Open Access Original Research Article

Structure-Property Relation in Varieties of Millets Grown in Karnataka

M. S. Suhas, Nagendra S. Kamath, P. Koushik, Vasudeva Singh, R. Somashekar

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i430243

Aim: This study aims to establish structure-property relation of the varieties of millets grown in Karnataka.

Study Design: Seven different varieties of millets were collected from the farms in Chitradurga district from the state of Karnataka in India.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between January and April 2020 at the Vijnana Bhavan, University with Potential for excellence, University of Mysore, Karnataka

Methodology: Magnetic property and characterization for seven out of the nine varieties of millets grown in Chitradurga, Hiriyur and Khandenahalli of Karnataka were carried out using X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy, SEM and Xplore AC magnetic techniques to understand the physical properties of these samples and to find out the structure-property relation in these millets.

Results: The Foxtail millet is unique in terms of crystallites size, elemental distribution and magnetic properties. The structure-property relation of all the millets is determined.

Conclusion: It is evident from these studies that all the millets are diamagnetic in nature, crystalline like order is less and the major component in all these millets is cellulose. Also the Foxtail millet has excellent structure-property relation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Serendipity Berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii) and Miracle Fruit (Thaumatococcus daniellii)

A. Ojo, V. N. Enujiugha, H. N. Ayo- Omogie, O. A. Abiodun

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i430244

Aims: To determine the chemical composition of serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii) and miracle fruit (Thaumatococcus daniellii).

Study Design: The mean and standard deviation of the data obtained were  analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were prepared in Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, between November 2018 and December 2019.

Methodology: Chemical properties of two natural sweeteners namely the miracle fruit (Thaumatococcus danielli) and serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii) were studied in this work. The fresh fruits were obtained from a farm, sorted, washed and the tissues were scraped, dried in the oven at 45°C for 12 hrs, milled and packed in airtight plastic containers. Proximate, vitamins and amino acid contents of the sweeteners were determined.

Results: The results revealed that the protein contents of miracle fruit and serendipity berry were 75.57% and 62.54% respectively. Moisture contents of the sweeteners ranged from 56.95-58.33% while ash contents ranged from 19.33-22.90%. The sweeteners had low carbohydrate and lipid contents. Crude fiber was not detected in miracle fruit but serendipity berry had crude fibre of 5.38%. The fruits had β-carotene contents ranging from 8.44 mg/100 g and 23.00 mg/100 g, vitamin C (20.40 mg/100 g and 22.01 mg/100 g) and vitamin D (17.02 mg/100 g and 19.02 mg/100 g) in miracle fruit and serendipity berry respectively. However, low values were recorded for vitamin E 0.55 mg/100 g and 0.89 mg/100 g in miracle fruit and serendipity berry respectively. The fruits had appreciable amount of essential amino acid which was above 50% of the total amino acid content. Miracle fruit had 51.96% and serendipity berry had 58.07% of the essential amino acid. Aromatic essential amino were 10.78 and 12.79% in miracle fruits and serendipity respectively.

Conclusion: This study showed that the two natural sweeteners are good source of essential nutrients and could be used as food supplements in our diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Insight in the Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Amaranthus tricolor L. Leaves Extract in Mice

Nusrat Jahan, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Muhammad Kamal Hossain, Md. Rashadul Alam, Shimul Das

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i430245

Aims: The present study was planned to assess the sedative and anxiolytic efficacy of Amaranthaus tricolor L methanolic extract in vivo.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, between January 2018 and August 2018.

Methodology: In this experiment, the crude extract of Amaranthus tricolor L. was evaluated for its CNS depressant effect using rodent behavioral models, such as open field, hole cross and rota rod tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus maze test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively.

Results: In sedative assay, a dose-dependent and statistically significant (p<0.05) suppression of locomotors activity of the mice in both open field and hole cross test was exhibited by theextract at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The extract also displayed increased percentage of entry into open arms at both doses in anxiolytic potential study. At a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight significant anxiolytic activity (p<0.05) was found compared to the standard diazepam.

