Open Access Minireview Article

A Brief Review: Lectins, Protease Inhibitors and Saponins in Cereals and Legumes

M. D. J. C. Sandarani, K. A. A. V. Kulathunga

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v10i430044

Cereals and legumes are substantial in the human diet of tropical and sub-tropical regions. Anti-nutrient factors in cereals and legumes are secondary metabolites which can interfere with nutrient digestion and absorption after ingestion. This review will focus on the different content factors found in cereals and legumes including lectins, protease inhibitors, and saponins. It is important to show the treatments which are used to reduce the anti-nutrient factors in cereals and legumes. Therefore, this review sought to summarise the available literature on different techniques that have been used to reduce the concentration of anti-nutrient factors in foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Microbial Load of Milk Shakes Available in Various Educational Institutes of Lahore

Wasim Sajjad Awan, Waqas Ahmed, Touseef Iqbal, Aniq Ur Rehman, Iftikhar Younus, Azmat Ullah Khan, Naveed Shahzad Khan

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v10i430045

Background: A milkshake is a delicious and non-carbonated refreshment produced using dairy, frozen flavour related item. The growth of microbes is inevitable in milk shakes when proper hygienic conditions were not maintained. These microbes may produce toxins which are harmful and may lead to food poisoning. This study was established to calculate total plate count (Staphylococcus aureus, Total coliform and Salmonella) present in Apple and Banana milk shakes.

Study Design: The samples from 25 different public and private educational institutes were collected to analyse using pour plate method to determinate total microbial load in apple and banana milk shake.

Results and Discussion: Total plate count in August was significantly higher than in November. In August TPC range of banana shake was between 2.3x107-7.2x107 cfu/ml and respectively in November range between 2.1 x107-6.7 x107cfu/ml. In August TPC range of apple shake between 2.2x107-7.5x107 cfu/ml and respectively in November range between 2.08 x107-6.5 x107cfu/ml. The S. aureus in banana milk shake were positive 19 (76%) in the month of August and 15 (60%) were also positive in the month of November. The S. aureus in apple milk shake were found to be positive 18 (72%) during August and 16 (64%) were also positive during November. The Total coliform count in apple milk shake was positive 16 (64%) in August and 14 (56%) were also positive in November. The total positive coliforms were 15 (64%) in August and 14 (56%) were also positive in November.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed a much higher prevalence of microbial load in banana and apple. We suggested that in most of the samples, the total bacterial load was much higher than recommended by the Gulf standard. So these drinks are not fit for consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preservation of Strawberries Using Guava Leaves Extract

G. K. Gituma, L. G. Njue

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v10i430046

Background: A lot of health hazards have been associated with artificial preservatives including: hyperactivity in children, breathing problems such as asthma and bronchitis, weakening of heart tissues, obesity since some contain fatty acids especially in processed foods and gastrointestinal disorders. Sulfite is a common preservative in fruits and was found to have the following side effects: headaches, allergies, palpitations and cancer. Another down side of artificial preservative is that a lot of time is used in developing and acquiring it thus making it expensive. There is therefore need for a natural preservative.

Objectives: This study was conducted to develop a natural preservative from guava leaves extract that would help increase the shelf-life of strawberries.

Methods: The study was conducted in the food microbiology laboratory, Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Crude extract was obtained by crushing dry guava leaves into 100 g powder and adding 600 ml of boiled water. The mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hr to allow extraction. The extract was then filtered and used to determine its inhibition against fungi. The extract was also serially diluted to obtain 5 different concentrations which were used to determine their effectiveness in increasing the shelf life of the strawberries. The results were recorded and discussed.

Results: The plates with the highest concentration of guava leaves extract had the lowest number of microbial colonies while the one with the lowest concentration on had the highest number of microbial colonies. The control samples had by far a higher number of microbial colonies than all the different concentrations of the extract.

Conclusion: The crude extracts of guava leaves showed inhibition against fungi and increased the shelf life of strawberries. Further studies need to be conducted in order to obtain a purified preservative from the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proximate Composition of Fresh and Fermented Milk in Parts of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Y. Aliyu, I. O. Abdullahi, C. M. Z. Whong, C. E. `Anumiri, J. D. Bwala, J. S. Esimi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v10i430047

This study assessed the proximate composition of fresh and fermented milk in parts of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 180 samples comprising of fresh milk, bulk milk, nono, and kindirmo were collected over a period of six (6) months (May to October, 2017) from six (6) Local Government Areas (two Local Government Areas from the three Senatorial Zones in the State). Proximate parameters – dry matter (total solids), crude protein, crude fibre, oil, ash and nitrogen-free extract (soluble carbohydrates), were determined using the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The results of the proximate analysis showed that bulk milk samples generally had the most nutritional content than the other sample types in most of the sampled areas. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found between the mean values of dry matter (total solids), oil, and ash contents of bulk milk samples and nono in the sampled areas. The mean dry matter content of bulk milk samples collected from Nasarawa Local Government Area was 9.04±0.01, while that of nono samples collected from this area was 7.28±0.72. Fresh and bulk milk samples collected from Nasarawa, Keffi, Wamba, and Lafia Local Government Areas were found to contain more minerals (ash) compared to kindirmo samples collected and this may be attributed to the loss of some of the minerals during the processing of fresh milk to make kindirmo. The mean value of ash content of fresh milk and kindirmo samples from Nasarawa Local Government Area was 0.72±0.04 and 0.64±0.01, respectively, while the mean value of ash content of fresh milk of fresh milk and kindirmo samples from Keffi Local Government Area was 0.78±0.01 and 0.71±0.02 respectively. The samples were found to contain little or no fibre and this is not surprisingly as milk is not known to be a major source of fibre. Variations in the proximate composition of some fresh milk samples collected from the sampled areas may be attributed to genetic differences within a breed as all the cows from which the samples were collected, were of the same breed (White Fulani). All the samples analysed met the specifications for proximate composition stipulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Difference in Types of Freshwater Fish as Raw Materials for the Preference Level of Korean Fish Cake

Muthia Nurlestari Putri, Rusky Intan Pratama, Yuli Andriani, Iis Rostini

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v10i430049

Aims: This research aims to determine the effect of different types of freshwater fish as raw material for making Korean fish cake to the level of preference of panelists.

Place and Duration of Study: Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University in February-March 2019.

Methodology: The method used in the research was the experimental method with the treatment of three different freshwater fish raw materials, namely freshwater pomfret, catfish and red tilapia. Data processing using Friedman Test and Bayes Test. The observations made are the hedonic test which includes appearance, aroma, texture and taste. Physical tests in the form of a folding test and bite test, chemical tests include tests of water, protein and fat levels.

Results: The results showed that Korean fish cake with raw materials of red tilapia was Korean fish cake which was most preferred by panelists with an average score of appearance, aroma, texture and taste are 7.50; 6.70; 7.30 and 6.90. Folding test with a value of 5 (very rubbery), bite test with a value of 8 (strong). Chemical test results of water content is 38.38%, protein level is 15.64% and fat level is 9.05%.

Conclusion: Korean fish cake with raw materials of red tilapia was Korean fish cake which was most preferred by panelists.