Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Frying Methods on Cooking Yield, Tenderness and Sensory Properties of Chicken Breast Meat

S. U. Alugwu, T. M. Okonkwo, M. O. Ngadi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030469

This paper focused on the effect of different frying methods on the quality of chicken breast meat. Fresh boned broiler chicken breast meat samples were purchased, frozen, sliced into dimensions. These samples were cooked by air frying (AF) and deep fat frying (DF) methods at 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 4, 8, 12- and 16-min. Cooking yield and loss were assessed by weight changes before and after frying and tenderness changes were determined by measuring the compression force using instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA). The sensory acceptance and preferences were conducted on the samples by panel of judges. Cooking yield of fried chicken breast meat decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing frying temperature and time. Air fried (AF) samples had higher mean cooking yield value of 59.26 % than DF method sample of 50.00%. Samples fried at lower frying times had significantly (p < 0.05) higher cooking yield compared with longer frying times. Cooking loss increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing frying temperature and time. Samples fried with hot air adopting AF method had lower average cooking loss (40.20%), fat content (6.62 %) and higher compression force (hardness) value (12.39 kg/F) than samples fried by DF method which had higher cooking loss (49.47 %) and lower compression force or hardness (12.18 kg/F) and higher fat content (11.88 %). Samples fried for 4 min had significantly (p < 0.05) the least value in cooking loss and tenderness, but 8 min fried samples had better sensory attributes than 4 min fried samples, which were pinkish colour in appearance and unappetizing to consumers. Air frying method with the best tenderness value (20.43 ± 1.15 Kg/F), while deep fat frying method-produced samples with its best tenderness value (18.89 ± 0.70 Kg/ F) at 170°C for 16 min. Sensory evaluation showed that DF products were moderately crispy (7.19) compared to AF products, which were slightly crispy (5.45). The interaction effect of frying method, frying temperature and frying time was significant for cooking yield, loss and tenderness. However, the overall interaction (frying method x frying temperature x frying time) was found to be significant in coking yield and loss, but not significant in tenderness.

Open Access Original Research Article

This study investigated the influence of frying oil types and storage duration on the acrylamide concentration, moisture variation pattern, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and acceptability factors of commonly consumed snack (chin-chin). A standard processing procedure was used to prepare the snack (chin-chin) using a combination of ingredients such as wheat flour, sugar, salt, margarine, ground nutmeg, egg, and water. Two types of vegetable oil used for deep-frying were soybean oil and refined palm olein oil while commercial chin-chin samples were also purchased to serve as the control. The results showed that during the storage period, the acrylamide contents in chin-chin samples exhibited gradual increase. The commercial chin-chin (CH-COM) contained the highest initial moisture content (13.54%) while all the chin-chin samples exhibited gradual increase in moisture content during the 12-day storage period. The study also revealed that during the storage period, all the chin-chin samples exhibited gradual reduction in the TBARS level. However, the degree of reduction in the TBARS content of commercial chin-chin was the highest as it reduced from the initial 0.33 mg MDA/kg to 0.17 mg MDA/kg during the 12-day storage duration. The fresh chin-chin samples exhibited relatively high level of browning index with significant differences at p<0.05 while there were variations in the oiliness index of the snack samples. The chin-chin samples in this study were generally found to satisfy the requirements for the tolerable levels for both the acrylamide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) throughout the 12-day storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

XRD and SEM, ED Analysis of Solar Dried Vegetables

. Anukriti, Neetu Singh, Deendayal Upadhyay

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030473

The practical application of an analytical scanning electron microscope with an EDS system – microanalysis for examining the ash elemental composition of vegetable crop selection was considered. Morphology and surface analysis through XRD and SEM. The content of 14 basic elements (in weight percent) in the mineral component of vegetables was investigated. In the vegetables the accumulation order of the elements is the following: Ca >K >P >Mg >Si >Se >Fe >Mo ≈ S ≈ Cl ≈ Zn >Na >Al. The vegetables are rich in macro – and microelements. In the selecting procedure, vegetables with a high concentration of the components are recommended. The enhanced levels of key macro- and microelements such as Ca, K, P, Mg, Mo, S, and Cl indicate the possibility of developing functional products based on the examined vegetables for dietary enrichment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blending Canarium Flavor (Canarium album L.) for Soft Candy from Natural Materials in Vietnam

Le Mai Xuan Truc, Nguyen Thi Lan Phi, Le Huy Hai

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030474

Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to create Canarium flavor with the main ingredient (Body note) being Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch essential oil and natural essential oils found in Vietnam for soft candy product.

Materials and Methods: All the materials for making the Canarium flavor were from natural sources in Vietnam. Materials for making soft candy such as gelatin, sugar, and lemon juice were purchased in Vietnam market.

