Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Toxicity & Biomarker Response of Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) to a Daily Dose of Beer

Obemeata E. Oriakpono, Lebura K. Sam-Bariepie

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40705

The effect of Beer was evaluated on Albino rats. Sperm count, kidney function test, liver test, red blood cell, pack cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cell, platelets, lymphocytes were evaluated. The results revealed the mean serum Na, K and Cl reduced from 155.33, 6.13 and 99.33 in week 1 to 146.33, 4.80 and 87.3 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) across the group when compared to the average control for Na and K. HCO3 had a mean of 19.0 in week 1 and a mean of 21 in week 4 in the treated group and the control group had 23.33 in week 1 and 24.33 in week 3. AST had a mean of 47.33 in week 1 which reduced to 23.33 in week 4 while ALT had a mean of 14.00 in week 1 and 15.00 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) across the group. The mean serum protein had a mean of 61.77 in week 1 and a mean of 68.11 in week 4 but the treated group was generally lower than the control group. Mean PCV reduced from 33.33 in week 1 to 25.13 in week 4, Hb from 11.20 in week 1 to 12.60 in week 3 then up to 13.35 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) when comparing the test with the average control, WBC had a mean of 8.60 in week 1 and 9.03 in week 4 in the treated group, Platelet count was 300 in week 1 and 514 in week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05) when compared to the average control. RBC had a mean of 5.0 in week 1 and 7.23 in week 4. Lymphocyte for week 1 had a mean value of 65 and decreased to 62.60 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) when compared to the average control. While the mean sperm count was 62.60, 115 and 125 in week 1, 2 and 3 with the control group having 84, 475 and 575 in week 1, 2 and 3 respectively. This showed that Beer had a negative effect with a significant difference (P<0.05) on the sperm count in the test when compared with the control. These findings demonstrate that Beer had a detrimental effect on the sperm count, liver kidney and on the haematological parameter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Loss Rate and Organoleptic Characterisation of Kola Nuts (Cola nitida) during Conservation

N’Guessan Jean-Marc, Konan Brou Roger, Nimaga Daouda, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Amani N’Guessan Georges

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44696

Aims: The conservation of fresh kola nuts produced in Côte d'Ivoire and intended for the export, poses a veritable problem for the farmers. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of biopesticide TopBio and three types of packaging to preserve kola nut. 

Study Design: Harvest kola nuts, cleaning, setting up conservation methods, sensory evaluation and loss rate. 

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, from September 2018 to March 2018.

Methodology: Good Hygiene Practices (GHP), a biopesticide (TopBio) and three containers, namely the rattan basket lined with Thaumatococcus daniellii., leaves, the polystyrene trays and the triple bagging bag have been used for the treatment and preservation of kola nuts. The rate of loss and organoleptic characteristics were assessed during conservation.

Results: After one month of storage, the GHP-CBS, GHP-CRS, Bio-CBP, Bio-CBS and Bio-CRS methods favoured 100% of loss rate. Moreover, after 6 months of storage, the GHP-CBB, GHP-CRB, Bio-CBB and Bio-CRB methods allowed to have a loss rate of less than 10%. While the highest loss rates were observed at the GHP-CBP and GHP-CRP methods with respectively 42.47% and 81.57% loss.

Conclusion: The preservation method with Good Hygiene Practices and PS trays has made it possible to conserve the water content and organoleptic characteristics of kola nuts, unlike technologies with the biopesticide, the rattan basket and the bag triple bagging.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bread Production from Different Flours Using Strains of Baker’s and Palm Wine Yeasts

R. U. B. Ebana, U. O. Edet, I. K. Anosike, C. A. Etok, V. B. Ekpenyong

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42928

Bread is widely eaten across the world and the science of its baking has come a long way. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of using Baker’s and palm wine yeasts on the performance and sensory properties of bread  baked with bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), corn (Zea mays), golden penny and wheat flours in addition to nutritional analysis of the flours and Baker’s yeast. Collection of samples, processing of flours, palm wine yeast isolation, proximate and elemental analyses, and baking of the various breads were done using standard methodologies. Sensory evaluation was performed using Likert scale and replicate readings were analysed using analysis of variance. Baker’s yeast had the highest amount of fat, ash and protein but lower than the rest in fiber and carbohydrate content. Amongst the flours examined for proximate composition, bean flours had higher amounts of moisture, ash and fiber, but not carbohydrate and fiber. Vitamins A, total and soluble vitamin C were present in all our sampled flours and Baker’s yeast. Baker’s yeast had the highest amount of these vitamins followed by corn and beans. Elemental composition analysis showed that the flours contained potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese and phosphorus in varying amounts. Although Baker's yeast did slightly better than the isolated yeast with all the flour types, its sensory evaluation with maize and wheat flours samples were better than that of bean flour. The findings indicate that isolated yeast from palm wine compares favourably with Baker's yeast in the leavening of wheat bread, sensory properties and performance parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Alum Treatment on Functional Properties of Cassava Starch

M. O. Adedokun, O. A. Adedokun

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44819

Chemical modification is usually carried out to overcome the unstable properties of plant starches and improve their physical and functional characteristics during processing. Alum modification at different concentrations (1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0% and 5.0% w/v) with and without 10ml of IM sodium hydroxide at room temperature was carried out. Cassava starch treated with 3.5% of alum showed a profound influence on pasting properties compared to the native starch in that it exhibited a reduction in the peak viscosity of the modified cassava starch increased. Alum modification also freeze-thaw stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation of Composition and Sensory Qualities of Pupuru Produced from Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and Tigernuts Flour

Johnson Akinwumi Adejuyitan, Sulaiman Adebisi Olaniyan, Kikelomo Oyeladun Ibirinde, Elisabeth Abimbola Ojo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42256

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and tiger nuts are valuable crops with little or insignificant utilisation. In this work, the compositional and sensory qualities of pupuru produced from the composite flour of breadfruit and tiger nuts are characterised and reported. The substitution ratio of pupuru and tiger nut flour was 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% substitution. The composite flour was analysed for some chemical and physicochemical properties. The flour was added in boiling water and stirred continuously to form a thick paste of pupuru meal. The prepared pupuru meal was evaluated for sensory properties. The compositional analysis of the flour samples showed an increase in protein (2.75-3.73%), fat (3.25-11.48%), ash (1.07-1.43%) and fibre (3.31-5.11%) contents with increasing level of tiger nut flour. No significant change in bulk density and less water absorption capacity were observed for composite flour.  Sensory evaluation of produced pupuru meal concludes that the samples with 10% substitution had a highest sensory score.