Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Grain Fermented with Lactobacillus Species as a Probiotic Food

Opemipo Tomilayo Ishola, Anthony Okhonlaye Ojokoh, Odesanya Oluwayemisi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i230005

Aims: This study assess the effect of the fermented Acha samples in-vivo using apparently healthy and infected laboratory animals.

Study Design: Acha was fermented in two forms (Local fermentation and controlled fermentation).

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Medicine (Medical Unit IV) and Department of Radiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Services Hospital Lahore, between June 2009 and July 2010.

Methodology: Acha was weighed into a fermenting container of 100 g and water of 1 litre was added to submerge it for 72 hours in the ratio 1:3. Microbial, proximate and mineral analysis was carried on all the samples. For 21 days, all fermented samples were used to feed rats infected with Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae except for the control for in vivo study and evaluated for their probiotic potential. Also, hematological study and histopathology analysis were carried out on the small and large intestine of the Albino rats that was fed with the fermented samples. The various fermented samples were freeze dried to retain the organisms used for the fermentation.

Results: Haematological study (PCV, WBC, RBC, Platelets, haemoglobin and differential leucocytes) and histopathology analysis (small intestine and large intestine) of rats from all experimental groups showed that Acha fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to rebuild shrinked and ruptured cells on the mucosal lining of the walls of the intestines.

Conclusion: Acha fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus was observed to have the best results on the weight of rats, white blood cell count, red blood cell count and probiotic effect on the intestine of the rats fed with it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Background: Heavy metals contamination has been reported at petrol station environments. There is a possibility of contamination foods around petrol stations.

Objectives: In this study, the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr, long term exposure and daily consumption of ready-to-eat food foods sold at Petrol station’s Atmospheric conditions (AF) in Calabar Metropolis was evaluated.

Methods: Foods samples, including such prepared ready-to-eat foods were collected at the point of sale at the fuel stations in Calabar Nigeria, about 7:00am in the morning before they were opened for sale (and exposed to the environment of the filling stations). These were labelled “Before”. At about 2:00pm to 3:00pm same day, the same ready-to-eat food samples were collected again at the same spots, for a duration of 3 months.

Results: In this study, the levels of Pb, Cd and Cr were determined in some ready-to-eat foods that are sold around the filling station environments in Calabar metropolis. The results obtained showed that the levels of Pb and Cd were significantly (p<0.05) increased in garri, afang soup, melon soup, white rice, beans, stew and meat pie, while the level of and Cr was significantly (p<0.05) increased in afang soup, melon soup, white rice, beans, stew and meat pie after 6 hours of exposure to petrol station’s atmospheric conditions.

Conclusion: From this study, it may be concluded that exposure of ready-to-eat foods at the filling station’s atmospheric conditions may cause heavy metal contamination to the foods, particularly Pb, Cd and Cr.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Sachet and Bottled Water in Ogbomoso Metropolis, Nigeria

Augustine I. Airaodion, Edith O. Airaodion, Etinosa U. Osemwowa, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i230007

Background: Access to potable water has become a difficult task in many countries of the world including Nigeria. In Nigeria, the government is trying her best to make water supply available to the masses but till now this vision has never been accomplished. If those living in urban areas could not have access to portable water supply by the government, what is the fate of the people living in rural areas? This has led to increased usage of sachet and bottled water as portable drinking water.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of sachet and bottled water produced and/or sold in Ogbomoso metropolis, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in Ogbomoso and Ibadan both in Oyo State Nigeria between November 2018 and February, 2019.

Methodology: Twenty sachet and five bottled drinking water brands; making a total of 25 brands from different manufacturers were used for this study. They were purchased randomly from local markets, shops and street vendors within Ogbomoso metropolis. They were clearly marked for easy identification, and transported to the Quality Assurance Laboratory of Water Corporation, Eleyele, Ibadan for immediate analysis. The samples were examined physically and information on the packages were recorded. Each product was carefully opened to avoid contamination. The physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities as well as the mineral composition of all samples were analyzed using standard methods and results were compared with the recommended WHO/NIS guidelines for quality water.

Results: Physical examination indicated that all the sampled water were registered with NAFDAC but 50% of the sachet water had no manufacturing and expiry dates. The results of physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities as well as the mineral composition of sachet and bottled drinking water analyzed showed that 90% of the values were within the guideline of WHO/NIS for quality water.