Conclusion: The pivotal CNS depressant and anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L leaves was discovered in this experiment. Further research on the extract's biologically active phytochemicals may provide access to therapeutic intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aims: To evaluate the chemical, microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of fruit juice produced from blends of soursop, mango and watermelon.

Study Design: The data obtained were analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. The mean and standard deviation were calculated using analysis of variance. Means were separated by Duncan’s new multiple range test.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between January and July, 2016.

Methodology Juices extracted from Soursop Mango and Watermelon (designated as S, M and W respectively) were blended to give samples containing soursop, mango and watermelon juices in the ratio of 60:25:15, 15:60:25, 25:15:60 and 33.3:33.3:33.3, respectively. The samples were processed, bottled and analyzed for proximate, phytochemical and micronutrients composition, physico-chemical, microbial and sensory qualities using standard methods.

Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in the proximate composition, micro-nutrient and phytochemical composition of the mixed fruit juice blend. The moisture content, ash content, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein and carbohydrate ranged from 85.0 to 90.03%, 0.14 to 0.6%, 0.95 to 2.94%, 0.19 to 0.44%, 0.75 to 1.72% and 7.23 to 11.48% respectively. pH, brix and Titratable acidity of samples varied significantly (p < 0.05) and ranged from 5.92 to 6.11%, 8.85 to 12.80% and 0.38 to 0.69% respectively. The flavonoid, total phenol and pro-vitamin A contents of the blends ranged from 9.14 to11.04%, 0.3 to 0.5% and 13.01 to 72.9% respectively.  Vitamin C, potassium and calcium contents ranged from 28.25 to 41.75 mg/100ml, 108.32 to 168.92 mg/100 ml and 7.05 to 12.69 mg/100 ml respectively. The microbial results showed that total viable count found present in the mixed fruit juice blended samples ranged from 3.0 x 101 to 9.0 x 101. The sensory scores showed that all the samples were generally accepted while sample which had equal proportions of the individual juices had the highest overall acceptability due to the homogeneity, luscious taste, appearance and consistency of the blend. The overall results showed that improving the quality and availability of fruit and fruit products through processing will raise consumer awareness, boost fruit consumption and improve health, check post-harvest losses and harness the therapeutic advantages of fruits. Blending of soursop, mango and watermelon juices in varying proportions produced acceptable juice that compared favorably with a commercial mixed juice blend in terms of vitamins C and pro-vitamin A content, total sugar, brix content and acidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Drying Methods and Onion Bulb Variety on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Onion Powder

Ayéméné Cédrick Ardin Koménan, Bio Sigui Bruno Bamba, Joëlle-Annabelle N’gouin, Marie Stella Hermance Akré, Yadé Réné Soro

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2020/v19i430247

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a rich source of constituents that are beneficial to human health. However, the short shelf life of these vegetables are a major cause of postharvest losses during peak harvesting season. Drying is one of the most convenient technologies for shelf stable food products production. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of three drying methods (industrial oven, electric dryer and sun drying) on physicochemical (moisture content, ash content, pH, titratable acidity, total polyphenol contents) and functional properties (water solubility and particle sizes) of onion powders of two onion varieties (white and violet of galmi). From the results obtained, physicochemical and functional components are affected significantly (P<0.05) by drying process but not titratable acidity (to the order of 36 mEq/100g DM). In addition, the moisture content of onion powders were below 13.66±0.115, 14.73±0.115, 14.60±0.305 g/100g WM for industrial oven, electric dryer and sun drying respectively with pH between 3.29 and 5.16. In addition, these powders showed a small particle size (under 400 μm) and high solubility as 93.33±2.3, 72±0.5, 62.66±2.3 g/100 g DM for Electric dryer (ED), Industrial oven (IO) and Sun drying (SD) respectively. Furthermore, polyphenol content was almost different in all the different drying process with values between 721.32 to 962.26 mg GAE/100g DM. Moreover, all properties were varied significantly (P<0.05) between white and violet of galmi powders. The preferred drying method and onion variety were industrial oven and violet of galmi. Finally, these results could be a valorization way to promote an industrialization of onion powders.