Open Access Short communication

Prevalence of Adulteration and Inhibitory Substances in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Marketed in Nairobi Region

G. W. Wanjala, F. M. Mathooko, P. M. Kutima, J. M. Mathara

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42382

The prevalence of milk adulteration with water and inhibitory substances in Nairobi was determined. Milk samples were collected randomly at milk selling points from three market areas: rural (Kiambu/Ngong’), urban (East/West of Tom Mboya street) and slum (Kibera/Mathare). Samples were analyzed for specific gravity, hydrogen peroxide and presence of antimicrobials using lactometer reading, peroxide strips and the Copan test respectively. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat statistical package. The mean density was 1.029±0.000027 gm/L, while 16.5% and 21.1% of the milk sampled had residues of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials respectively. From 206 raw milk samples collected, 13.6% had densities lower than 1.026 gm/L while adulteration was detected in 2 of 98 samples of pasteurized milk. Approximately 18% and 25% of raw and pasteurized milk, respectively, had antimicrobials. The highest incidence of milk adulteration with water was in slum areas, while no adulteration was detected in pasteurized milk. The results indicate that pasteurized milk is of satisfactory quality with regard to adulteration with water, while raw milk marketed in Nairobi is likely to be adulterated. Pasteurized milk was found to be more likely to be adulterated with hydrogen peroxide than raw milk marketed in Nairobi. Therefore consumers may be exposed to residues of hydrogen peroxide on consumption of some pasteurized packaged milk. The highest level of antimicrobials in pasteurized milk was 33.3% in brands K.b and K.d while no residues were detected in brand K.c. The incidence of antimicrobials in marketed milk implies that consumers are likely to be exposed to possible drug residues. The incidence of antimicrobials in raw milk contributes to increased failures in controlled acidification of milk during the production of fermented milk products. High incidence of detection in pasteurized packaged milk is mostly contributed by residues of hydrogen peroxide and/or other sanitizer or sterilizer residues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aim: To assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and dietary restriction behaviour of the elderly.

Study Design: The study is a multi-stage cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria between May and September 2016.

Methodology: Two hundred and forty respondents (113 males, 127 females; age range ≥ 65 years) were randomly selected and used for the study. Validated, structured and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, attitude and dietary restriction behaviour. Nutrition knowledge, attitude and dietary restriction behaviour responses were classified as poor (0-39%), fair (40- 59%) and good (≥ 60%) while SPSS software version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and ANOVA and significance was judged at P = .05 and p < .01.

Results: Majority (96.85%) females and (95.58%) males had learnt about nutrition through radio and television (69.17%). Nutrition knowledge showed (49.6%) males and 46.5% females had fair knowledge; 43.4% males and 37.8% females had good knowledge while few (7.1%) males and 15.7% females had poor knowledge. There was a significant difference (P = .01) in the knowledge of respondents (poor, fair and good) for both males (F = 426.091) and females (F= 530.117). In attitude (51.33% males, 45.67% females) had a good attitude to nutrition while few (9.73% males and 14.17% females) had a poor attitude. Dietary restriction behaviour (57.52% males, 66.14% females) had good dietary restriction behaviour. There was a significant difference (P = .01) in dietary restriction behaviour scores for the males (F=111.722) and females (F=203.744).

Conclusion: Nutrition knowledge was generally above average; those with good attitude were statistically higher than those with fair or poor attitude to nutrition and most had good dietary restriction behaviour. Nutrition education regularly organized for the elderly will help to improve their knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Physio-Chemical Properties of Locally Produced Raw Milk in Sylhet City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

Shahrul Alam, M. A. Zaman, Sawrab Roy, Juned Ahmed, Moumita Das, Q. M. Monzur Kader Chowdhury, Shatabdi Deb Proma, Farzana Yeasmin Popy

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42679

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical quality of raw milk.

Place and Duration of Study: Raw milk available was collected during the period of August to November 2017 from Sylhet City Corporation area and then immediately sent to Dairy Technology Laboratory under Sylhet Agricultural University for laboratory examination.

Methodology: Physical analysis was performed through organoleptic test and chemical analysis was done by Lactoscan milk analyzer. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA using SPSS at 95% confidence interval. Then the composition of milk was compared to the standards of BDS and FAO.

