Open Access Short Research Article

Background: Bread is one of the most commonly used breakfast food in India. The consumption also increased tremendously among children and adolescents as well as to some extent among adults. It was found that white bread raises the blood glucose levels and is not considered to be a healthy breakfast option especially for those with diabetes mellitus and those at risk of increased or borderline glucose intolerance.

Aim: To assess different commercially available bread and its effect on Blood Glucose Levels of Healthy Individuals.

Study Design: 5 bread varieties were chosen (namely White, Brown, Multigrain, Oats and Tutty fruity bread). The samples were fed to 30 subjects and their effect on blood glucose was analysed.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in BMN College of Home Science, Matunga, Mumbai, India.

Methodology: A pilot study was conducted on 30 samples to assess the Blood Glucose Levels of each type of bread. The subjects were then given bread-butter and the blood glucose response was re-tested at gap of 1 hour and 2 hour respectively. Each subject was given 5 different varieties of bread for 5 consecutive days i.e. White bread, Brown bread, Multigrain bread, Tutty Fruity bread and Oats bread. White bread is a universal standard, was used as a standard in the study.  The average plasma glucose levels were analysed in the study.

Results: The average plasma glucose spike of the standard (White bread) was found to be the highest i.e (131.63 mg/dl).  It was observed that oats bread was found to have the lowest spike post 1 hour (103.43mg/dl) while tutty fruity bread exhibited a very high blood glucose response (123.90mg/dl) following the standard white bread.

Conclusion: Investigations proved that oats bread should be consumed by people to mitigate metabolic syndrome due to a stressful lifestyle. Also, a healthy diet and exercise regime to be followed by subjects in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Bent) Leaf Cold and Hot Water Extracts

B. A. Akinpelu, A. Godwin, T. Gbadegesin, N. Ajakaye, S. E. Omotosho, S. O. Azeez, M. Oziegbe, O. O. Oyedapo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i130000

Aim: To investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and genotoxicity activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides leaf.

Study Design: Comparative investigations of the medicinal value and toxicity profile of cold water (CW) and hot water (HW) extracts of C. crepidioides leaf.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. January 2015-October 2016.

Materials and Methods: CW and HW of C. crepidioides were analyzed for anti-inflammatory activity via red blood cell membrane stabilization technique and in vitro methods using DPPH radical scavenging activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and inhibition of oxidative haemolysis were employed to evaluate the antioxidant property. Allium cepa chromosomal assay was adopted to investigate the genotoxic effect of the extracts. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of the extracts were estimated spectrophotometrically.

Results: Both extracts stabilized stressed red blood cell membranes with maximum percentage stability of 50.97±0.06 and 90.90±0.02 at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml for CW and HW extracts respectively. The CW extract elicited no DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 -0.63±0.02 mg/ml) and lipid peroxidation (IC50 -0.32±0.00) activities. HW extract had IC50 of 0.29±0.02 and 0.17±0.00 mg/ml for DPPH and lipid peroxidation. CW and HW extracts exhibited FRAP activity of 1186.96±0.01 and 1015.54±0.01 µmol AAE/g respectively. CW extract displayed a weaker protection (29.01±0.01%) against oxidative haemolysis compared to HW extract (68.70 ± 0.00%). CW extract contained higher phenolic contents (2.16±0.03 µmolGAE/g extract) while the HW extract contained higher flavonoids (0.61±0.05 µmolQE/g extract). CW and HW extracts inhibited A. cepa root growth to 71.40±0.02 and 59.10±0.02% respectively. A. cepa mitotic index was reduced to 8.85±0.01 and 8.67±0.02 for CW and HW extracts as compared with control (26.62%).

Conclusion: The study concluded that consumption of C. crepidioides leaf in cooked form has more medicinal values however, both CW and HW extracts are capable of causing cellular damage at high doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Burden and Evaluation of Human Health Risks in Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, A. J. Alhassan, A. Nasir, M. Bala, A. Usman, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, S. A. Yaro, I. Muhammad

