Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Pigeon Pea-wheat Flour Mixes in Bread Production

B. F. Olanipekun, V. F. Abioye, O. J. Oyelade, C. O. Osemobor

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43677

It is considered that pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) has higher and more balanced protein than most of the other legumes. However, protracted cooking time, antinutritional constituents and dehulling constraints are responsible for its underutilisation in the developing countries. In this study, pigeon pea was processed into flour using different processing methods (Soaking, Sprouting, and Roasting), and subsequently used as a wheat flour supplement for baking bread. The bread was analysed for the proximate composition, physical and sensory attributes. The proximate composition analysis indicates more protein (17.73-18.51%) and ash (3.50-3.73%) contents in the bread produced with 20% substitution of the sprouted pigeon-pea-wheat flour than others. Loaf volume, specific volume, oven spring, crumb hydration and bread strength increased whereas a decreasing trend was observed for density with the increasing substitution percentage. Sensory results showed that substitution levels at 5 and 10% with soaked and roasted pigeon pea flour gave the highest rating while bread samples with sprouted pigeon pea flour had the lowest rating. The study has established that sprouted pigeon pea-wheat flour mixes have more nutritional potentials. As per the sensory analysis indices 5-10% substitution levels of the soaked and roasted pigeon peas are acceptable at p<0.05. Conclusively, utilisation of pigeon pea in the human diet as a source of plant protein has potentials of combating malnutrition problems especially among the vulnerable people of the developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Food and Nutrient Provision within Prisons in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

Nana Ama Frimpomaa Agyapong, Reginald Adjetey Annan, Charles Apprey

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43579

Objective: Food provision within the institutional environment is important and goes beyond satisfying the physiological need for food to other matters such as overall health and wellbeing which are of core importance to individuals. There is a paucity of data as regards food and nutrient provision within Ghanaian prisons. This study assessed nutrient provision from a static menu within three adult prisons in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

Design: The Household record was used to determine the quantity of ingredients provided for each food item on the menu and the West African food composition table was used to analyse nutrients from raw ingredients weighed. 

Settings: This study was conducted within three prisons, one female prison and two male prisons.

Results: The overall mean daily caloric provision for the three prisons was 2114.1±329.3 kcal/d. Protein 38.23 g/d for males, 418.4 g/d for females, fibre 24.8 g/d for males, 42.4 g/d for females, vitamin A 88.25 µg/d for males, 3087.2 µg/d for females, vitamin E 4.65 mg/d for males, 18.5 mg/d for females, vitamin C 19.95 mg/d for males, 96.4 mg/d for females, vitamin B12 0.95 µg/d for males, 2.8 µg/d for females and folate 234.4 µg/d for males, 868.3 µg/d for females provided were inadequate for male inmates but in excess for females.

Conclusion: Nutrients provided by the prison food was outside the recommended quantities being mostly excessive for females and inadequate for males. Interventions of appropriate nutritional provision should commence in Ghanaian prisons as inadequate or excess nutrient provision poses a health risk to inmates.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of Lactobacillus species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the mineral and anti-nutrient composition of kunu samples was investigated.  Two species of Lactobacillus and yeast were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of kunu which was allowed to ferment for 48 hours at 35±2°C. The mineral and anti-nutrient content were analysed using standard procedure. Results obtained showed that nitrogen, calcium, potassium and magnesium content of kunu fermented using starter culture were higher than that of naturally fermented kunu. The highest mineral content in terms of nitrogen (0.97 mg/100 ml), potassium (67.57 mg/100 ml), magnesium (51.33 mg/100 ml) and calcium (11.02 mg/100 ml) were detected in kunu fermented using S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum. However, the amount of phytate, oxalate and tannin contents were lower in kunu fermented using starter culture compared with naturally fermented kunu. The least phytate (40.00 mg/kg), tannin (24.03 mg/kg) and oxalate content (15.00 mg/kg) were reported in samples with S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum. In conclusion, the co-culturally fermented kunu of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum could play an important role reducing the level of anti-nutrient and also increase the mineral composition of kunu compared to natural or spontaneous fermentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micronutrients in African Yam Bean-carrot Flours and Acceptability of Its Gruels for Complementary Food

R. E. Kukwa, P. E. Okpainya, J. K. Ikya

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43536

Aims: To explore the benefits of the African Yam Bean (AYB) and carrot composite flour blend for combating the problem of micronutrient deficiency in Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry Department, Benue State University, Makurdi and Advance Animal Science Laboratory, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, between December, 2017 and April, 2018. 

Methodology: Production was done in three stages: first, AYB was processed into flour, carrots into powder and finally the blend formulation of the AYB and Carrot composites was prepared by material balancing in the ratio of 100:0, 80:20, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100. Chemical and micronutrient evaluation was then carried out. Standard procedures of AOAC were then used to analyse the micronutrients in the samples and the sensory qualities of the gruel was evaluated using nine-point hedonic scale. The data were subjected to one way ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test to detect the significant differences.

Results: The results obtained shows that beta carotene (vitamin A precursor), thiamine, vitamin B2, B6, and B12 content of formulations increased in the range from 10.26±0.04 - 102.19±0.00, 0.19±0.01 - 0.22±0.00, 0.05±0.00 - 0.95±0.01, 4.68±0.01 - 15.39±0.01 respectively with addition of carrot powder in a blend. The calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium and sodium content of the flours ranged from 10.51±0.01 - 39.16±0.05, 1.26±0.01 - 10.94±0.02, 407.94±0.06 - 90.69±0.01, 49.24±0.03 - 70.33±0.00 and 86.23±0.02 - 106.31±0.02 respectively. The products were moderately liked by the panellist with the least sample 70:30 liked slightly.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that these composite flour blends could be considered as an alternative source for formulating products with high acceptability and micronutrient content especially vitamin A. However, the biological value of this composite flour needs to be known and reconciled with chemical composition before it could effectively be used in weaning children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Physical, Functional and Microbiological Properties of Composite Bread from Wheat, Tigernut and Defatted Sesame Flour Blends

Samuel A. Ahemen, Angela N. Shima, Israel O. Acham

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43894

The research was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of tigernut and defatted sesame flours on the physical, functional and microbiological properties of the wheat bread. Tigernut and sesame were processed into flour, which were used in partially substituting the wheat flour. Six blend ratios of 100:0:0 (sample A), 90:10:0 (sample B), 85:10:5 (sample C), 80:10:10 (sample D), 75:10:15 (sample E) and 70:10:20 (sample F) were designed for wheat, tigernut and defatted sesame flours respectively. The physical properties of the bread loaves were evaluated and the results decreased significantly with addition of tigernut flour and increase in the level of substitution wheat flour with defatted sesame flour. The bread weight ranged from 158.23-210.07 g, loaf volume varied from 360-672 cm3, bread specific volume was in the range of 1.71-4.14 cm3/g and oven spring lied between 0.43-2.80 cm. The result revealed the following ranges for functional properties of the flour blends: OAC (1.19-1.38 g/g), WAC (1.33-1.63 g/g), BD (0.65-0.69 g/mL), SC (1.13-1.34 cm) and LGC (0.80-1.00%). While the results of the microbiological properties showed that the total bacterial count ranged between 2.67 x 102 – 2.33 x 104 cfu/g and total fungi count ranged from 2.67 x 102 – 5.83 x 103 respectively. Coliforms were not detected. The study concluded that it is possible to produce composite bread with the incorporation of tigernut and defatted sesame flour. This will go a long way in reducing the over-dependence on wheat, improve the use of more local resources and make bread more affordable especially for the low-income consumers.