Results: The flavor was normal and color was yellowish white. Taste of all samples was slightly sweet and mean specific gravity (1.027 ± 0.0046 to 1.031 ± 0.0068) was within standard range. Proximate composition of the samples revealed that fat % (3.70±1.058), protein % (3.15±0.265), SNF % (7.76±0.642), Lactose % (4.61±0.418) and Acidity % (0.189± 0.02) were highly significant (P<0.01) except protein content. Physical parameters of all samples were almost correlated with the BDS and FAO standards

Conclusion: The observation may be helpful for the Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institute (BSTI) to monitor the quality of milk sold to the public.

Open Access Original Research Article

Milk is an essential nutritional substance required for growth and development as well as food supplement to humans and animals. However, milk and milk products are considered as an essential source of dietary minerals for consumers. Four fresh cow milk two each were randomly collected from two different farms, Kasuwan Shanu  samples A and B and Bulumkutu Kasuwa  samples C and D within Maiduguri metropolis of Borno State, Nigerian. In this present study the concentration of the micro (Zn, Cu, and Mn) and macro (Na, Ca, and Mg) minerals were quantitatively determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) (Model 9190 Pyeunicam UK), while the biochemical constituents, such as fats and protein in the fresh cow milk were analyzed using the standard methods. The results showed milk sample C and D from Bulumkutu Kasuwa had the highest sodium content (49.06±0.02 and 41.01±0.01 mg/L) respectively, while Kasuwa Shanu samples A and B has the lowest sodium concentrations (36.27±0.09 and 31.61±1.05 mg/L respectively. Calcium levels were highest (2.15±0.05 mg/L) in sample B, followed by (1.81±0.01 mg/L) in sample D and lower (1.48±0.03 mg/L and 1.40±0.09 mg/L) in samples C and A respectively. Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn were detected in all the fresh cow milk samples from the two farms Kasuwan Shanu, and Bulumkutu Kasuwa and their concentrations were within the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration Control) (NAFDAC) Standard values. The biochemical constituents; Protein content ranges from (6.32±0.03% to 7.11±0.11%) in samples B and A respectively of Kasuwan Shanu and (6.33±0.11% to 7.57±0.16%) in samples D and C respectively of Bulumkutu Kasuwa. The highest protein content was recorded in sample C of Bulumkutu Kasuwa and the lowest was recorded in samples B and D respectively. The fat levels range from ((1.36±0.08% to 8.46±0.05%) in samples B and A respectively of Kasuwan Shanu and (4.57±1.00% to 3.55±0.13%) in D and C respectively of Bulumkutu Kasuwa. From the results, it was observed that significant difference existed in protein and fat values while there is no significant difference in the values of micro and macro elements of the cow milk samples from the studied farms. However, the protein contents in the cow milk samples are significantly within the NAFDAC standard values. The high-fat content in sample A is a source of worry and concern and necessitates further monitoring in other areas and some caution in the rampant consumption of such milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lactobacillus species on the Fermentation of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Grain

Opemipo Tomilayo Ishola, Anthony Okhonlaye Ojokoh, Oluwayemisi Foluke Odesanya

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42209

Aims: To study the effects of Acha fermented with Lactobacillus spp on the nutritional composition.

Study design:  Acha was fermented in two forms (Local fermentation and controlled fermentation). Acha was weighed into a fermenting container of 100g and water of 1litre was added to submerge it for 72 hours in the ratio 1:3.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State between January 2016 - October 2016.

Methodology: Microbial analysis was carried out using potato dextrose agar, nutrient agar and De man Rogosa agar. pH and total titratable acidity analysis were carried out. A proximate and mineral composition of the fermented acha was also carried out.

Results: A total number of thirteen (13) microorganisms were isolated from the locally fermented acha; these comprise of 8 bacteria (Bacillus spp, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp), two moulds and three yeasts (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor mucedo, Sacharromyces cerevisae and Candida albicans). The pH values, reduce with increased days of fermentation. The titratable acidity in the fermentation of acha grains increased with hours of fermentation. Increase in protein, fibre content was evident in the controlled fermented Acha compared to the locally fermented Acha.