Open Access Minireview Article

The Outbreak of Foodborne Disease by Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae Antimicrobial Resistance - A Review

Mazen S. Al-Seghayer, Faisal MB. Al-Sarraj

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 91-99
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630312

Chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and parasites can cause contamination of food. The general signs and symptoms of food poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, abdominal cramps, and fever. Paralysis and death could occur in severe infection. Most cases of food poisoning in Saudi Arabia are caused by the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria which is comprised of Shigella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Most medications that are used to treat infections that are caused by these bacteria have become ineffective due to resistance. Escherichia coli reaches intestines due to fecal-oral contamination, consuming contaminated food, animal products, and water. Affected individuals present with fever, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, kidney failure, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some strains do not cause fever. Food hygiene is the best way of breaking the transmission cycle of Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever. The clinical picture of the affected individuals includes typhoid and non-typhoid symptoms. Typhoid symptoms include high fever, stomach pain, weakness, cough, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. On the other hand, non-typhoid signs are comprised of fever, septicemia, and prostration. Food contamination by Shigella spp. culminates in fever, cramps, diarrhea, and bloody stool. The microbe gets into healthy humans through contaminated food, tools, and water or via direct contact (like in sexual intercourse). Effective management of food poisoning entails rehydration, use of antibiotics, and encouraging adequate rest for the affected patients. One challenge that is likely to hamper the current treatment modality is the microbial resistance that the microbes have gained. Thus, new drugs have to be developed. The objectives and aims are to investigate the current biohazard of these types of microbes on foods and human safety in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and across the world, as well as to identify mutated and antibiotic-resistant types.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mango Peel and Almond Flour (Mangifera indica var Amelie,Kent, Keitt, Brooks) harvested, Processed in North of Cote d’Ivoire: Biochemical Parameters and Mineral Content

Mabintou Diomande, Kouassi Hubert Konan, Yapo Thierry Monnet, Jaures Oscar Gbotognon, Kouassi Armand Kanga, Eugène Jean Parfait Kouadio, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630304

Mango almond and peel flours are a potential source of nutriment. In this study, the proximate composition and mineral element profile of four varieties of mango flour that are grown and processing in north of Cote d’Ivoire investigated. The data can be used as a reference when these flours are used for further processing in a variety of products. The peels and almonds were harvested fresh, dried in an oven at 50°C for 72 hours, ground and analysed according to standard procedures. Results showed carbohydrate, crude protein, total lipid, crude fibre, ash contents and vitamin C of the couple “peel – almond” flours were found to be 83.83-76.16%, 2.48-6.54%, 2.79-13.45%, 9.97-7.67%, 4.25-3.10% and a considerable amount of vitamin C of 307.67–304.85 mg/100g, respectively. They also contained important minerals such as calcium at 1204.45-1064.82 mg/100g, magnesium at 257.46-243.81 mg/100g, and potassium was the major at 1883.65-1617.66 mg/100g, regarding peels and almonds flours, respectively. Mangoes varieties such as Amelie, Kent, Keitt and Brooks have the potential to be a good source of nutrition for humans and animals. Mangoes varieties, peels, almonds, biochemical parameters, minerals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Slice Weight and Soaking Time on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Cassava Flour (Manihotesculentus) used for Bakery Products

C. R. Abah, C. N. Ishiwu, J. E. Obiegbuna, E. F. Okpalanma, C. S. Anarado

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630305

Quality cassava(Manihotesculentus, Crantz) flour is often influenced by process variables such as slice weight and soaking time which may affect its nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of process variables (slice weight and soaking time) on quality of cassava flour was carried out. Cassava root was peeled, washed and cut into varied sizes (25.86 - 54.14 g) and soaked at varied time (7.03 - 40.97 h). The proximate composition, physical and chemical properties of the flour were carried out using standard methods. The result in our findings showed that slice weight and soaking time had significant increase (p<0.05) on the proximate and physico-chemical properties of the flour.The amylose and amylopectin content of the flour increased with increasing soaking time while the hydrogen cyanide content decreased with increase in soaking time. Overall, the quality cassava flour displayed desirable properties for its incorporation into baked goods.

Open Access Original Research Article

This study examined the functional and sensory properties of enriched weaning food produced from cereal, legume and vegetable. Maize, soybean and carrot were formulated into blends. Sensory evaluation, proximate and functional properties were determined. The data generated were analyzed. The results obtained showed that at 2 weeks, Samples D and F had the highest score (5.00) for colour quality while least score was recorded in sample E (2.00). At 4 weeks, Samples D and F had the same score (5.00) and Sample E also had the least colour score (2.00). At 0 week, there were no significant (p>0.05) change in the texture among Samples A (4.00), B (5.00), C (5.00), D (5.00), and F (5.00). At 0 week, Samples C (5.00) and D (5.00) had the highest score for overall acceptability. The least moisture was seen in defatted soybean (5.07%), this was followed by fermented maize (9.71%) and the highest moisture content was observed in carrot (12.91%). Defatted soybean had the highest (41.2%) protein content next was carrot (10.63%) and the least was maize (6.14%) in that decreasing order. The highest (270%) water holding capacity  was observed in Sample E, this was followed by Samples D (240%), C (240%), B (166%) and A (140%) in that decreasing order. The highest value for oil absorption was seen in Sample C (144%), this was followed by Sample A (121%), D (120%), B (105%) and E (90%) in that order. In this study products C and D were preferred as they were able to compete favourably with the commercial diet (F=control). However, product D was more preferred having the best color quality, texture quality as well as good functional properties. This study recommends the complementary of maize flour by the supplementation of carrot at 15% and soybean 20% inclusion level for better sensory and functional characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in the Proximate Composition, Amino Acids Content and Fatty Acids of Thai Pangus (Pangasianodonhypophthalmus) Fish Depending on Size

