Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Watermelon Rind (Citrullus lanatus) Addition on the Chemical and Sensory Quality of Sorghum Based Mumu

S. T. Gbaa, S. A. Ahemen, M. O. Eke, P. O. Ochelle

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 4, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i430066

Aims: The aim was to evaluate the effect of watermelon rind addition on chemical and sensory properties of sorghum based mumu.

Study Design: The experimental design used was the complete randomized design (CRD) and the Data obtained was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s Least Significant Difference(LSD) test to compare treatment means; differences was considered significant at 95% (P≤0.05) (SPSS Version 21 software).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, between June 2018 and March 2019.

Methodology: Sorghum-based mumu was prepared from composite flours of 85:15, 75:15, 70:15 and 65:15% roasted sorghum flour and roasted partially defatted groundnut flour respectively and included with 0, 10, 15 and 20% watermelon rind powder respectively which were known as sample A, B, C and D accordingly and sample A was used as control. Subsequently, proximate composition, selected minerals and vitamins were determined using standard methods. Sensory evaluation was also conducted.

Results: The addition of watermelon rind powder to sorghum-based mumu showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the protein, ash and fibre. Their values ranged from  13.67 to 15.97%, 1.99 to 3.17% and 1.33 to 1.67% respectively, while moisture, crude fat and carbohydrate decrease with values ranged from 12.35 to 10.70%, 2.07 to 1.94% and 68.59 to 66.55% respectively. The energy values ranged from 347 to 348.76 Kcal/100 g). The results obtained from different minerals tested ranged as follows for phosphorus (124.10 to 155.67mg/100g), for magnesium (1.36 to 2.90 mg/100 g), for calcium (12.28 to26.67 mg/100 g) and for potassium (59.29 to 72.79 mg/100 g). Vitamins ranged from A (14.93 to 15.25 ug/100 g), C (5.97 to 8.12mg/100g), B1 (0.43 to 0.54mg/100g) and B2 (0.01 to 0.13 mg/100 g). Sensory evaluation results showed that the acceptability of the samples decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased level of watermelon rind powder.

Conclusion: The sorghum -based mumu supplemented with watermelon powder at 10% and 15% should be adopted since their sensory scores were high and the nutrient content significantly increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Sensory Acceptability of an Orange - fleshed Sweet Potato - based Complementary Food

Esther Kumea Ashun, Sarah Darkwa, Christiana Nsiah-Asamoah

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 4, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i430067

The study focuses on the development of a complementary food (CF) with the orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to help address the public health problem of vitamin A deficiency among infants. Experimental research design was used for the study. Fifty six infants aged between 6 and 24 months were purposively sampled, together with their mothers, to evaluate three complementary food (CF) products and a control, code-named GAD, PEA, SAB and KAN respectively. The CF products were formulated from orange fleshed sweet potato, anchovies, onion and tomatoes; and the nutrients and functional properties were determined.  A questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect data to assess the sensory attributes and overall acceptability of the formulated CF products. The results showed that the three complementary foods were nutrient dense, with the moisture content being highest in PEA and lowest in GAD.  GAD, PEA and SAB were all high in protein and fibre but low in fat and carbohydrate. KAN (control) was the most acceptable with respect to all the sensory attributes of a complementary food, although its overall acceptability was not significantly different from that of the other three CF products - GAD, PEA and SAB.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Inhibition of Alpha Amylase and Glucosidase of Digestive Snail Juice by Crude Extracts of Cashew Cakes

Gninfanni Silvère Ouattara, Doudjo Soro, Tia Jean Gonnety, Kouadio Ernest Koffi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i430068

