Open Access Short Research Article

Bee Honey Color Variation throughout the Year

Roberto Quintero-Dominguez, Jose Luis Reyes-Carrillo, Lino de la Cruz-Larios, Diego Raymundo González- Eguiarte

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39858

Bee honey is a highly valued food whose international marketing is controlled by quality standards that are based on its physicochemical properties. One of them is color, which does not reflect a high or low quality, but rather the preferences of certain consumer markets. Color in honey is mostly determined by its floral sources that constantly change throughout the year. This study was intended to record color variations of the honey collected by Apis mellifera. For this purpose, honey was sampled from three selected hives, in an apiary in the town of Huejotitan, state of Jalisco, in western Mexico, on a monthly basis for a year. Color was measured according to the Pfund scale. Humidity was also measured since fermentation due to excessive moisture could spoil the samples. Two additional samples were collected, as well, from the bulk of honey at the time of the harvests, directly from the extractor: one from the spring harvest in May 2012, and the other from the fall harvest in December 2012. A total of 23 samples were obtained from December 2011 to December 2012. Color ranged from 0 mm Pfund (water white) to 85 mm Pfund (light amber) and humidity from 17% to 24%. It was discovered that the samples collected during the peak of the nectar flow, October - November, were contrastingly whiter than the rest. Although requiring more work, since consumers prefer clearer honeys, it is concluded that honey harvested at intervals during the high flow in the hives, with careful consideration of the moisture and making sure to keep honeys from different hives, apiaries and producers separate, a wider variety of honeys would be obtained, with different shades of color and different properties, better targeting the more specialized and demanding markets of today.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield, Quality and Shelf-life Responses of Three Varieties of Soybeans to Three Processing Temperatures Using the Vitagoat System of Soymilk Production

E. Atuahene, B. K. Maleekuu, P. Y. Adjei, P. K. Tandoh

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39127

Three improved varieties of soybean, Anidaso, Nangbaar and Quarshie were used in the study to determine the effect of variation and processing temperature on the yield, quality and shelf-life of soymilk produced by the VitaGoat processing system. Two kilograms of each of the varieties were processed into soymilk at three temperatures of 110°C, 115°C and 120°C. The yield of each variety at the various temperature levels was measured by the total volume of the soymilk produced. Three samples of the soymilk from each variety were randomly selected for proximate analysis. Five samples were also randomly selected, kept at room temperature and monitored daily for three weeks to determine their shelf-life based on spoilage by coagulation. Nangbaar variety processed at a temperature of 110°C recorded the significantly highest soymilk yield and the least was recorded by Quarshie variety treated at a temperature of 120°C. Soymilk produced at 110°C was significantly (p<0.01) highest in protein content than at 115°C or 120°C. The combined effect of Anidaso and 110°C was significantly (p<0.01) highest in protein content than that of the other combinations. The soybean varieties did not significantly (p<0.01) influence the shelf-life of soymilk during the study. Soymilk produced at 120°C had significantly (p<0.01) longer in shelf-life than that of 110°C and 115°C. Quarshie at 120°C had significantly (p<0.01) longest in shelf-life than that of the other interactions. It was concluded that Anidaso at 110°C was rated the best among the varieties and processing temperature for producing high protein content soymilk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Added Moringa Seed Paste on the Quality of Acha -moringa Flour Blends

