Open Access Original Research Article

The Physicochemical Quality of Chicken Meatball Using Red Lentil Flour (Lens culinaris L.)

Nur Ifadah Rohmah , Herly Evanuarini , Imam Thohari

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 8, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i8648

Aims: The aim is to determine the physicochemical quality of chicken meatballs added with red lentil flour (Lens culinaris L.) based on moisture content (%), protein content (%), WHC (%), cooking loss (%), and color (L*a*b*). Sample: chicken meatballs using red lentil flour.

Study Design: The research with an experimental method, using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data were tabulated using Microsoft Excel and taken standard deviation (SD), then using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) from Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Use the DMRT (Duncan's Multiple Range Test) if the result differ.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Animal Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Brawijaya Malang and Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety Testing, Faculty of Agricultural Product Technology, University of Brawijaya Malang. December 2022.

Methodology: 4 treatments consisting of without the addition of red lentil flour, the addition of red lentil flour 3%, 6%, and 9%, and five replications.

Results: Chicken meatballs with red lentil flour produce chicken meatballs that contain fiber and have attractive colors. Chicken meatballs with 9% red lentil flour had the best content of moisture content 52.11%, protein content 15.76%, WHC 94.94%, cooking loss 2.09%, and color (L* 81.10) (a* 6.94) (b* 29.33).

Conclusion: Chicken meatballs added with 9% red lentil flour (Lens culinaris L.) produce the best quality. Chicken meatballs have attractive colors and contain nutrients such as protein so that the resulting chicken meatballs can become a new product accepted by the public.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Effect of Different Packaging Materials on Microbial Quality of Locust Beans during Storage

A. O. Ogunlade , O. A. Okunade, S. O. Abiona

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 8, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i8649

This study assesses the effect of different packaging materials on the microbial quality of Africa Locust beans during storage. Locust beans (Dawadawa) also known as iru, among the Yorubas in South-west Nigeria, is a popular condiment used as a taste and flavour enhancer in soup and dishes in Africa. Locust bean is traditionally produced from locust beans seed (Parkia biglobosa) and preserved using different packaging materials before use in order to prolong its shelf life. The Microbiological examination of the produced locust beans was carried out on samples wrapped with different packaging materials such as plastic containers, nylon, and dry banana leaves. The suspected organisms isolated include Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc sp, Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. It was observed from this study that locust beans packaged with banana leaves had the highest microbial load, few of which are of public health concern while plastic containers had the least microbial load. It is therefore recommended that locust beans should be produced and packaged with sealed plastic containers to avoid contamination by pathogenic organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of annealing, heat moisture treatment and citric acid on major physicochemical properties of cocoyam starch was investigated. This was done in order to establish the optimum processing condition with the aim of enhancing the utilization capacity of the starch. Starch extracted from red and white Cocoyam (Tania) Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Taro Colocasia esculenta cultivars respectively were subjected to modification using annealing, heat moisture treatment and citric acid methods. The modified and native starch samples were analyzed for chemical composition using standard methods, likewise the x-ray diffraction pattern and starch granules morphology of the samples were assessed. The result showed that amylose content ranged from 24.81 - 38.16%, protein 0.00 – 0.77%, ash 1.19 – 3.16 and carbohydrate 84.19 – 86.79%. The X-ray diffraction patterns of red and white cocoyam starches showed a strong peak at 15o, 18o and 23o (2ø) indicating A-type starch. Colocasia esculenta starch also displayed A-type diffraction pattern with additional peak at 24o. The modification methods used did not change the diffraction pattern of the starch samples but only influenced the intensity of the diffraction peak. The scanning electron micrographs showed that the starch granules were small to medium in size with most having irregular shape and smooth surface. Annealing and citric acid caused little noticeable fractures on some granules without compromising starch granules integrity. Heat moisture treatment however resulted in evident loss of starch granules integrity. The modification methods affected the physicochemical properties of cocoyam starch samples in a varying pattern which may qualify the starch samples for use in different food and non-food applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Study of Four Leafy Vegetables Produced and Sold in the Southern Zone of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo)

Mabiala Ngouma Breve , Enzonga Yoca Josiane , M. D. Mvoula Tsieri

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 8, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i8651

Generally overlooked by consumers, many local leafy vegetables in the Republic of Congo are considered to be part of the rural way of life and “poor man's food”. In order to promote their consumption, this study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of four leafy vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus L, Basella alba, Solanum nigrum L and Ipomea batatas L).

The leafy vegetables were collected from two markets and two market garden sites. The pH and the contents in moisture, protein, ash, lipids and minerals (Ca, P, Fe and Mg) were determined using standard analytical methods (Association of Official Analytical Chemists).

The results indicate that the four leafy vegetables have a pH of between 6 ± 0.03 and 7 ± 0.04, high moisture content (81.43 ± 0.20 to 94.89 ± 0.12 g/100g FW), high protein content (21.95 ± 0.05 to 32.59 ± 0.07 g/100g FW) and high ash content (13.32 ± 0.05 to 25.78 ± 0.03 g/100g FW). All the vegetables were low in lipids (between 2.73 ± 0.23 and 4.81 ± 0.20 g/100gDW). The investigations also show that the four vegetables studied have high levels of phosphorus (389.27 ± 3.23% to 875.22 ± 3.16 mg/100 g DM), iron (70.29 ± 0.15 to 180.06 ± 1.21 mg/100 g DM), calcium (106.78 ± 3.25 to 3404.57 ± 8.07 mg/100 g DM) and magnesium (679.20 ± 2.25 to 2331.25 ± 3.26 mg/100 g DM). In addition, the vegetables collected at the market garden site of the municipal garden had the best a best Ca/P ratio (2.56 to 4.59).

These findings suggest that these leafy vegetables represent a genuine alternative source of protein and especially micronutrients (iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium) for human nutrition, health and food safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Changes of Common Edible Frying Oils during Frying of Traditional Foods

Farjana Rashid , Farzana Akter , Md. Momin Khan, Md. Suman Rana, Tasmia Bari, Moumita Das, Md. Ahmadul Islam , Mohammad Gulzarul Aziz

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 8, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i8652

This study aimed to examine the impact of the frying process on the physical and chemical properties of widely consumed edible oils. Soybean, palm, and mustard oils, as well as raw dulpuri and singara products, were procured from the nearby marketplace. The oils underwent five consecutive frying cycles at temperatures exceeding 160°C and were subjected to five hours of heating. Analyses including determination of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), and optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 425 nm were performed. Following multiple rounds of frying and heating, the levels of FFA, PV, and oxidative stability index exhibited an increase, whereas the IV demonstrated a decrease across all three types of oils. The OD of soybean and palm oils exhibited an upward trend, whereas that of mustard oil initially displayed a decline, followed by a gradual ascent. In comparison to soybean and mustard oils, palm oil exhibited the most noteworthy escalation in FFA, PV, SV, and OD parameters. The levels of FFA, PV, SV, and oxidative stability in palm oil exhibited an increase from 0.23 to 2.6 mg KOH/g sample, 5.0 to 10.2 m.eq/kg, 195 to 206 mg KOH/g sample, and 0.37 to 0.85, respectively. Conversely, IV decreased from 51 to 43 g I2/100 g. Sensory evaluation revealed that the palatability of food items fried in palm oil and soybean oil was comparable, with the products fried in mustard oil being ranked lower in terms of acceptability.