Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison on Qualities of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Dorsal Muscles Cooked Using Superheated Steam and Other Heating Methods

Takeshi Nagai, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Norihisa Kai, Nobutaka Suzuki

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42136

Qualities of chum salmon dorsal muscles cooked using a commercially available household superheated steam (SHS) oven [water-oven cooking (WO) and water-grilling cooking (WG)] were investigated, and were compared with those using other heating conditions without SHS [oven cooking (O) and grilling cooking (G)]. As a result, samples cooked by WO had a better appearance, color, and odor than those cooked by O. Samples after heat treatment by G and WG for 30 min were glossy, but were scorched on the surface. After PV, CV, TBARS, and AV were individually measured, degrees of oxidative deterioration of samples were evaluated using PV+CV+AV index. In comparison to O, index values of samples by WO, G, and WG were fairly low. It was concluded that SHS cooking was an effective heating method to produce superior quality of grilled fish (broiled fish) in terms of overall appearance and color, texture (harder on surface and softer in inside), and retardation or inhibition of lipid oxidation, in comparison with oven cooking or grilling cooking with dry air.

Open Access Original Research Article

To alleviate hidden hunger on a long term basis, there is need to establish the nutrient composition of vegetables and determine the level of their incorporation into diets to meet body requirements of relevant vitamins and minerals. This research was aimed at evaluating the nutrient composition and changes in nutrients induced by processing and storage of an underutilized leafy vegetable (Talinum triangulare) with good potentials for alleviating micronutrient malnutrition. Changes in carotenoids, chlorophylls, selected vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin K and niacin) and minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron) of T. triangulare leaf during moist heat treatment and storage (28±2°C) were evaluated. HPLC was used to determine the carotenoid profile. Results indicated that the raw leaf contained moderate amounts of lutein (124.03 µg/gdwt) and total β-carotene (45.42µg/gdwt). Cooking and storage significantly (p > 0.05) increased the contents of Total- β-carotene. Cooked leaf samples contained more trans/cis-isomers of β-carotene than raw and stored samples. Initial concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio were 2.62, 0.94 mg/100 gfwt and 2.78 respectively. T triangulare was found to be a good source of magnesium, ascorbic acid and zinc. Cooking decreased the contents of chlorophylls, water-soluble vitamins and minerals significantly (p>0.05), but remarkably increased the pro-vitamin A content of T. triangulare. Storage resulted in the reduction of vitamins and minerals. The levels of β-carotene (pro-Vitamin A) in cooked water leaf, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and phylloquinone are adequate to meet their corresponding in Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) s for children and adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Risk Assessment of Selected Trace Metals in Edible Vegetables Grown in Obudu Urban Area of Cross River State Nigeria

Akpe, Michael Akomaye, E. Inah, Bassey, N. Osabor, Vincent

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41561

Aim: Edible vegetables are consumed directly as food or medicine in Obudu urban area of Cross River State, yet they are sometimes grown in old wastes dumpsites where wastes containing trace metals may have been disposing of indiscriminately, with the view to tap the composted manure. The objective of this study was to assess the health risk of selected trace or heavy metals in this edible vegetables in the area.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar, Calabar Nigeria, between January and March, and July and September 2016 for dry and rainy season respectively.

Methodology: Edible vegetable samples were collected at five different locations together with the soil samples where each vegetable was planted during the dry and rainy season of the year respectively. They were digested and their average Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn concentration was determined using the 210 VGP Buck scientific model Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The health risk was assessed using the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) values determined from AAS data.  

Results: These showed that the mean concentration of Pb in the soil in mgkg-1 ranged from 0.011 - 0.033 and 0.010 - 0.031 for the rainy and dry season respectively, while that of Zn ranged from 0.165 - 0.635 and 0.163 - 0.627 for rainy and dry season respectively. Hg and Ni were considered string variables as they were not detected in the soil or vegetables. The average concentration of Pb and Zn accumulated by the vegetables in mgkg-1 ranged from 0.005 - 0.023 and 0.004 - 0.018 for the rainy and dry season respectively, while that of Zn ranged from 0.017 - 0.074 and 0.016 - 0.079 for the rainy and dry season respectively. The trend of the average concentration of the metals in the soil and vegetables was in the order: Zn > Pb > Hg > Ni. The THQ values of Pb and Zn were in range 0.0018-0.0101 and 0.0001-0.0004 respectively, all less than 1.

Conclusion: From the results, there is some level of heavy or trace metal concentration present in the soil and the edible vegetables in the area but the amount is still low and within the permissible limit of WHO/FAO, and there is no health risk associated with the consumption of the vegetables as far as the studied metals are concerned for now.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Screening of Black Soup

I. E. Aigbogun, A. A. Orukotan, S. A. Ado

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41926

The aim of this research was to determine the proximate composition and phytochemical molecules of black soup. The soup was made in the food and industrial post graduate laboratory of Kaduna State University. The leaves used were obtained, identified and authenticated at the Amhadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The leaves were prepared to powder prior the proximate and phytochemical screening. Percentage proximate composition of the combined leaves revealed moisture content (11.0), ash (16.0), crude protein (3.0), crude fat (13.0), crude fibre (11.0) and carbohydrate (46.0). Qualitative phytochemical shows the presence of steroid, tannin and flavonoid. This result is indicative that the soup is an excellent source of nutrient and can serve as medicinal meal.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Potential of Some Nigerian Local Food as Source of Functional Food and Their Health Promoting Benefits

Israel Okpunyi Acham, Dorcas Nguemo Kundam, Abraham Tartenger Girgih

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41784

Functional food is a novel area that has occupied much interest in recent time among Food scientists and consumers due to the health promoting attributes. These special foods contain ingredients that aid specific body functions and promote our wellbeing. Since, people are becoming conscious of their healthy lifestyle, the rich repository of these unique local functional food sources which Nigeria has to offer can address these peculiar needs. This review therefore, was part of effort to compile and document some of Nigeria’s local functional food sources of plant/animal origins and project some of the potentials that are inherent in them. The review gave the most acceptable definition of functional food in view of the differing professional views on the subject matter. It highlighted the relationship between functional food and health as well as areas covered by functional foods. Finally, this review welcomed more research that could ascertain the beliefs of the people as regards the health potentials of some of the identified local foods from Nigeria as functional food sources, which are affordable and could be consumed by all.