. B. Adamu, Ajulor, P. N

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730320

Bread is one of the most essential food products that is universally accepted as a very convenient form of food that has desirability to all population rich or poor, rural or urban dwellers. A staple food prepared by baking dough of flour, water and/or sugar. It is a good source of nutrients, such as macronutrients and micronutrients that are all essential for human Bread like other bakery products are subject to microbial contamination and spoilage by molds irrespective of the intrinsic composition of the product. The present study was carried out to identify the fungi associated with bread spoilage sold in Abuja metropolis, Nigeria and the possible health risks. Twenty-four (24) bread products from different locations within FCT, Abuja, Nigeria covering the six regions; Abaji, AMAC, Bwari, Gwagwalada, Kuje and Kwali were sampled and the molds associated with them were isolated using spread plate method. Based on the cultural and morphological characterizations using standard identification techniques, the mold namely Aspergillus sp. (29.7%), Mucor sp. (17.4%), Penicillum sp. (17.1%), Fusarium sp. (14.7%), Rhizopus sp. (8.0%), Cladosporium sp. (7.4%) Alternaria sp. (3.4%) and Geotricum sp. (2.3%) were found. The presence of mold is a signal to the possibility of mycotoxin build-up and other food safety risks. Therefore, bread manufacturer and distribution vendors need to periodically validate their preventive measures to control potential hazards associated with fungi-laden breads.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo) Pulp Flour and Acceptability of its Inclusion in Cake

Eke-Ejiofor Joy, Victor-Uku Esther Chidinma, M. O. Akusu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 57-71
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730321

A study of the Physico-chemical and functional properties of pumpkin / wheat flour blends and sensory attributes of cakes made from the flour blends where evaluated in the food science laboratory of Rivers State University. The physico-chemical analysis were carried out using standard AOAC methods with 100% wheat flour serving as control. Result of chemical analysis of wheat/pumpkin composite flour blends ranged from 6 .51 – 11.78%, 0.58 – 6.74%, 5.81 – 11.97%, 0.90 – 1.56%, 0.51 – 6.93% and 72.22 – 73.68% for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate, respectively.  There was a decrease in moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate and an increase in ash, and crude fiber as the level of pumpkin flour substitution increased.  Starch, amylose and amylopectin ranged from 37.68 – 83.82%, 8.76 – 24.64 % and 28.92 – 59.18%, respectively. The lowest starch (37.68%) content was recorded in pumpkin flour made entirely of pumpkin. Depending on the mixing ratios between flour and pumpkin flour, a wide range of functional properties were recorded, including 1.04 – 5.30 ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.58 – 0.61 g/ml bulk density, 8.50 – 16.50% least gelation concentration, 1.07 – 54.26% foaming capacity, 0.00 – 27.84% foaming stability, 53.71 – 93.33% swelling capacity, 45.46 – 48.49% emulsion capacity and 35.50 – 56.02% emulsion stability. Sensory evaluation of the cakes showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in general acceptability between the control and up to 70% substitution with pumpkin flour. The scores ranged from 2.61 – 8.22, 4.13 – 7.13, 5.04 – 7.70, 3.87 – 7.70 and 2.74 – 7.83 for taste, appearance, colour, mouthfeel and general acceptability respectively.  Incorporation of pumpkin flour to wheat flour increased the ash and crude fiber content of the composite flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Risk of Exposure to Aflatoxins Found in Maize (Zea mays L.) Produced in Cote d'ivoire in Ivorian Adults

Sira Bamba, Adama Coulibaly, Sidibe Daouda, Nyamien B. Yves, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 72-81
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730323

Aims: The objective of this study is to estimate the health risk incurred by the Ivorian adult consumer as a result of exposure to AFB1 and the sum of aflatoxins (AFT) through the consumption of maize.

Place and Duration of Study: During this study 375 samples of maize (grains, cobs, spathes) were taken from February 2016 to January 2017 and the analyzes were carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory, Agriculture and Development of Biological Resources of the Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY University.

Methodology: The detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was performed by HPLC using the AOAC method. The risk analysis procedure was conducted according to the Codex Alimentarius risk analysis model. It consisted of a quantitative assessment. The quantitative estimation of the aflatoxin exposure was performed according to the deterministic approach.

