Open Access Original Research Article

Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Profiles of Some Bird Egg Varieties: Possible Health Implications

Eridiong O. Onyenweaku, Henrietta N. Ene-Obong, Muriel I. Inyang, Ima O. Williams

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42939

Aims: To determine the cholesterol and fatty acid profile of five bird egg varieties and the possible health implications of their consumption.

Study Design:  Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, and Department of Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, February to July 2017.

Methodology: Five bird egg varieties studied in the raw and boiled forms were: Exotic chicken, local chicken, turkey, quail and guinea fowl eggs. Freshly-laid eggs were purchased from poultries, cleaned and divided into two- raw and boiled. After boiling, both groups of eggs were freeze-dried and milled before analyses. Standard AOAC method of Gas chromatography was used for cholesterol and fatty acid determination.

Results: The cholesterol content varied significantly (P = .05) among the raw egg varieties with values ranging from 435 mg/100 (quail egg) to 851 mg/100 (turkey egg). Similarly, among the boiled egg samples, quail egg had the lowest cholesterol content (455.4 ± mg/100) and turkey had the highest (1164 ± 1.33 mg/100). For the fatty acid composition, 3 saturated, 4 monounsaturated and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were reported in significant quantities. Palmitic acid was the most predominant saturated fatty acid with guinea fowl egg having significantly (P = .05) higher concentration and exotic chicken having significantly (P = .05) lower concentration. Oleic acid was the most predominant unsaturated fatty acid with boiled quail egg having significantly (P = .05) higher concentration (0.96 ± 0.001 g/100 g).

Conclusion: Quail egg was found to have relatively safer content of cholesterol and also had higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Consequently, they are better recommended for consumption by individuals with dyslipidemia and diabetes. Consumption of turkey eggs should be moderate due to their exceptionally high cholesterol content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aim: To investigate the effect of yeast addition and proofing time on the quality characteristic of bread from wheat and cassava flour.

Study Design:  Composite flour of wheat and cassava was prepared in a ratio 70:30% from which sample B, C, D, E, F, F, G, H, I and J were obtained. Each of the samples was treated with 3, 6 and 9 g yeast concentration at different proofing time of 60, 90 and 120 minutes respectively. The samples were further subjected to analyses of proximate composition, vitamins and sensory properties to ascertain the quality to wheat-Cassava flour.

Results: The result revealed a significant (P< 0.05) increase in proximate composition as Protein content range from 13.13-15.57, Ash content 1.76-3.47, Fat content 2.39-3.14, Moisture conten34.65-35.87, Fibre content 0.78-2.17, Carbohydrate content 53.11-60.94% and Energy 289-304 Kcal. Vitamins content also showed significant (P< 0.05) increase as β-carotene ranged from 2.51-5.21, B1 0.22-1.19, B2 0.21-0.25, B3 0.08-0.21 and Vitamin C 1.14-10.22 mg respectively. The sensory attributes showed significance (p< 0.05) changes in crumb colour, crust colour, aroma and texture.

Conclusion: Acceptable and nutritious bread was produced from the composite flour of wheat and cassava. Though the 100% wheat bread was organoleptically proved more acceptable, the composite flour bread samples were more nutritious. However, with the present cost of wheat flour, it is advantageous to explore the possibility of using cassava (30%) flours for the commercial production of bread in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development, Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Ice Cream from Cow Milk, Tigernut and African Yam Bean Seed Milk

Ebele C. Okoye, Chinyere N. Onyekwelu, Chinyere A. Nghowu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42663

Background and Aim: Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products such as milk (usually cow milk). Recently, health-conscious individuals do not often consume ice cream because they are lactose intolerant. Hence, analogs made from goat’s or sheep’s milk, or milk substitutes (e.g., soy milk, tiger nut milk and so on) may serve as alternatives to cow milk (partially or fully substituted) in the production of ice cream. The aim of this study was production, quality evaluation and acceptability of ice cream from the blends of cow milk, tiger nut, and African yam bean seed milk.

Methods: The collected tiger nuts and African yam bean seed was processed into flours before the extraction of milk from the flours. Cow milk, tiger nut milk, and African yam bean milk were formulated in different proportions of 100:0:0, 50:25:25, 50:50:0, 50:0:50 and 0:50:50 respectively which were coded as CAT1, CAT2, CAT3, CAT4 and CAT5. The proximate composition, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of ice cream were investigated.

Results: Results generated showed that protein content ranged from 3.28 to 7.70%, fat from 0.90 to 3.09%. Addition of African yam bean and tiger nut milk increased the protein content and ash contents from 5.30 to 7.70% and 131 to 3.00% respectively. The pH, TTA total solid and solid non-fat (SNF) were significantly p=.05 higher in the control sample (100% cow milk) when compared with ice cream produced from African yam bean and tiger nut milk blends. The sensory scores showed that sample CAT1 was the most preferred by the panelists in terms of the overall acceptability followed by sample CAT4.

Conclusion: There was an increase in the proximate composition of the ice cream produced from the blends of tiger nut milk and African yam bean seed milk. In terms of the overall acceptability, the control sample was the most preferred of all the samples by the panelists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition and Phytochemical Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic)

Mahmood Hassan Dalhat, Fatima Abdulkadir Adefolake, Maimuna Musa

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43165

Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are commonly used as spice in food preparation and source of nutrient around the globe. Additionally, they are used in the treatment of several diseases associated with metabolism. In this study phytochemical constituent, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of both Allium cepa and Allium sativum were analysed using standard analytical procedures and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the moisture content, Ash content, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents in both extracts. However, these extracts showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in the minerals compositions i.e. manganese, copper, Iron and magnesium except calcium where the significant difference (P<0.05) was observed. A significant difference (P<0.05) was seen in antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) in both extracts. In conclusion, the rich nutritional contents present in Allium cepa and Allium sativum might be the reason why these spices are used in the management and prevention of several nutritionally related diseases and disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Volatile Compounds by Lactococcus lactis sp. Strain at Different Growth Phases

B. D. S. Dangang, N. F. Zambou, R. Agrawal, A. F. Fonteh

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/43310

Aims: The present study aimed at identifying secondary metabolites produced during the growth of Lactococcus lactis sp. strain

Study Design: The bacteria strain was grown at different time intervals.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was done at the Microbiology and Fermentation Technology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), India, between May 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: The strain was grown in M17 broth for 56 h to determine the growth curve. Produced volatile compounds were studied by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) at different phases of culture growth.

Results: Results showed that lag phase was extended for about six h. Exponential phase (log phase) lasted for the next 6 to 18 h, stationary phase 18 to 40 h, and decline phase started after 40 to 48 h. GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds resulted in the identification of 18, 20, 18, and 17 compounds respectively during the lag phase, the logarithmic phase, the stationary phase and the decline phase. Out of the total of 50 volatiles compounds identified, 4 compounds viz., Benzyl alcohol; Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methyl propyl)-; 5-Isopropylidene-3,3-dimethyl-dihydrofuran-2-one, and Cyclohexane, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2-octadecyl-  were present at different peaks area in all growth phases of the cultured strain. Numerous of these volatile compounds produced revealed to possess biological activities.

Conclusion: The incubation period affected the production of volatile compounds. L. lactis was observed to produce wide-ranging bioactive compounds for human therapeutic applications as well as various industrial applications. Also, many secondary metabolites were produced by the strain at the logarithmic phase.