The goal of this work was to study the effect of some solvents as extractants of total polyphenols from cashew cakes and test the ability of the extract with highest level of polyphenols to inhibit alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase from snail (Achatina ventricosa) digestif tract. For this purpose, water, water-methanol (50:50 v/v), water-ethanol (50:50 v/v) and water-acetone (55:45 v/v) were used as solvents. Extract with highest level of polyphenols was obtained using water-acetone (55:45 v/v). The average total phenols content varied respectively from 9179.89 ± 0.154 mg GAE / 100 g for the water-acetone extract to 55439.02 ± 0.117 mg GAE/100 g for the aqueous extract. The average flavonoid content ranged from 370.86 ± 0.015 to 200.88 ± 0.001 mg/100 g and that of condensed tannins ranged from 1852.09 ± 0.023 to 857.45 ± 0.050 mg/100 g. The in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes of the snail digestive tract allowed to determine the concentration of the extract that inhibits 50% of the enzymes (IC50). The IC50 of alpha-amylase was 0.24 mg / ml and that of alpha glucosidase was 1.44 mg / ml.

The results showed that cashew apple residue is a natural source that has potential application in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Addition of Minced Catfish (Pangasius sp.) as a Protein Source on Tortilla Chips by Preference Level

Astri Dinnaryanti, Emma Rochima, Yayat Dhahiyat, Iis Rostini

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 4, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i430069

Aims: This research aims to determine the addition of minced catfish (Pangasius sp.) that was added to the most preferred tortilla chips by the panelist.

Place and Duration of Study: Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University in May-July 2018.

Methodology: The method used in this research was the experimental method with the five treatments, which were the addition of minced fish were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% and involving 20 semi panelists as replication. The addition of minced were calculated based on the weight of corn flour. The observed parameters were yield, hedonic test (appearance, aroma, texture, taste) and chemical characteristics (protein and water content) in control and most preferred treatment. Data processing using Friedman and Bayes Test.

Results: The results showed that tortilla chips with the addition of 10% of minced  catfish was the most preferred tortilla chips by panelists with an average score of appearance, aroma, texture and taste are 7.00; 6.40; 6.70; and 7.60. The yield of tortilla chips is 75.77%. Chemical test results of protein content is 9.98% and water content is 2.28%.

Conclusion: Tortilla chips with the addition of 10% of minced catfish was tortilla chips which was most preferred by panelists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nori Preference Level based on the Condition of the Raw Material Eucheuma cottonii Seaweed

Dinda Widu Ramasari, Evi Liviawaty, Atikah Nurhayati, Rusky Intan Pratama, Eddy Afrianto

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i430070

Aims: To determine the level of preference of panelists for Nori based on the condition of raw materials of dry and semi-dried Kappaphycus alvarezii (formerly Eucheuma cottonii) seaweed.

Study Design: The research was conducted experimentally.

Place and Duration of Study: Organoleptic tests were carried out in the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Padjadjaran. Physical tests and chemical tests conducted at the Laboratory of Research and Biological Resources and Biotechnology Research Institute at the Society (LPPM), IPB, between March 2019 and April 2019.

Methodology: The research was conducted experimentally consisted of 3 treatments with 20 semi-trained panelists as replication from Fisheries students of Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty, University of Padjadjaran who had experienced the organoleptic assessment. Hedonic tests were to determine the level of panelists preference for the products which included appearance, aroma, texture, and flavor, the results were statistically analyzed using Friedman Test and Bayes Test. Physical tests (thickness and hardness) and chemical tests (water content and crude fiber content) were carried out on the most preferred treatment product and analyzed descriptively.

Results: The organoleptic test results of Nori from Kappaphycus alvarezii (formerly Eucheuma cottonii) seaweed with dry raw material conditions had the highest average value on each characteristic compared to other treatments, appearance of 7.70, aroma of 7.00, texture of 7.50, and flavor of 7.90. The Bayes test results on the treatment of Nori from Kappaphycus alvarezii (formerly Eucheuma cottonii) seaweed with dry raw materials conditions having the highest alternative which was 8.54 with the most influential taste criteria for the assessment. The thickness of the Nori was 0.108 mm, the hardness was 1916.16 gf, water content of Nori was 17.23% and crude fiber content was 10.10%.

Conclusion: The treatment of Nori with raw materials of dry conditions was the most preferred by panelists.