Flavor assessment experiment was conducted by olfactory. The created flavor of Canarium was tested on soft candy with 0.3% by weight.

Results: After the experiment, the flavors SC1, SC2 and SC3 having the ideal taste and smell for soft candy, were selected. The structure of flavors SC1, SC2 and SC3 included Grassy note, Green note, Fruity note, Woody note, Spicy note, Floral note, Sweete note and Spicy note. Flavors SC1, SC2 and SC3 had the same composition of 80% by weight, of which the main ingredient was Canarium oil (Canarium album L.) accounting for 50% by weight.

Conclusions: The flavors SC1, SC2 and SC3 were created from natural materials in Vietnam for soft candy product. Flavors SC1 and SC2, SC3 had natural, gentle and attractive scent. Flavor SC1 featured a Canarium odor and a Lemon leaf flavor. Flavor SC2 contained the characteristic aroma of Canarium and the sweet-spicy flavor of Cinnamon bark. Flavor SC3 was made up of Canarium odor and the spicy-hot flavor of ginger. The flavor and taste of SC1, SC2 and SC3 were very suitable for soft candy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Thermally Processed Bambara Groundnut Flour Nutrients using Response Surface Methodology

I. C. Nzelu, C. N. Ishiwu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 45-57
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030475

White/cream colourbambara groundnut (BGN) seed (Vigna subterranean L.) Was grouped into 12 portions and subjected to different processing methods by soaking in water at room temperature (280C) for 12- 48h and further boiling for different times (30 – 60min). The soaked-boiled seeds were dried and milled into flours. Proximate composition and functional properties of these processed flours were determined and significant (P = .05) differences among the samples recorded. Combination of soaking and boiling of the seeds for different times resulted to irregular functional properties and nutrient losses of the BGN. Optimization of the responses showed that the seed soaked for 12h and further boiled for 46.26min would yield flour with optimum nutrient properties, while soaking for 12h before boiling for 9.96 min would produce flour with optimum functional properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of the Nutritional Value of Rice Biscuits with Some Vitamins and Minerals Using Soy Flour and Strawberry Powder

Hayat M. N. Afify, Hanan A. Hussien, S. R. Shams Omima

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 58-69
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030476

Aims:  The purpose of this paper is to develop a biscuit incorporated with defatted soy flour and strawberry powder to enhance its nutritional value of it.

Methodology: The proportion of rice flour and defatted soy four were 25% and the level of strawberry powder used for making biscuit samples was 0, 5, 10 and 15% respectively. The biscuits were evaluated for their quality based on proximate analysis, physical properties and sensory evaluation.

Results:  Based on chemical analysis protein, fiber content and β-carotene level increased with increasing the amount of strawberry powder. The most preferred products were that with 25% defatted soy flour and 10 per cent strawberry powder. It is noticed that 100gm of biscuits with 20% defatted soy flour and 10% strawberry powder provide 4-8 years-old children with 44% of their needs of protein, 20.23% of their needs of iron, 19.06% of zinc and 48.01% of folate.

Conclusion: The addition of both defatted soy flour and strawberry powder as a flour replacer in gluten-free biscuits improves its nutritional value without affecting its physical properties and consumer acceptance.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Utilization and Preservation Practices of Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorius) in Western Kenya

J. N. Muita, D. W. M. Kaindi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030477

Background: Jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius) is a nutritious African leafy vegetable that is grown and consumed by local communities in Kenya. However, despite its nutritional superiority, its utilization is limited primarily due to its seasonality.

Aim: This study sought to document the utilization and preservation practices of jute mallow in Western Kenya.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study, that involved a household survey (n =139), of jute mallow producers in Kakamega County of Western Kenya, was conducted.

Results: Half (50.4%) of the households sourced their vegetables from their farms, while 37.4% sourced them from roadside vendors during the dry season. Jute mallow was mainly (57.6%) consumed as an accompaniment with other vegetables including African Nightshade and Amaranth. Approximately half (52.51%) of the households, employed a method of preservation. There was a significant association (p = 0.01) between age and preservation practices, where middle-aged people (35-50 years) had a higher likelihood of employing a preservation method.  Women were also significantly (p = 0.024) more likely to preserve vegetables than men. Sun drying was practiced by 15.8% of the study population, 18.7% practiced fermentation, while 18% practiced both fermentation and sun-drying. The methods of sun-drying were well developed, where prior blanching, was incorporated by 33.3% of the participants. Sun-drying extended the shelf-life of jute mallow by 4.02 ± 3.151 months, while fermentation was 7 days. The leaves of both forms of preservation had relatively high acceptability ratios to the fresh forms at 40% and 48% for fermented and dried forms, respectively. 