Md. Salman, Sharmin Suraiya, Pranta Das, Md. Aminur Islam, Monjurul Haq

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 35-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630307

The nutritional characteristics such as proximate composition, amino acids, and fatty acids properties of fish depend on the size of fish. Determination of the nutritional parameters of Thai pangus muscle depending on five different sizes, viz., 0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, 1.5 kg, 2.0 kg, and 2.5 kg showed that the moisture content was decreased whereas the protein content was increased with the increment of fish weight. The protein content was the highest 16.60% in 2.5 kg size fish and the lowest content 14.75% was in 0.5 kg size fish. The lipid content was found to increase significantly (P≤0.05) with the increment of fish weight. There were eight essential and nine non-essential amino acids available and the contents were found to increase with the increment of fish weight. The content of essential amino acids was the highest (14.43 g/100 g fish muscle) in 2.5 kg size fish while the lowest (7.79 g/100 g fish muscle) in 0.5 kg size fish. Total 13 fatty acids were detected in fish oil among which oleic acid content was the highest (44.55% to 47.10%) followed by palmitic acid (25.78% to 36.39%), however, the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contentwere very poor. The saturated fatty acids content were found to increase whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids content were found to decrease with increasing the size of fish. So, the findings of this present study reveal that the muscles of Thai Pangus fish are considered as highly nutritive and healthy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermentation and Extrusion effects on Nutritional and Organoleptic Compositions of Unripe Plantain and Pigeon Pea Blends

Elias Similoluwa Orekoya, Anthony Okhonlaye Ojokoh, Ayodele Openla Arogunjo, Jamiu Olaseni Aribisala, Paul Oladimeji Gabriel, Oluwatayo Ajayi-Moses

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630309

This research investigated effects of fermentation and extrusion on unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends. The samples were blended and prepared in three combinations (A=100g unripe plantain; B= 70g unripe plantain: 30g pigeon pea; C= 50g unripe plantain: 50g pigeon pea) and sectioned into four group (i.e. group 1 = preconditioned and fermented; group 2 = extruded; group three = fermented and extruded; and group 4 = unfermented/unextruded). Semi-solid state fermentation method was employed to ferment the blended samples for 96 hours. The physicochemical parameters (i.e pH, temperature and total titratable acidity) of these fermented samples were evaluated. The total microbial counts include; 9 bacteria, 2 yeasts and 4 molds were isolated and identified as; Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus mali, Streptococcus lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus candidus, and Mucor hiemalis. There were significant variations in the values of pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) during fermentation. This was also same for the proximate contents of the fermented and extruded flour blends when contrasted with the raw flour blends. The fermented unextruded group 1 (11.73±0.01%) has the highest moisture contents and least in the raw sample B (6.34±0.00%). The raw flour blends protein content increased from 2.57±0.03 to 10.17±0.00% and from 2.58±0.02 to 16.27±0.01% in the fermented extruded blends. The carbohydrate content in the raw flour blends was highest (67.97±0.02 to 74.32±0.00%) and least in fermented unextruded samples (38.28±0.01 to 62.72±0.01%). The fat content was highest in the fermented unextruded blends (2.52±0.01 to 6.33±0.00%) and least in raw blends (1.33±0.02 to 2.01±0.02%). The sensory evaluation of the samples showed a good preference for fermented-extruded samples. Findings from this research have established that fermented and extruded unripe plantain and pigeon pea blend enhanced nutritional value of food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production, Nutritional Evaluation and Acceptability of Cookies Made from a Blend of Wheat, African Walnut, and Carrot Flours

D. B. Kiin-Kabari, Mbanefo Calista Uzoamaka, O. M. Akusu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 60-76
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630310