Conclusion: Though, the average temperature values of both the sachet and bottled drinking water samples were significantly above the WHO/NIS standard, it did not have any effect on their microbiological quality properties. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria       that principally characterize drinking water quality were not present in any of the water       samples. Generally, the results obtained in this study indicated that sachet and bottled drinking water produced and/or sold in Ogbomoso metropolis were of good quality and hygienic for consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Quantification and Sensory Assessment of Moi-Moi Prepared from Bambara Nut and Cowpea Flour Blends

Innocent N. Okwunodulu, Grace C. Peter, Felicia U. Okwunodulu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i230008

Background: Moi-moi is a popularly relished snack in Nigeria prepared from cowpea which is deficient in essential sulphur containing amino acids but rich in lysine and some vitamins. Bambara nut is rich in essential amino acids, fiber, calcium, iron, carotene, oil, carbohydrate, protein and energy than cowpea.

Aim: This study aimed at investigating the complementary effects of bambara nut and cowpea flour blends on the nutrient and acceptability of moi-moi.

Study Design: To fit a one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: At Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria between March and June, 2018.

Methodology: Cleaned and sorted bambara nut was cracked, winnowed, milled and sieved while cowpea seeds were steeped in tap water for two hours, hand dehulled, oven dried at 60°C, milled and sieved separately. Their flour blends were mixed according to bambara: cowpea ratios of 100:0 (sample A), 75:25% (sample B), 50:50% (sample C), 25:75% (sample D) and 0: 100% (sample E) and used to prepare moi-moi. Same quantities of seasonings were added per 100 g of each blend and mixed into a homogenous paste texture. The seasonings used were 10 ml of Life vegetable oil, 5 g of ground crayfish, 5 g of onion, 5 g of tomato, 2 g of salt, 2 g of pepper and 8.03 g of magi. Each paste ratio was then wrapped in “Etere” leaf and steamed separately in covered pots for 50 minute using a gas cooker. Cooled moi-moi samples were subjected to proximate analyses, energy value calculations and sensory evaluation.

Results: Results showed increase in nutrients with increase in cowpea flour inclusion except in carbohydrate which decreased from 31.95 to 16.35%. Protein values increased from 10.40% to 13.50%, fat from 3.90 to 6.40%, fiber from 1.25 to 2.00%, ash from 1.30 to 2.15%, moisture from 51.20 to 59.69%. Energy values decreased with increase in cowpea inclusion from 726.45 to 839.49 kj/100 g. Sensory evaluation showed that 100% bambara nut moi-moi were most preferred by the panelists followed by 25% bambara nut: 75% cowpea flour blend, while 50% bambara nut: 50% cowpea flour blend was least preferred.

Conclusion: Nutrients increased with increase in cowpea flour. Bambara flour substitution should not be more than 25%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dehulling on the Vitamins, Minerals and Sensory Properties of Toasted African Breadfruit (Treculia africana) Seeds

Innocent N. Okwunodulu, Peace I. Mmeregini, Felicia U. Okwunodulu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i230009

Toasted dehulled African breadfruit seeds are popular snack in the south eastern part of Nigeria. Consumption of toasted dehulled seeds may result in hidden hunger due to some nutrient losses during toasting. Raw breadfruit seeds bought from the markets were sorted and divided into two batches. One batch was parboiled at 100°C for 15 minutes, manually dehulled, winnowed to remove the hulls and toasted in a frying pan at 45°C for 30 m with constant stirring to obtain crispy light brown seeds. The other batch was toasted without dehulling at same temperature-time regime and allowed to cool to room temperature before manual dehulling. Nutrient content of dehulled and undehulled toasted seeds were evaluated with standard analytical methods for nutrient losses and sensory properties to know the effects on acceptability. This study was carried out in Umuahia, Abia State capital of Abia State Nigeria between March and June, 2018. Results showed that un-dehulled toasted breadfruit (UTB) sample had significant (P=.05) higher vitamin A (1.62 mg/100 g), B1 (0.03 mg/100 g), B2 (0.02 mg/100 g), B3 (0.85 mg/100 g), vitamins C (2.61 mg/100/g), E (0.43 mg/100 g) than dehulled toasted breadfruit (DTB) sample with 1.47 mg/100 g, 0.02 mg/100 g, 0.01 mg/100/g, 0.76 mg/100 g, 2.44 mg/100 g and 0.37 mg/100 g respectively for vitamins A, B1, B2, B3 C and E. The UTB had significantly (P=.05) higher calcium (48.23), phosphorous (55.35), sodium (22.72), zinc (0.93) than DTB with respective values of 43.66, 52.67, 20.09 and 0.04 all in mg/100 g The DTB sample had significant (P=.05) higher potassium (336.29) magnesium (35.97) and iron (1.68) than UTB with respective values of 295.86, 32.85 and 1.53 all in mg/100 g. The UTB had significant (p< 0.05) higher general acceptability (7.51) than DTB (7.36). The DTB had higher loss in all the vitamins and in some mineral than DTB with better acceptability.