Conclusion: There is a huge potential for low-cost preservation methods in ensuring the availability of jute mallow. However, it is necessary to investigate the viability of these methods on the nutritional quality and safety of jute mallow to improve food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Untraditional Sources for Producing High Nutritional Value Bakery Products

Shereen L. Nassef, G. H. H. Zahran, M. A. Asael

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 79-91
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030478

The Aim / Objective: Using eggplant puree to reduce fats and egg in bakery products to reduce calorie and increase nutritional value of cake (muffins) also, technological and sensory evaluation of muffin produced. Maximizing the use of eggplant from an economic point of view, as it is a cheap and available product in the Egyptian market, maximizing the health benefits of eggplant by producing a product with high nutritional value and low in fat, take advantage of dietary fiber in vegetables, producing a new product with high nutritional and biological value, take advantage of various antioxidants from their natural sources, improving the quality characteristics of products (sensory qualities), especially color and using natural vegetables as fat substitutes in bakery products.

Study Design: Analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Bread & Pastries, Food Technology Research Institute, between June 2020 and August 2022. Methodology: We prepared the muffins blend and formulas and did all analysis (chemical – physical – sensory evaluation – texture… for muffins resulted.

Results: Eggplant puree (EP) (25, 50, 75 and 100%) was used to replace fat and egg in the muffins production. Muffins prepared with 25% (EP) had a higher volume than control Muffins. Muffins volume was alikeness between control muffins and the sample used 50% (EP). At 100% replacement level, the muffins volume is minimal. Low-fat and egg muffins with (EP) had higher moisture and minerals also less calories than control. Replacing baking butter by (EP) gave a significant rising in springiness hardness, and chewiness, and a limited result of cohesiveness. But, there were no inequality between control muffins and the acceptance of low (fat and egg) muffins up to 75%. Adding (EP) did not result in undesirable variations in color. Likewise high moisture content in (EP) muffins was acceptable by the panelists. Results clarified that (EP) is an acceptable fat alternative in muffins and efficient in reducing the amount of fat and calories, likewise (EP) could be used as egg replacer in muffins and cakes. Furthermore, during storage moisture loss and increase of muffins hardness was observed in produced muffins. Result showed great acceptance for produced muffins.

Conclusion: This work is an attempt to raise the economic value of eggplant by using it in some bakery products that may not affect its technological properties while reducing the energy percentage and the price of the product. By studying all the technological, sensory and chemical properties, it was found that fat can be replaced by 100% with eggplant puree, and the ability to replace eggs by 25%, as these samples gave a result similar to the control in all the properties of the tests, while the increase in the percentage of replacing eggs with eggplant puree to 50 and 75% led to a decrease In the technological properties, however, it was accepted by a large percentage up to 75 and 85% of the various laboratory tests, and therefore it is acceptable according to the taste of the consumer and from the view point of the producer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pineapples (Ananas comosus L. Merr) contain beneficial properties and the object of the study is to compare the physical and chemical properties of two local varieties of pineapples and their prepared bakery products such as jelly and biscuit using flesh of pineapple as one of the raw materials and compare those with the locally available market products. Physico – chemical  properties such as fruit weight, diameter, length, edible portion %, pH, Vitamin C, Titratable acidity, sugar content, total soluble solids, lipid content, crude protein, phenolic compound and sensory attributes (Firmness, sweetness, tartness, colour, and overall acceptability) of fresh pineapple fruit of Honey Queen (HQ) and Giant Kew (GK) were studied. Both the varieties contained high amount of moisture, GK 84.42% and HQ 83.95%. Further, HQ variety showed more than GK variety in almost all of the properties. The phenolic contents of the extracts as caffeic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol HQ (12.45%), GK (9.8%) while in water extract HQ (5.4%), and GK (5.3%). In terms of prepared bakery product from pineapple, Sample H (Home prepared) was more preferable than the locally market available brand in consideration of the physico-chemical properties that affected the sensory attributes acceptability having the overall acceptability score of 7 in a 9-point hedonic scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional, Cooking, Sensory and Microbial Properties of FARO 44 Brown Rice as Affected by Milling and Germination

