Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Properties of Husk Tomato Juice and Its Impact in Stirred Probiotic Yogurt

Eman M. Hegazy, Afaf O. Ali, Hoda Samir El-Sayed, Jihan M. Kassem

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i229962

Background: Thinking about something new that is important for consumer health is a great concern to all those interested in the dairy industry and its products. Husk Tomato is a promising nutritious fruit rich in minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant compounds.

Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate Husk Tomato Juice (HTJ) constituents, its antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties. Then utilize it for producing stirred probiotic yogurt (SPY) as a novel fermented product.

Methodology: The main components and sugars of fresh HTJ were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant activity by DDPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazil) test as well as total phenolic compounds were also determined. Four treatments of SPY fortified with 20, 30, 40 and 50% (v/v) HTJ & Lb. casei FEGY9973 (as probiotic bacteria) were prepared and served as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively were compared against control without juice.

Results: Data revealed that the main compounds of HTJ were Sinapic (8.170 µg/ml), Protocatechuic (6.344 µg/ml) and Cinnamic (4.660 µg/ml). Contents of Fe, Mg, Na and Ca were 1.766, 1.627, 7.436 and 12.14 mg/100 g. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of fresh HTJ were 68.88% and 319.15 ppm respectively. It was found that HTJ had powerful antimicrobial activity against both of Y. enterocolitica and Ent. faecalies. On the other hand, data revealed that the antioxidant activity of fresh SPY samples were significantly (p<0.05) higher 67.66, 76.93, 69.34 and 69.59% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 in order, compared to control sample (66.57%). While, appearance scores had no significant (p>0.05) for all samples in fresh, 5 and 10 days of storage. All treatment samples possessed acceptable sensory properties.

Conclusion: It could be conducted that SPY fortified with 20 and 30% HTJ had been successfully produced as a healthy dairy product.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Organic Nutrients on Some Quality Properties of Popcorn (Zea mays L. everta)

Haktan Cihangir, Abdullah Oktem

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i229965

Aims: Organic nutrients such as animal manures, plant-derive compost, biosolids and bioliquids contain varying amounts of plant nutrients and can improve the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soils. They are used primarily for promoting growth of a plant or improving the quality of a crop. Study was aimed to find out the effect of conventional and fifteen different organic nutrients (peat, compost, cattle manure, chicken manure, horse manure, sheep manure, pigeon manure, vermicompost, seaweed + cattle manure, compost + humic acid, cattle manure + humic acid, chicken manure + humic acid, horse manure + humic acid, sheep manure + humic acid and peat + humic acid) on some quality properties of popcorn.

Study Design: Trial was designed in complete randomized block design with three replications. Ant-Cin-98 popcorn cultivar was used in the study. Each parcel comprised 4 lines. The planting was made into a depth of 5-6 cm along the lines 5 meters long with a row spacing of 70 cm and intra row of 20 cm.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Diyarbakır - Cermik conditions of Turkey between 2010 and 2011.

Methodology: The effect of conventional and fifteen different organic materials to some quality parameters of popcorn such as cob ratio, 1000-kernel weights, test weight, popping volume and number of unpopped kernel were evaluated in the study. Physical and chemical properties of the trial area were determined by taking soil sample from a depth of 0-30 cm on the trial area before planting.

Results: According to the investigated results, the highest and the lowest values were ranked between 19.98% (peat + humic acid) and 17.26% (vermicompost) for cob ratio, 138.65 g (seaweed + cattle manure) and 122.48 g (chicken manure) for 1000-kernel weight, 81.29 kg hl-1 (horse manure + humic acid) and 75.62 kg hl-1 (vermicompost) for test weight, 19.71 cm³ g-1 (peat) and 17.17 cm³ g-1 (sheep manure + humic acid), for popping volume 5.92% (peat) and 3.65% (horse manure + humic acid) for number of unpopped kernel.

Conclusion: Higher values were obtained from organic nutrient sources than conversional application in all tested quality parameters. The implementation of organic fertilizers together with humic acid in popcorn produced better results in comparison to alone implementation of organic fertilizers. Also it was determined that use of natural enemies of Trichogramma spp against corn borer can be possible without any chemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriology Screening of Roasted and Raw Chicken Sold in Tripoli

Hend Shubar, Basma Doro, Aida Ghalboun, Azher S. Ben Hamed, Aisha M. Atewa, Aya F. Ben Saleem, Fadia B. Aboud, Asma Ramadan

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i229967

Aims: This work was carried out to screen for the presence of bacteria in roasted chicken sold in the market, poultries shop and restaurants in Tripoli.

