Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Flours from Three Purple Maize Varieties Named “Violet de Katiola” in Côte d’Ivoire

Flavie A. Akaffou, Djary M. Koffi, Mariam Cisse, Sébastien L. Niamké

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44034

Aims: The study examined the proximate composition and functional properties of flours from three purple maize varieties from Côte d’Ivoire with a view to exploring their potential uses in food and non-food applications.

Study Design: Three different purple maize varieties were grown on different experimental plots and the harvested dry maize kernels were processed into flours to determine their physicochemical and functional characteristics.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Biotechnology Laboratory of Felix Houphouët-Boigny University. May to December 2017.

Methodology: After collecting dry maize kernels from experimental plots they were processed into maize flour. Physicochemical composition and functional properties were investigated using standard methods. The yellow corn variety was used as a control in this study.

Results: The results reveal that purple corn flours had highest in protein (ranging from 9.72 to 10.09 g/100 g) and fat (ranging from 5.87 to 6.21 g/100 g) contents as well as energy value (ranging from 380.66 to 384.04 kcal/100 g) while carbohydrate and starch contents were found to be highest in yellow corn flour with values of 77.85 and 67.27 g/100 g, respectively. Mineral composition showed that the consumption of 100 g of flours from purple corn would provide about 32% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of iron. Also, purple corn samples contain higher total phenolic compounds (232.14 – 253.80 mg/ 100 g) compared to yellow corn variety (116.51 mg/ 100 g). These total polyphenols were mainly constituted of anthocyanins (135.87 – 178.54 mg/ 100 g). Therefore, they exhibited a good antioxidant activity (69.22%) Concerning the functional properties of flours from purple and yellow maize, there was no significant difference. These flours recorded high bulk density, dispersibility and oil absorption capacity as well as good wettability and foam stability.

Conclusion: purple maize varieties recorded a good antioxidant activity related to their content of polyphenolic compounds. This suggests their potential health benefits like in prevention of many metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. These corn varieties have also exhibited interesting functional properties, therefore, would be suitable for use as a functional ingredient in many food formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

This research was carried out to determine the effects of thermal process of boiling of soy bean seeds on the nutritional status of soy milk and soy yoghurt produced by fermentation. The soybean seeds were de-hulled, boiled and thermally processed to soymilk. Food sweetener (Glucose -D), cassava stabilizer and starter cultures were added to the samples to enhance the spontaneous fermentation. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Lactobacillus spp, Aspergillus spp and Saccharomyces spp were isolated from the fermenting samples. The proximate composition showed that the soy yoghurt had more protein content than soymilk while the soymilk had more crude fiber, moisture content, fat content, ash content and carbohydrate. The soy yoghurt was more acidic pH 3.7 than the soy milk pH 6.4. The acidic nature of the soy yoghurt together with other metabolites of Lactic acid bacteria prevented the continued growth of food borne pathogens and spoilers thus ensuring the safety of soy yoghurt. Soy yoghurt can be used as a close substitute for cow milk which is relatively expensive to the rural dwellers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Assessment of Vitamins A, E, C of the Mature Breast Milk of Women Living in Cote d’ivoire

Matogoma Digbé Ble, Gervais Melaine M’boh, Jean David N’guessan, Michelle Ake

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/40907

The breast milk is the ideal food of the infant because takes part in his development, and protects it from many diseases. However, the dietary habits of the nursing mother can influence the nutritional value of milk during the period of lactation, and this fact of depriving the infant of certain essential molecules. The objective of this study was to assess vitamins A, E and C of the mature breast milk in partnership with the consumption of fruit and vegetables among women living in Côte d’Ivoire.

The study was carried out in Abidjan in two health services maternal and infantile from January 24th, 2017 to June 28th, 2017. The frequencies of consumption of fruit and vegetables and the taking of mother's milk were realized on the 45th and 105th day after childbirth. Vitamins A and E in milk were carried out by liquid chromatography, and the vitamin C by Spectrophotometry. The statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the software statistical SPSS version 18. Analysis of variance was performed, and the defference was significant for a p value p<0.05. It was noted an irregular consumption of fruit and vegetables. None the women consumed five fruit and vegetables per day. The frequencies of consumption were of 0, 1 and 2 fruit and vegetables per week. The concentrations in vitamins (A, E and C) were weak over the two periods of taking away (45th and 105th day), and given Vitamin C (0.38±0.03 mg/dL with 0.21±0.06 mg/dL); Vitamin E (0.6± 0.03 mg/mL with 0.32±0.22 g/mL); Vitamin A (457.97±141.54 µg/L with 401.53±197.84 µg/L). This study showed an irregular consumption of the women nursing out of fruit and vegetables and a reduction in the rate of vitamins A, E and C during the period of lactation. The differences observed with other nursing women quoted in the literature require more investigations in order to define the possible origins and consequences of them on the evolution of the immune system of the child up to 6 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Noodles Made from Rice Flours of Major Non-glutinous Rice Cultivars of Japan

Takeshi Nagai, Anri Takagi, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Norihisa Kai, Nobutaka Suzuki

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 4, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43952

Rice flours from five species of major non-glutinous rice cultivars in Japan were used to produce noodles in this study, and these properties of noodles were evaluated and compared to those made from medium wheat flour. There was a large difference on moisture and apparent amylose contents of rice flours between the varieties, but there was almost no difference on damaged starch contents. Lower breaking strength was observed on rice noodles as compared to that made from medium wheat flour. On the other hand, rice noodles exhibited significant high adhesiveness (p=.05). By sensory analysis, rice noodles showed high adhesiveness and low smoothness. Akitakomachi flour was most appropriate for production of noodles using these flours. Commercially available grain vinegar (0-0.5%) was used instead of brackish water (kansui) to improve rice noodle quality. Noodle made with 0.5% grain vinegar particularly resulted in good quality in terms of breaking strength, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and sensory evaluation. The results revealed that addition of grain vinegar significantly improved the texture to produce rice noodle with acceptable quality.

Open Access Review Article

Bioactive Compounds in Fish and Their Health Benefits

Dorcas Nguemo Kundam, Israel Okpunyi Acham, Abraham Tartenger Girgih

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 4, Issue 4, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/41803

Fish have received considerable attention in the last several decades due to the presence of a unique blend of bioactive compounds like omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein hydrolysates, polypeptides, peptides, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The danger of developing chronic ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer; all-leading to mortality are observed to be lowered by increased intake of fish and fish products. The unique bioactive compounds in fish are pointers to the health benefits of fish ingestion. In this paper, bioactive compounds in fish and the health benefits associated with their consumption are reviewed.