Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Cookies from Wheat, Defatted Peanut and Avocado Composite Flour

Irene Ayah Nwatum, M. T. Ukeyima, M. O. Eke

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 4, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i430156

In this study, carried out at Makurdi Nigeria, peanuts and avocado pulp were processed into flours and blended with refined wheat flour in proportions 100:0:0, 95:5:0, 90:5:5, 85:10:5, 80:10:10 and 75:15:10. The functional properties of the flour blends were determined. Cookies were made using the creaming method from these flour blends with one hundred per cent wheat flour serving as control. The physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies from wheat/defatted peanut/avocado flour were determined using standard analytical methods. The functional properties of the flour blends increased with increasing substitution of wheat flour with defatted peanut flour and avocado flour. The enriched cookies were found to have higher protein, energy, vitamin and mineral content as compared to refined wheat cookies. The protein content increased from 15% in the control sample to 26.64% in the sample F which is the sample with the highest substitution of wheat flour. Magnesium content increased from 173.37 mg/100 g in the control sample to 221.36 mg/100 g in sample F. There was no significant difference in the dietary fibre content of the enriched cookies as compared to the control. Substitution with peanut flour and avocado flour did not alter the physical properties of the cookies. The sensory scores for all the cookies enriched with defatted peanuts flour and avocado flour were above average 4.5. Sample C, with 5% peanut flour and 5% avocado flour had the best sensory attributes among the supplemented cookies at 5% level of significance and compared favourably with the control cookies. Thus cookies made from wheat, defatted peanut and avocado composite flour at an optimal substitution level of 90;5;5 can be regarded as a suitable balanced meal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contributions and Appreciation of Adansonia digitata L. Food Products in Zinder Region, Niger

Issoufou Amadou, Ali Salé, Josef Garvi, Rayanatou Ali Salé, Moussa Soulé

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 4, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i430157

Wild tree species play an important role in the diet of the people. However, few studies tried to assess the food products of those wild tree species in Sahel region. This study focuses on identifying the contribution of Adansonia digitata process products through the survey and sensory evaluation due to nutritional value and increase of income to the population. The A. digitata is used in Africa as food and traditional pharmacopeia. Its leaves are excellent sources of nutrients. The A. digitata pulp rich in vitamins is used to make juice and jam. The seeds are processed into virgin oil. The sensory evaluation at Sahara Sahel Foods revealed that A. digitata pulp juice as the highest overall accepted product and its jam the less. The survey at both Zinder city and Baban Tabki village showed that the A. digitata products are more useful in the villages than in the city with 65% and 35% appreciations respectively. These products are an aftertaste for the local population to increase their income and improve their nutritional status as well as health status. This study provides a baseline data about A. digitata food products in Zinder region, which could play a crucial role in the conservation of the A. digitata. This study recommends the use of A. digitata trees in the national tree plantation programmes in Zinder region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Addition of Citric Acid and Sodium Benzoate on pH and Microbial Profile of Soymilk

Johnpaul I. Agbaka, Charles N. Ishiwu, Ajibola N. Ibrahim

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 4, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i430158

Aim: To study the synergistic effect of chemical preservatives on the keeping quality of soymilk.

Study Design: Ten soymilk samples were prepared and treated with different concentrations of citric acid and sodium benzoate and stored at ambient conditions.

Place and duration of Study: The present study was conducted at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka between March 2015 and June 2016

Methodology: Ten (10) soymilk samples were prepared. Soybean seeds (2 kg) that are free of dirt and stones were weighed and steeped in 4 L of tap water, a 12 h steeping regime was adopted. Each soymilk sample was formulated by adding different concentrations of sodium benzoate and citric acid, while the control sample had no treatment. All soymilk samples were then boiled at 75oC for 15 minutes and stored in storage bottles. Standard microbiological techniques were employed in the isolation and enumeration of potential spoilage organisms in soymilk samples. pH analysis was conducted throughout the storage period.

Results: There was a decrease in pH of all soymilk samples with increasing storage time. pH at day 0 ranged between 6.2 to 7.2. Isolated bacteria in 10 soymilk samples included Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter species. However, results obtained showed that soymilk could keep up to 7 days at ambient temperature, encouraging the use of citric acid and sodium benzoate as chemical preservatives.

Conclusion: In the present study, preservation of soymilk samples from a combination of citric acid and sodium benzoate which are chemical preservatives was found to be more effective than several organic preservatives. Hence, they represent an alternative source of chemical antimicrobial substances for use in food systems to prevent the growth of food borne microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of processed food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effect of starter culture addition on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of white cheese (Gibna Bayda) during the storage period (5°C/ 45 days).

Methodology: Two treatments were prepared: Treatment 1 (T1): cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (1:1) at the level of 2% (w/v); Treatment 2 (T2): the control; cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk without starter cultures. After cheese manufacture, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were determined at 1, 15, 30 and 45-day intervals.

Results: Results showed that the starter culture addition did not significantly (P>.05) affect all physiochemical characteristics of cheese, except for the ash content which was high in cheese manufactured with the addition of starter culture. The addition of the starter influenced the microbiological quality of the cheese, with total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds counts being significantly (P<.05) low. Furthermore, the cheese made with an added starter culture showed high scores of colour, taste and flavour. The storage period significantly affected all characteristics of the cheese, except for the fat content of the control, which remained unchanged during all storage periods.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that starter culture (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) (1:1) is likely to be a suitable culture for Sudanese white cheese.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Accelerated Retting Process on Physiochemical and Pasting Properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Flours

Nardis Nkoudou Ze, Robert Ndjouenkeu, Jean Justin Essia Ngang

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 15, Issue 4, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v15i430160

Aims: To compare the physicochemical (water, total titratable acid, amylose and amylopectin contents), functional (swelling and solubility powers) and pasting characteristics of cassava flour retted in two different ways.

Study Design: Flours were produced from two cassava cultivars subjected to natural and accelerated fermentations using a multi-strain mixed starter.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology of the University of Yaounde 1 and Department of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Ngaoundere, both in Cameroon, between November 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: The cassava roots of each cultivars were divided into two groups and fermented by submerging peeled roots in tap water. One group of each cassava cultivar was inoculated with 1% (w/w) of the starter, while the other was subjected to a spontaneous fermentation. Retting stopped after the softening of the roots; that is after twenty-six hours for the inoculated groups, and after seventy-two hour for the control groups. The fermented roots were then squeezed, dried and grounded in a blender. Flours obtained were subjected to physicochemical, functional and pasting analysis.

Results: Flours produced in accelerated fermentation (AF) were characterized by their low amylopectin contents (46.59% and 43.57%), swelling power (6.71% and 7.56%), solubility (6.03% and 7.96%), and peak viscosity (6182 cP and 5676 cP) for Six-mois and Mintol-meko flours respectively. Whereas setback viscosity (1032 cP and 1068 cP), stability (0.27 and 0.24) and final viscosity (3565 cP and 3566 cP) of flours from natural fermentation (NF) were lower than those from AF.

Conclusion: The accelerated fermentation reduces the tendency of paste to downgrade, that is responsible for staling in baked products and could therefore produce flours that are less fluid.