Study Design: A total of 25 roasted chicken and 25 raw chicken parts randomly collected from different selling points in Tripoli.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology laboratory in microbiology and immunology department in the faculty of pharmacy in university of Tripoli, January 2013 to September 2013.

Methodology: Bacteriologically examined using the standard microbiological method according to Based on the colonial morphological and biochemical test, the following bacteria species were isolated.

Results: Prevalence of Salmonella was higher in raw chicken samples (100%) compared to the roasted one (28%), E. coli was detected in both raw and roasted chicken (32%), whereas Shigella and E. coli O157:H7 were detected only in roasted chicken [(8%) and (24%)] respectively.

Conclusion: The study found that the raw chicken samples were more susceptible to bacterial contamination than the roasted chicken samples, therefore special strategies are needed to decrease the prevalence of bacterial pathogens in chicken samples present in Tripoli area. Therefore good handling/hygiene in processing and preheating of roasted chicken before consumption is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive & Biomarker Response to a Daily Dose of Instant Noodle Seasoning in Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

E. Oriakpono, Obemeata, C. Ibanibo, Blessing

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i229968

The effect of a daily consumption of Instant noodle seasoning containing the Monosodium glutamate (MSG) on rat was evaluated, The parameters investigated include; Alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase  (AST). Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) white blood cell (WBC), protein, platelets, lymphocytes and Serum electrolytes; sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). Sperm count was also investigated. The results revealed the following, the mean PCV was 29 and 25.13on week 1 and week 4, with an average control of 30.69, mean Hb was 10 in week 1 and 6.57 in week 4, RBC had an average control of 5.28 while week 1 had a mean of 4.77 and week 4 3.67, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) for PCV and Hb. The mean WBC and Lymphocyte were 6 and 61 in the first week, and 5.8 and 60.17 on the fourth week, with an average control of 5.28 for WBC and 77.53 for lymphocytes. Platelet had a mean of 251 on the first week and a mean of 532 on the fourth week with a significant difference across the group in WBC and platelets (P<0.05). The mean serum Na, K and Cl reduced from 140.67, 4.13 and 100.67 in week 1 to 116, 2.5 and 98 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) across the group when compared to the average control for Na and K. HCO3 had a mean of 23.67 in week 1 and a mean of 22.67 in week 4 in the treated group. AST had a mean of 24 in week 1 which increased to 41.67 in week 4 while ALT increased from a mean of 4.00 in week 1 and 28 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) across the group. The mean serum protein was 51.93 in week 1 and a 74.29 in week 4. The mean sperm count was 800, 299.67, 450.67 and 501 for week 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results indicates that daily consumption of Instant noodle seasoning may cause liver damage, and kidney dysfunction and has been discovered to have negative effects on blood and sperm cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Acha and Sprouted Soybeans Flour on the Quality of Wheat Based Cookies

M. O. Eke, D. Ahure, N. S. Donaldben

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v7i229969

Cookies was produced from wheat (Triticum, spp), acha (Digitaria exilis), and sprouted soybeans (Glycine max) flour blends. The acha and soybeans were processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour at different proportions with 100:0:0 wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour (WAS) as the control, 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 45:45:10, 40:50:10 and 35:55:10 (WAS). The functional properties of the wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour blends, physical properties and proximate compositions of the cookies were determined. The functional properties of the flour samples shows that the bulk density, wettability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and gelatinization temperature ranged from 0.63 g/ml-0.99 g/ml, 10.21-12.98 g/sec, 6.53-12.52 g/g, 0.52-0.66 g/g and 63.7-65.1ºC respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the values. The proximate composition of cookies sample showed that crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content ranged from 12.14-16.48 %, 2.10-3.74 %, 1.76-2.55 %, 2.75-8.55 %, 9.18-9.50 % and 59.37-72.06 % respectively. The physical properties of cookies showed that the weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio ranged from 15.61-17.11g; 61.59-63.20mm; 9.88-11.99mm and 5.28-6.24 respectively. The control sample cookies from 100:0:0 (WAS), wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour blends sample had the highest sensory scores in terms of the taste, appearance, texture, aroma and overall acceptability. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the colour, texture and aroma but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the taste and overall acceptability in 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 45:45:10, 40:50:10 and 35:55:10 (WAS) samples.