Open Access Short Research Article

Recipe for Brown Rice Milk-based Vegan Ice Cream

Ageliki Mygdalia, Themistoklis Sfetsas , Georgia Dimitropoulou, Sophia Zioupou , Tasos Mitsopoulos, Paschalis Lithoxopoulos , Christos Ioannou, Dimitris Katsantonis

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i4629

The market for plant-based proteins, particularly alternatives to dairy products, is growing due to health benefits and environmental concerns. Many people are adopting plant-based diets, due to lactose intolerance, vegan and vegetarian lifestyles; thus, promoting lactose-free and cholesterol-free alternatives to milk-derived products such as ice cream. Rice, which is a lactose and gluten free product, as well as low in fat, and calories, could be a promising substitute for dairy milk in foods such as ice cream. In the current study, the development of a novel recipe for ice cream based on brown rice milk was investigated. After standardizing the rice milk production protocol, six combinations of hydrocolloids were used as emulsifiers, as well as four sweeteners for granulated sugar substitution were tested. In all formulations, meltdown and overrun parameters were measured and at the final stage organoleptic evaluation was conducted to determine the level of sensory panel acceptance. In conclusion, it was evident that the rice milk-based ice cream, which combines xanthan gum, guar gum, k-carrageenan, with 30% sugar substitution with stevia, was the formulation with the highest acceptance in the physiological characteristics and sensory evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of African Breadfruit Based Complementary Food Using Mixture Response Surface Methodology

Kuyik Solomon Abasiekong, Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze, Enoch Nwankwo Akobundu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i4626

Aims: To model and optimize complementary foods based on their mixture ingredients viz. African breadfruit, soybean and maize, and their depending quality characteristics namely, energy, carbohydrate, fat, ash, protein, flavor, taste, general acceptability and paste viscosity, and determine the amino acid qualities of the optimized formula.

Study Design: Experimental research (controlled experiment).

Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike between 2011 and 2015. 

Methodology: The D-optimal three factor mixture design fitted into the second order canonical model was adopted, and the factor ranges were set at 64-80 % (African breadfruit), 19-35 % (soybean) and 1-9 % (maize) which yielded twenty blends (including replications) based on the mixture design combination. Each mixture component was expressed as a proportion of the mixture such that the sum was equal to 100 %.

Results: The results of the analyses were: 379.51-411 kcal/100 g (energy), 53.59-63.62 % (carbohydrate), 8-6 % (fat), 3.03-4.28 % (ash), 10.31-14.64 % (protein), 6-like slightly to 8-like very much (flavor, taste and general acceptability) and 5770-5800mPa.s (paste viscosity). Protein and energy were exceptionally high with all the values of protein exceeding the minimum standard recommended for complementary foods. The models for energy, fat, taste and paste viscosity were excellent for prediction due to the quality of their PRESS and predicted r-squared hence their selection for the numerical optimization which resulted in the prediction of 69:24:7 (African breadfruit: soybean: maize) as the optimized formula. Amino acid evaluation of this optimized formula showed that the values compared favourably with standards (WHO/FAO/UNU reference pattern and egg reference protein).

Conclusion: The selection of 69:24:7 as the optimized formula indicates that complementary food can be produced with the African breadfruit as a base at 69% inclusion, while its amino acid profile suggests that its protein could be nutritionally adequate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Thermoduric Psychrotrophic Bacteria from Market Samples of Pasteurized Milk Collected from Mannuthy, Kerala State, India

Vishnu Suresh , Ligimol James, A. K. Beena, V. Aparna Sudhakaran, M. P. Divya

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i4627

Aims: To isolate, identify and characterize thermoduric psychrotrophic bacteria from locally available market samples of pasteurized milk.

Study Design: Market samples of pasteurized milk were collected, subjected to laboratory pasteurization and thermoduric psychrotrophic bacteria were enumerated after 10 days of storage at 7ºC.The isolates obtained were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and subsequent blasting. The isolates were characterized in terms of haemolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Selected isolates were also assessed for their decimal reduction time at 63ºC.         

Place and Duration of Study: Verghese Kurien Institute of Dairy and Food Technology,   (Formerly College of Dairy Science and Technology), Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala between September, 2019 to March, 2021.