Results: The results indicate the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in all forms of maize (grains, cobs, spathes) and in the five regions visited. The average concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the sum of aflatoxins (AFT) ranged from 0.79 ± 0.04 µg/kg to 130.31 ± 22.56 µg/kg and from 2.63 ± 2.35 µg/kg to 169.13 ± 40.39 µg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, the Estimated Daily Intakes (EDI) by consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated maize vary according to the level of contamination. They range from 0.28±0.00 ng/kg body weight/day to 52.85±9.14 ng/kg body weight/day for AFB1 exposure. They ranged from 1.00±0.85 ng/kg body weight/day to 68.57± 16.28 ng/kg body weight/day for AFT exposure. Samples of maize grains and cobs from the Gbèkê, Poro and Hambol regions showed low daily doses below the reference values (2.028 ng/kg body weight/day and 4.056 ng/kg body weight/day). The opposite results are observed with samples (grains, ears and spathes) from Indenié-Djuablin and Gountougo.

Conclusion: The results of the daily doses of aflatoxin exposure of these regions show a need for monitoring their production. Thus, the implementation of efficient technical itineraries throughout the maize distribution chain, both during production, post-harvest processing, and conservation will be able to guarantee a better sanitary quality of this agricultural food product.

Open Access Original Research Article

The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant activity of pectin extracted from banana peel. Antibacterial activity was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis. The well diffusion method was used to assess the antibacterial effect of the pectin extract on microorganisms. The extract showed maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus (19.6 mm). The total phenolic content and flavonoid content in the examined extract found to be 3883.6 mgGA/g and 903.03 mg QE/gm on a dry matter basis. Antioxidant activity is analyzed using in vitro Standard spectrophotometer methods. Pectin extract increases DPPH scavenging activity up to 75 µg/ml of concentration. The innovation in food packaging by the use of pectin-based edible coatings is reviewed in this paper. Thereafter, coating of pectin was done in mozzarella cheese and its shelf life was studied at 1, 7,14,21, and 28 days of storage at 5˚C. It was analyzed that pectin coating over mozzarella cheese increases their shelf life from 7 to 21 days. Thus, pectin is a natural polysaccharide that attracts interest for maintaining and improving the quality of cheese. Also, it minimizes the waste that occurs from non-biodegradable packaging materials and helps the environment to be safe. This research was carried out at the laboratory of Food Science analysis Laboratory, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (INDIA) between February 21-April 21.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutritional and Microbial Properties of Bread Developed by Incorporating Moringa oleifera Leaves and Fenugreek Leaves

Smriti Mishra, Sunita Mishra, Shivani Kumari, Deffodile Bharali

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i730325

Bread supplies a huge part of the supplement needed for development, support of wellbeing and prosperity. It is a brilliant wellspring of protein, minerals, fiber and carbohydrates. Hence, main objective of our study was to evaluate the nutritional and medicinal benefits of bread consisting of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) and fenugreek leaf powder(FLP), as leaves of Moringa oleifera and fenugreek are considered to have high proportion of essential micronutrients and have many nutraceutical properties. Flaxseed was also added to enhance the nutritional benefits of bread as flaxseed contain alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-3-fatty acid. Bread was developed by incorporating different flour blends and analysed to know its nutritional and microbial properties. T0 include 100% multigrain flour, T1 include 97.5% multigrain flour, 2.5% moringa leaves powder (T1 a) and 95% multigrain flour, 5% moringa leaves powder (T1 b) whereas T2 include 95% multigrain flour, 2.5% moringa leaves, 2.5% fenugreek leaves (T2 a) and 90% multigrain flour, 5% moringa leaves and 5% fenugreek leaves (T2 b). During the experimentation moisture content of bread samples decreased with the increasing content of MOLP and FLP whereas protein, fibre and ash content of bread samples were increased by increasing the percentage of different blend formulations. Sensory evaluation of the bread samples was done by using the 9-point hedonic scale to know the overall acceptability of the product. Although the nutritional value of developed bread increased but the overall acceptability of product decreased by increasing the supplementation contents.