Ekpeno Sunday Ukpong, Eucharia Uloma Onyeka, Gloria C. Omeire, Chika C. Ogueke

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i1030480

Germinated brown rice (GBR) was produced from FARO 44 rice cultivar by sterilizing the paddy in sodium hypochlorite solution, steeping it in potable water and germination of the de-husked grain. Germination temperatures were maintained at 30 and 40oC for 12 and 36 h. The mould content, functional, cooking and sensory properties of the GBR were compared to non-germinated brown rice (BR) and non-germinated parboiled milled rice (MR) which were used as controls. The results showed that germination temperatures did not significantly affect (p<0.05) the parameters analyzed. The germinating conditions did not encourage the growth of moulds. The foaming capacity (55.73%), foam stability (43.11%), water absorption capacity (1.24 g/g), and oil absorption capacity (1.07 g/g) of BR did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from that of MR but they increased significantly in GBR to the range of 66.43-73.05%, 60.48-74.715%, 2.15-2.88 g/g, and 1.95-3.08 g/g respectively. These values were significantly higher (p<0.05) at germination duration of 36 h than 12 h. The bulk density (0.93 g/cm3) and swelling power (6.78 g/g) of BR did not differ from that of MR but they decreased significantly (p<0.05) in GBR to the range of 0.61-0.90 g/cm3 and 2.67-4.70 g/g respectively. Much significantly lower (p<0.05) values were obtained at a germination duration of 36 h. The cooking time was least in MR (11.0 min) against BR (18.0 min) and GBR (12.0-15.0 min), and the water uptake ratio (g water/ g rice) was also least in MR (2.00) against BR (2.19) and GBR (2.20-2.37). MR and GBR germinated for 12 h were accepted while BR was rejected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Evaluation of Lamb Meat Sausage Prepared with Different Antioxidants

A. O. Akinwumi, C. O. Olagoke, S. J. Ayoola, A. K. Ola, R. A. Atandah, B. S. Olawuyi, O. O. Olatunji, A. A. Odunsi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 113-121
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i10608

Consumer awareness and health consciousness has resulted in the use of natural additives or alternative methods to extend shelf life and improve food safety. The present study evaluated the quality and shelf-life of lamb meat sausage prepared with different natural antioxidants. The antioxidants (Turmeric, Garlic, Honey, Moringa and Ginger at 2% each) on the yield, sensory acceptability, chemical composition, lipid peroxidation, fatty acid profile and microbiological assay was studied in a completely randomized design. The results revealed that the turmeric, garlic and honey compared (p>0.05) favourably with the control in terms of yield and preferred (p<0.05) above others for colour, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. All the antioxidants have suppressing effects with lower values (P<0.05) on crude protein, ether extracts and lipid peroxidation as compared to the control. Variation exist in all the parameters of the fatty acid profile while the microbial loads of the lamb meat sausage samples showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the Total Bacterial counts (TBC), Total Coliform Counts (TCC) and Total Fungi Counts (TFC) for all samples prepared with natural antioxidants with the least values (p<0.05) reported in moringa samples as compared with others. Conclusively of the respective natural antioxidants in lamb meat sausage enhanced the cooking yield, nutrient composition and keeping qualities of the product and is therefore recommended for the product quality and safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Natural Antioxidants on Nutrients, Sensory and Keeping Quality of Suya from Mutton Subjected to Different Processing Methods

A. O. Akinwumi, A. A. Odunsi, T. Y. Adeniji, S. J. Ayoola, K. K. Arasi, D. E. Adebolujo, M. O. Salaudeen, M. A. Adeboye, M. A. Adesina

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 10, Page 122-130
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i10613

This study evaluated the effect of breeds, processing methods, natural antioxidants and storage period of Suya from mutton. A total of 12 sheep (six each from Balami and Ouda) were weighed, slaughtered and allotted to three processing methods which are scalding, singeing and skinning. They are processed into Suya meats prepared with 4 different natural antioxidants (black pepper (Piper nigrum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and preserved for four weeks. The samples were evaluated for chemical composition, organoleptic properties, microbial loads and storage period. Data collected were analysed using a factorial arrangement of 2x3x4. The results showed that natural antioxidants significantly (P<0.05) influenced all parameters measured except dry matter with the highest value of CP (60.28%) observed in Suya samples spiced with black pepper. There were significant (P<0.05) in all the parameters evaluated using different processing methods. Breed had no significant (P>0.05) on organoleptic properties. Significant (P<0.05) effect was observed on colour for processing methods with the highest value 5.18 in scalding. Natural antioxidants had significant (P<0.05) on organoleptic properties except for flavor while Suya spiced with clove was rated highest on overall acceptability (6.60). However, breed had no significant (P>0.05) on all the microbial counts of Suya samples. Scalding had the lowest (P<0.05) values for all the microbial parameters measured. Natural antioxidants significantly (P<0.05) affect all the parameters evaluated with the highest total bacterial count (TBC) 9.34x106, total coliform count (TCC) 9.21x104 and total yeast count (TYC)10.23x103 in the control while the lowest counts of TBC, TCC and TYC in the samples             spiced with clove were found as (4.31x106), (5.26x104) and (5.46x103), respectively. Storage for four weeks had higher significant (P<0.05) values in all the parameters measured than                     those evaluated for microbial loads at 0 day. It is therefore concluded that, samples spiced with clove had lower microbial loads which tend to enhance shelf-life and were most acceptable for consumption.