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i130001

This study was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration in Tomato fruits cultivated in Katsina State Nigeria. The objectives were mainly to detect the presence of heavy metals in the cultivated Tomato fruits in the study area, compare the concentration of heavy metals in samples in relation to the permissible limits specified by WHO/FAO/USEPA Standards. Samples of cultivated tomato fruits were collected in the year 2017 from the selected areas. Analysis for the concentration of these heavy metals; Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was conducted by the use of AAS (by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method. The health risks to the local inhabitants from the consumption of the samples were evaluated based on the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ). The possibility of cancer risks in the samples through intake of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR). Results from this study has shown that with the exception of the mean values for the heavy metal Pb (1.171–1.21 mg/kg), the mean concentration (mg/kg) range values of Zn (0.558- 1.851), Fe (0.880–1.181), Mn (0.458-0.671) and Cd (0.054-0.062) were below the WHO/FAO maximum permissive limits. The results have indicated that the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the heavy metals were lower than the tolerable daily intake limit set by the USEPA in all the samples. All the studied tomato fruits showed the risk level (HI < 1). Risk level of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ < 1) was observed for all the evaluated heavy metals for both adults and children. The THQ for the samples were in the decreasing order Mn>Zn>Pb>Fe>Cd, for all the tomato fruits respectively. ILCR for Cd violated the threshold risk limit (>10−4) and ILCR for Pb reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3) in all the studied samples in adults, While in children ILCR for both Pb and Cd violated the risk. The sampling area trend of risk for developing cancer as a result of consuming the studied samples showed in decreasing order: Daura senatorial zone > Funtua senatorial zone> Katsina senatorial zone for both adult and children.  Cumulative cancer risk (∑ILCR) of all the studied tomato fruits reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3) in adults, while in children it is above the moderate risk limit (>10−2). The study suggests that consumption of the studied tomato fruits in Katsina state is of public health concern as they may contribute to the population cancer burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Proximate, Mineral and Anti-Nutrient Content of Composite Roasted Corn Flour with Its Traditional Roasted Corn Counterpart for Homemade Complementary Foods

ROUGBO N’djoman Paterne, DOUE Ginette Gladys, SEA Téhi Bernard, ENVIN Bogui Anicet

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i130002

The present study aimed to produce and evaluate the physicochemical composition of an improved and enriched roasted corn flour with soybean (5%) and groundnut (5%) flours comparatively to its traditional preparation for homemade complementary foods. Samples of (corn, soybean and groundnut) were dried and milled to produce two types of roasted corn flour: the roasted corn flour with soy and peanut and the traditional roasted corn flour with corn only. Laboratory analyses of chemical proximate like nutrients, minerals and anti-nutrients properties were determined according to standard procedures. Data generated were subjected to one way analysis of variance using using SPSS 11.0 software. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the samples.

Regarding proximate composition, the composite roasted corn flour is distinguished by higher crude fat (5.83%), protein (19.66%), carbohydrate (62.31%), fiber (3.67%), ash (1.85%) and calorific (442.99 Kcal/100 g) value. Likewise, mineral contents increased significantly (p<0.05) in the composite roasted corn flour with high value in all the studied minerals including potassium (779.11 mg/100 g), phosphorus (242.83 mg/100 g), calcium (132.45 mg/100 g), zinc (2.67 mg/100 g) and iron (1.44 mg/100 g). The studied of anti-nutrients, showed that composite roasted corn flour also exhibit lower value in oxalate (8.03 mg/100 g) and phytic acid (3.48 mg/100 g). It could be concluded that the composite roasted corn flour appears to be suitable for homemade complementary foods to cover infant and young children needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Incidence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Bacteria in Salad Vegetables in Ondo City, Nigeria

O. O. Bello, M. O. Oni, J. O. Bello, T. K. Bello

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v9i130003

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria in salad vegetables in Ondo City, Nigeria.

Study Design: An experimental study design with randomized sampling.

Place and Duration of the Study: The research was carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences of Wesley University, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Samples of cucumber, carrot, green pea, green beans, sweet corn and cabbage were analysed on appropriate agar medium. Pure isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmation was done by the use of API 20 E and API 20 NE in accordance with standard procedures. ESBLs screening was carried out using the double disk synergy test. Data were statistically analyzed using MedCalc statistical software (version 17.2).

Results: Total viable bacterial counts (TVBCs) ranged from 1.1 × 103 to 7.1 x 105 cfu/ml; total coliform counts (TCC) ranged from 1.2 x 102 to 3.9 x 103 cfu/ml while total faecal counts (TFC) ranged from 0 to 2.9 × 102 cfu/ml. There were statistical differences in mean TVBCs of the samples (P < 0.05).  The mean TCCs of cabbage, carrot and cucumber showed no statistical significance; green beans, green pea and sweet corn also showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05). One hundred and sixty (166) isolates obtained from the samples were identified as Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcesens and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. At least one member of all bacterial species, except S. saprophyticus, produced ESBL. 

Conclusion: This study revealed that salad vegetables could be a vehicle for the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria which translates to a threat to public health around the world as salads are loved and consumed by all categories of people globally.