Open Access Data Article

The Level of Nori's Relief Made from Raw Seaweed Mixed Gelidium sp. and Eucheuma cottonii

Dini Rismariyanti Abdulah, Evi Liviawaty, Iskandar ., Eddy Afrianto

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 3, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i330065

Aims: This research aims to obtain the most preferred Nori made from the mixture of Gelidium sp. and Eucheuma cottonii seaweed.

Study Design:  Research was conducted experimentally.

Methodology: The method used in this research was an experimental method with 5 mixed treatments of Gelidium sp. and E. cottonii with 20 semi-trained panelists involved in preference tests. The treatment was a mixture of Gelidium sp. and E. cottonii 90%: 10%, 80%: 20%, 70%: 30%, 60%: 40% and 50%: 50%. The observed variables consisted of hedonic tests namely appearance, aroma, texture, taste. Chemical tests were water content and crude fiber content.

Results: The results showed that the mixture of Nori made from seaweed Gelidium sp. and Eucheuma cottonii  at 70%: 30% proportions was the most preferred over other treatments, with a moisture content of 15.35% and the crude fiber content of 5.36%. The median value of hedonic Nori test of Gelidium sp. and Eucheuma. cottonii on appearance and texture 9 was very preferred, the value of aroma and taste 7 were also preferred.

Conclusion The mixture of Nori made from seaweed Gelidium sp. and Eucheuma. cottonii 70%: 30% was most preferred by panelists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Selected Oils on Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Breakfast Sausage

D. O. Oshibanjo, O. O. Olusola, J. S. Luka, A. I. Adesope, Lawrence Abegunde, K. A. Gbeffe, A. K. Adeniyi, M. A. Akwashiki

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 3, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i330061

Aims: The process of degradation converts fatty acid esters of oils into free fatty acids, by reaction with air, moisture and/or other materials. The main cause of rancidity of lipids is the oxidative deterioration of unsaturated fatty acids through a free-radical chain mechanism called lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study seek to evaluate the effect of selected oils on antioxidant and physicochemical properties of breakfast sausage.

Methodology: Breakfast sausage was prepared (g/100 g: beef 65.0, corn flour 10.0, oil 10.0, others 13.0). Lard, was replaced with shea butter, olive oil or groundnut oil in a completely randomized design. Prepared sausages were subjected to iodine values, acid values, saponification values, physicochemical evaluation and oxidative rancidity. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α0.05.

Results: The iodine value was higher in olive oil-based sausages and lowest in lard-based sausages. The acid value was significantly higher in lard-based sausages, having the highest acid value of with least value in no oil-based sausage. The saponification values were higher in the groundnut oil-based breakfast sausage while the least saponification value was recorded in treatment A.  Groundnut oil-based breakfast sausage had the highest dimensional shrinkage of 18.52% while olive oil-based breakfast sausages had the least dimensional shrinkage of 8.53%. Breakfast sausages prepared with groundnut oil had the highest cooking loss of 33.22% while the breakfast sausages prepared with olive oil had the lowest cooking loss of 15.69%. The result obtained from this study shows that no oil-based sausages had the highest pH (6.26) while olive oil based sausage had the lowest pH (6.09). The oxidative rancidity was higher in lard-based sausage but lower in olive oil-based sausage.

Conclusion: Lard can be replaced in breakfast sausages with olive oil due to its high antioxidant and physicochemical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breakfast strips were produced from different blends of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and soybean (Glycine max) flours with substitution ratios of 100:0:0, 90:10:0, 90:0:10, 80:10:10, 70:15:15, 60:20:20 and 50:25:25 and labelled as samples A, B, C, D, E, F and G, respectively. The blends were evaluated for functional properties, total carotene, vitamins (B2 and B6) and sensory properties of the breakfast strips with a commercial breakfast food (Flakes) as control (sample H) . For the functional properties, the water absorption capacity decreased while the oil absorption increased with an increase in substitution levels of the soybean flour. The bulk density, solubility, swelling power and swelling volume were higher in sample A. The least gelation capacity maintained a constant rate of 4% across the blends. The moisture content of the strips ranged from 7.25-9.40%. The Ash contents were below 3% for all the blends. The protein contents increased with an increase in substitution with soybean flour while sample A - breakfast strips from 100% orange-fleshed sweet potato flour showed the highest value for fats (5.62%). The fibre content ranged from 0.69 to 5.14% and carbohydrate content reduced with an increased substitution with soybean flour (72.25-78.70%). The energy value ranged from 351.90-384.80 Kcal/100 g which was within the limit recommended for breakfast foods. Total carotene content increased with increased substitution with orange-fleshed sweet potato (15.18-33.56 mg/kg) which is significantly higher than the control at 0.75 mg/kg. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that the overall acceptability of the samples produced compared favourably with the control. Sample A and B showed a vitamin B2 of 4.70 and 4.00 mg/kg, respectively. However, the values decreased with increase in the addition of soybean while vitamin B6 increased with increase in soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Fresh Tomato Stored in Evaporative Coolers

Adenike Aduke Balogun, C. C. Ariahu, J. K. Ikya

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 3, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i330063

A study was conducted to assess the performance of evaporative coolers for the storage of fruits and vegetables. Two evaporative coolers [Aluminum-cladded burnt-clay-brick evaporative cooler (ABBEC) and non-cladded burnt-clay-brick evaporative cooler (NBBEC)] for the storage of fruits and vegetables were designed, constructed and tested. The evaporative coolers comprised of double burnt-brick walls (1.29×2.55×2.56 m) external and (1.13×1.27×2.08 m) internal, (L×W×H). The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of fresh tomatoes stored in the coolers and at ambient were evaluated. Metabolic rates of tomatoes were highest at ambient storage followed by NBBEC with the least value in ABBEC. Beta carotene, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased while total soluble solids, pH and microbial loads increased during storage of tomatoes. Fresh tomatoes stored in ABBEC exhibited lower biochemical and physiological reaction rates hence tissue breakdown, colour changes, pH and titratable acidity were lower in ABBEC than NBBEC and ambient. ABBEC storage further improved the microbial quality and shelf life of fresh tomatoes. The aluminum cladded evaporative cooler was the best storage facility for stop gap extension of shelf life of tomatoes.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Chicken Excreta Management in Poultry Farms in Oyo State, Nigeria

A. Adejare. Adesope, Isaac. O. Oyewo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 11, Issue 3, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v11i330064

The rapid growth in the poultry industry in Nigeria especially in Oyo State, has led to increased generation of chicken excreta. Unfortunately, there has not been a commensurate increase in the quality of chicken excreta management.There is therefore the need to assess existing methods of chicken excreta management in Oyo State with a view to achieving environmentally-friendly and economically-viable waste management methods. A three-stage sampling procedure was used. Oyo State was purposively selected due to its high concentration of chicken farms. For the same reason, two local government areas were also purposively selected:Afijio and I do. Lastly, based on the number of farms in each local government areas (LGAs) 50 and 70 chicken farms were randomly selected from Afijio and Ido LGAs making a total of 120 farms. Out of the 120 copies of the structured questionnaire administered, 101(84.2%) were retrieved. Data were collected on socio-economic characteristics, types of poultry waste generated and poultry waste disposal methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. Most poultry farmers were male (85.1%) and married (86.4%) with a mean age of 41.0+ 10.8 years while household size was 5.0±1.58.Years of formal education and farming experience were 8±2 years and 8.09±5.87 years respectively .Based on the  responses the following chicken waste disposal methods were evaluated:dumping on vacant lands (47%), using  as manure (50.7%) and selling  (29%). The management methods evaluated in the study area had adverse environmental effects.