Methodology: A total of 42 market samples of pasteurized milk belonging to seven different brands were assessed for their thermoduric psychrotrophic bacterial population. The thermoduric psychrotrophic bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and the sequences obtained were searched with the NCBI BLAST program ( for their closest relatives/reference strains with a homology of over or equal to 99 per cent. Haemolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activities of the isolates  were determined by  streaking  them on blood agar, skim milk agar (SMA) and tributyrin agar respectively and  grading them based on the presence or absence  of zone of clearance around the colonies developed. Decimal reduction time at 63ºC of two selected isolates was also determined.

Results: Six thermoduric psychrotrophic bacteria were isolated from the 42 market samples of pasteurized milk i.e., only 14.3 % of tested samples had thermoduric psychrotrophic bacterial population. 16S rRNA sequencing and subsequent blasting identified the isolates as Aeromonas caviae, Moraxella osloensis, Delftia tsuruhatensis, Staphylococcus arlettae and two strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. On assessing the haemolytic activity of the isolates, A.caviae DMV01 exhibited α haemolytic activity whereas Staphylococcus arlettae DMV02, M. osloensis DMV03, C. maltaromaticum DMV05 and C. maltaromaticum DMV06 exhibited ϒ haemolytic activities.  A. caviae DMV01 was found to be lipolytic and the two Carnobacterium strains exhibited proteolytic activities. Staphylococcus arlettae DMV02 was found to be both proteolytic and lipolytic. Aeromonas caviae DMV01 exhibited D63 value of 4 minutes 38 seconds whereas for Moraxella osloensis DMV03 it was 25 minutes 18 seconds.

Conclusion:  Exhibition of heat resistance by microorganisms capable of low temperature growth presents quite a challenging situation in terms of quality assurance and shelf life extension of pasteurized milk. So it is high time that dairy industry takes up initiatives to remain updated with the changes happening in pasteurized milk microflora in order to address the challenges such microorganisms may pose in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Shrimp Shell Flour Substitution on Croissant Liking Level

Rcakasiwi Adiarsa, Junianto, Wahyuniar Pamungkas, Rusky Intan Pratama

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i4628

This research aims to determine the effect of different ratios of shrimp shell flour and wheat flour in making croissants on the level of panelist preference. This research was conducted at the Fishery Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University in September 2022. The method used in the research is the experimental method with the treatment of four different ratios of the use of wheat flour and shrimp shell flour, namely 100% wheat flour, 2.5% shrimp shell flour: 97.5% wheat flour, 5%: 95% and 7.5%: 92.5% with 20 panelists as replicates. The parameters tested were appearance, aroma, texture, and taste. Data processing used Friedman test and Bayes test. Observations made were hedonic tests including appearance, aroma, texture, and taste as well as chemical tests in the form of proximate and calcium content tests. The results showed that croissants with a usage ratio of 5% shrimp shell flour: 95% wheat flour is the most preferred treatment by panelists with an average value of appearance 7.10; aroma 7.00; texture 6.70; and taste 7.40; calcium 289.591 mg/100g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Micronutrients of Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum melongena Fruits Consumed in Burkina Faso

Charles W. Yaméogo, Franck Garanet

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i4630

Aim: In Burkina Faso, low micronutrients intake is one of factors responsible of under five years children malnutrition. Research on local food to find best vegetables rich in micronutrients is a way to improve children nutrition. The aim of this study is to assess micronutrients content in the fruits of Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum melongena grown in Burkina Faso.

Methodology: From three markets of Ouagadougou city, fresh samples of fruits of the two plants have been purchased. After one month drying in laboratory at 25°C, the dried samples were used to determine content of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Phosphor (P), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) using flam photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The results showed high content of K, Mg and Ca in the fruits. The content of Na, P is also satisfying. Fe and Zn known as trace elements are also well represented in the two fruits. The values were 3582, 187, 126, 87, 29, 21 and 2 mg/100 g for K, Mg, Ca, Na, P, Fe and Zn, respectively for the fruits of S. aethiopicum. S. melongena fruits had 2991, 317, 207, 135, 30, 6 and 4 mg/100 g for K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, Fe and Zn, respectively. 

Conclusion: These two fruits are important sources of micronutrients and must be included in children diet to improve their nutritional status.