J. A. Ayo, O. E. Adedeji, A. A. Okpasu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/38636

The research is aimed at investigating the effect of added moringa seed paste on the proximate, mineral, vitamin composition, functional properties of the acha-moringa flour blend. Moringa paste was substituted into acha flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% (w/w) to produce acha-moringa flour blends, coded AB1, AB2, AB3, AB4, AB5, and AB6, respectively. The proximate, minerals, vitamins, functional and pasting properties varied with mark significant differences (p = 0.05). The proximate composition- moisture, ash, protein, fats, fibre increased from 8.23 to 9.23, 1.05 to 1.53, 3.38 to 4.61, 1.88 to 2.87, and 2.43 to 3.14 %. Minerals contents increased at the inclusion of moringa seed paste (0-25%) in acha flour blends with Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Fe, from 18.61 to 20.29, 28.67 to 30.95, 30.61 to 42.34, 0.66 to 1.08 and 0.76 to 1.39 mg/100g. Respectively Similarly, the vitamins content significantly increased (p = 0.05) with the inclusion of moringa seed paste (0-25%). The vitamin A, C and B12 increased from 2.51 to 3.56; 3.61 to 5.50, 14 to .39 mg/100 g, respectively. Bulk density, water absorption capacity and forming capacity decreases from 0.75 to 0.64 (g/cm3), 1.57 to 1.10 (cm3/g), and 15.80 to 10.63 (%) respectively; while, there were increase in emulsification and oil absorption capacity (38.58 to 54.21 (%) and 2.58 to 3.05 (cm3/g), respectively, at p = 0.05). The pasting properties showed a significant decrease, p = 0.05, with decrease in peak viscosity, trough, break down, final viscosity, set back, pasting temperature, from 2919.00 to 1499.50; 1388.50 to 822.50; 1530.59 to 677.00, 3527.00 to 2197.50; 2138.50 to 1375.00 RVU, 77.43 to 71.25°C; respectively, but increased the pasting time from 5.13 to 5.53 min with increase in the moringa paste (0-25%). The added moringa seed paste had proven to improve the mineral, vitamins, functional and pasting qualities of acha cereal flour which had been underutilised industrially in Nigeria. Acha –moringa seed flour blend could be a nutritious meal for diabetes, and other health challenged individual.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cashew kernel oil was processed, used in combination with procured soya bean oil and used in the formulation of basal rat diets. Three rats were decapitated initially and their serum cholesterol (SC) determined before the feeding trial. The remaining 60 rats were randomly assigned into six groups of ten rats each labeled I, II, III, IV, V and VI.  Basal diet (BD) alone was fed to I; which was used as the control. Group II was fed with BD and 0.20 g crystalline cholesterol (CC). Group III was fed BD and 2.0 g of cashew kernel oil (CKO). Group IV was fed BD and 2.0 g soya bean oil (SBO). Group V was fed with BD, 2.0 g CKO and 0.2 g CC. Group VI was fed BD, 2.0 g of SBO and 0.20 g CC. Feed and water was provided ad libitum for ten weeks. After which the effect of cholesterol, CKO and SBO on total serum cholesterol (SC) and triglyceride of the rats was analyzed. The result showed that addition of 0.20 g crystalline cholesterol to the BD resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in total SC (128.60 mg/dl) as against 92.84 mg/dl of rats fed with BD. The serum triglyceride (ST) of rats fed CKO and SBO were 64.04 and 81.50 mg/dl, respectively and were lower than the ST of rats fed CC with a value of 101.29 mg/dl. CKO and SBO lowered the SC of the rats to 152.15 and 137.97 mg/dl, respectively from 158.60 mg/dl. Feeding rats with cashew kernel oil (CKO) and soya bean oil (SBO) has a positive effect in reducing serum cholesterol (SC) and triglyceride (ST).

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral Studies and Photo-Sensitized Oxidation of Melon Seed Oil

S. S. Angaye, A. K. Inengite

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/39578

Purified samples of melon seed (Citrullus lanatus) oil extracted from melon seeds obtained from a local market in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria were analyzed by FTIR,1H NMR, 13C and DEPT-135 NMR. The frequency data shows the oil to contain unsaturated acyl chains in its triacylglycerols. The FTIR shows stretch vibrations of the cis-olefin double bond and the ester carbonyl at 1748 cm-1. The 1H NMR confirms the presence of allylic, 1.99-2.04, bis-allylic, 2,726-2.753 vinylic, 5.265-5.328 and glyceryl 4.097-4.238 (Sn-1,3) and 5.421-5.328 (Sn-2) protons. These are further confirmed by data from carbon-13 NMR; signals between 27.17 and 27.18 (allylic carbons); the signal at 25.2 (bis-allylic carbons); signals between 120 and 130 (vinlylic carbons), signals at 68.91 (Sn-1,3) and 62.07 (Sn-2) (glyceryl carbons). Some deductions of the 13C NMR data were further confirmed by data from the DEPT-135. Sensitized oxidation of a sample of the oil in the presence of methylene blue and monitored by thin layer chromatography and chemical analysis shows the formation of peroxide. The results from the sensitized photooxidation indicate that exposure of the oil in the presence of sensitizers such as chromophoric impurities is likely to reduce the shelf-life of the oil.