Cookies were developed from composite flour of wheat, African Walnut and Carrot. The wheat flour was substituted at levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, & 20% with African Walnut flour for samples, B, C, D and E, respectively, and with 5% of Carrot flour. The moisture content of the cookies reduced with increase in substitution with walnut flour and carrot flour but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the values obtained. The ash content and protein content of the cookies also increased with increased substitution whereas fat content of the substituted cookies samples increased and significantly differed (p˂ 0.05) from the control. The physical attributes are as follows:11.28 g - 13.09 g for Weight, 45.80 mm - 52.68 mm for Diameter, 6.85 mm - 9.45 mm for thickness, and 5.12 - 7.44 for spread ratio. The values of the Minerals obtained are 29.38 mg/100 g – 50.46 mg/100 g, 3.75 mg/100 g – 11.36 mg/100 g, 14.11 mg/100 g – 15.47 mg/100 g and 49.20 mg/100 g – 58.90 mg/100 g for Calcium, iron, Sodium, and Potassium, respectively. The Bioavailability was highest in sodium(57.07%-84.86%), and potassium(69.55% - 72.31%).The highest values for Vitamin C (13.85 mg/100 g), Vitamin E (0.90), and Invitro protein digestibility (59.64%) were recorded in sample E while the highest Carotenoids (257.40 mg/100 g) was observed in sample C. Sensory evaluation confirmed that there was no significant difference (p˃0.05) between Samples A (control sample) and the substituted samples in terms of appearance, taste and aroma, and although sample A had highest overall general acceptability value, the samples produced compared favorably with the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

This study examined the development, evaluation and safety aspect of enriched weaning food from cereal, legume and vegetable. Maize was fermented, soybean was defatted and carrot was sliced, and all were processed to flour. The flours were formulated to blends. Laboratory analysis were done such as proximate, minerals, haematology and lipid studies of rat fed both formulated and commercial diets as well as the growth and feed intake of the rats. The data obtained were analyzed. The results showed that the moisture content observed was low ranging from 5.07% -12.91%. The lowest moisture (5.07%) was defatted soybean flour; this was followed by fermented maize flour (9.71%) while the highest moisture (12.91%) was seen in carrot powder. Carrot had the highest Ca (5850.0ppm), followed by defatted soybean (4700ppm), the least was maize (2900ppm). The highest count for white blood cell (WBC) was observed in rat fed rat pellet ie diet G (11.8x109). The high density lipoprotein (HDL) of rats fed different diets ranged from 31 to79mg/dl with group F (31.0 mg/dl) and C (79 mg/dl) which had the lowest and highest HDL respectively. At day 4, the highest (62.20g) feed intake was observed for rats that fed on diet C, next B (60.70 g), diet D (54.20 g), diet G (53.20 g), diet E (45.10 g), diet F (43.80 g). The least feed intake was diet A (39.6 g) in that decreasing order. This study has showed that diet C was outstanding among the diets and should be used to improve the body weight of infant, increased the HDL, reduced LDL, improves haematological parameters and improves nutritional qualities.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Viscoelastic Properties of Wheat, Maize and Cassava Flours as Affected by Some Leguminous Seed Flours

E. S. Ukpong, E. F. Okpalanma, R. N. Attaugwu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 100-109
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i630313

The effects of some leguminous seed flour (LSF) on the viscoelastic properties of wheat, maize and cassava flours were investigated. The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of the LSF on the pasting characteristics of the flours. There were significant differences in the proximate composition of the flours used in this study. Three LSF namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei flours were used in this study. The LSF were added differently at 0 and 2% to wheat, maize and cassava flours on dry weight bases, the 0% addition served as the control. The viscoelastic properties were determined using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The results showed that the LSF significantly affected the pasting properties of the wheat, maize and cassava flours. The LSF significantly increased (p>0.05) the breakdown, final, trough and peak viscosities of the wheat and maize flours. However, the LSF significantly (p>0.05) reduced the peak, breakdown and setback viscosities of cassava flour compared to the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aims: To develop and apply a quality index method (QIM) scheme for evaluating the freshness and estimating the shelf life of raw whole Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) stored at low temperatures.

Study design: A QIM scheme was developed through pre-observation and formation of a preliminary scheme, finalization of the protocol and training of judges. The scheme was then applied to evaluate the freshness of squid in comparison with control methods, which were quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), Torry scoring, and total viable count (TVC) determination.

Place and duration of study: Nha Trang University, Vietnam, between February and June 2012; and from November 2019 to January 2020.

Methodology: A total of 399 Japanese flying squids (Todarodes pacificus) of 50-70 g stored at 0-2°C were used in the study. Seven judges engaged in the QIM establishment and application. Control methods were QDA, Torry and TVC check. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used for studying the dataset main variance. Partial least square regression (PLS-R) was carried out to evaluate the possibility to predict storage time of the developed QIM scheme.

Results: The formulated QIM scheme for Japanese flying squid stored at low temperatures composed of 8 parameters, which are odour, eyes, skin pigment, skin elasticity, body shape, body texture, ink sac integrity, and head-body connection, forming a quality index (QI) range of 0-15. The PLS-R showed that the developed QIM protocol could give a shelf life estimation accuracy of ± 1.0 day if 7 squids from each batch were evaluated. The PCA showed that QDA parameters clustered into good and bad attribute groups, which characterised flesh and old/spoilt squid, respectively. QDA, Torry and TVC results revealed a maximal squid shelf life of 12 days at 0-2 °C.

Conclusion: The QIM scheme for chilled Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) could be used to estimate the remaining shelf life of the product with the precision of ± 1.0 day, using at least 7 squids of the same storage time for assessment. Squid exhibited a shelf life of 12 days at 0-2 °C.