Open Access Original Research Article

Introduction: Fermented sausage is the food that has the largest share in consumption among other fermented meat products in Turkey. Although it is difficult to achieve the production standard in fermented sausage production, it is necessary not to exceed the legally determined reference values for quality production. Determining and controlling quality parameters in macro and micronutrients in the composition of fermented sausage, compliance with production standards, storage conditions, etc. has become a necessity.

Purpose: It is aimed to determine whether there is adulteration and imitation in the production of fermented sausages, to determine the structural defects during and after production, to evaluate their compliance with legal regulations and their nutritional quality.

Study Design: The study was mainly designed on the determination of hydroxyproline amounts with a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography device.

Study Place and Duration: The samples used in the study were collected within the borders of Burdur province. All experimental studies were carried out at Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (MAKU), Veterinary Faculty, Department of Food Hygiene and Technology; MAKU Scientific and Technology Application and Research Center and Uşak University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering Laboratories. The study covers a period of 3 months between October 2020 and December 2020.

Methodology: A total of 30 fermented sausage samples, which are offered for sale by butchers and markets, were collected, brought to the laboratory by cold chain and subjected to analysis. After the samples were analyzed in terms of hydroxyproline, physicochemical and textural aspects, they were evaluated statistically.

Results: The pH values of the examined fermented sausages were 4.82-5.93, fat ratios were 12.50-38.50%, protein amounts were 12.24-24.49%, total ash values were 2.37-4.58%, salt values were determined as 1.97-4.05%, humidity values as 20.22-50.36%, water activity (aw) values as 0.80-0.97, hydroxyproline amounts as 2.01-14.85 g/kg. In the textural analysis, elasticity was found between 0.51-0.91 mm, cohesiveness values between 0.37-0.85 and hardness in the range of 94.50-2564.13 mm.

Conclusion: The absence of adulteration in fermented sausage production, compliance with legal reference values and increasing the relevant inspections are of great importance in terms of the quality and nutritional value of the product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Addition of TiO2 Edible Coatings and Storage Periods on the Chicken Eggs Quality

Imam Thohari, Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly, Mulia Winirsya Apriliyani, Ardian Aprillian

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i230404

The study aims to determine the effect of addition TiO2 solution on edible coatings of nanocomposite casein-chitosan on the internal chicken eggs quality observed at 7 and 14 days of storage. The design of the study was a Complete Randomized Factorial Design using 2 factors and the length of storage of chicken eggs. The data was analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test if there is a significant difference. Edible coatings made from casein-chitosan with the difference between addition of 3, 5, 10 mL of TiO2 1% then applicated of the solution as coating on eggs. The egg stored at 25 ℃ for 7 and 14 days then observed in the study i.e yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, yolk color, yolk pH, albumen pH, and Total Plate Count (TPC). The results showed that the yolk index ranged from 0.25-0.40; albumen index 0.03-0.08; Haugh unit 48.68-80.42; yolk color 7-9; pH yolk 8.17-9.20; pH Albumen 8.17-9.20; TPC 0.7×105-1.1×105 cfu/mL. Edible coatings of casein-chitosan with 5 mL TiO2 solution were able to reduce the decrease in the internal quality of chicken eggs observed at 7 to 14 days of storage. However, all treatments in this study showed better results in the 7 days storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Functional Properties of Composite Flours Made from Fermented Yellow Maize, Bambara Groundnut, and Mango Fruit for ‘Ogi’ Production

Sunday Joycelyn Bukuni, Julius Kwagh-al Ikya, Ahure Dinnah, Ndi Betrand Bongjo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i230405

The study examined the chemical and functional properties of composite flours based on maize, Bambara groundnut, and mango for possible use as complementary food. Flours were prepared from yellow maize variety, Bambara groundnut and mango pulp and blended in the ratios 100/0/0, 90/5/5, 85/10/5, 75/20/5, 70/25/5 and 65/30/5 labelled as samples A, B, C, D, E and F respectively.

Standard methods were used to evaluate the composite flours and the control for functional properties, and chemical properties. Analysis showed an increase in the moisture content, proteins (19.28% in sample A to 23.81 % in sample F), lipids, carbohydrate. Crude fibre content ranged from 2.97% in Sample F to 1.91% in Sample A. Ash content generally increased from 1,62% in sample A to 2.58% in sample F.

Phosphorus, Calcium and Potassium showed an increasing trend as follows; (154 mg/100 g in sample A to 186.86 mg/100 g in sample F), (392.67 mg/100 gin sample a to 399.94 mg/100 g in sample F), (183.56 mg/100 g in Sample A to 192.02 mg/100 g in Sample F) respectively.

Provitamin A and ascorbate showed significant increase in the composite flours than the control. All anti-nutrient compositions in the samples were within tolerable levels

There was no significant difference in the swelling indices of the different flour blends; the highest water absorption capacities were seen in sample F (1.36 g/ml) while the lowest was seen in the control sample A (1.15 g/ml). Water absorption capacity therefore showed an increasing trend with increasing substitution of maize flour with BG flour and mango powder. Results showed that supplementing Yellow maize flour with Bambara groundnut flour and mango powder considerably improved the protein content of the flour, hence they can find useful application for ogi production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scarcity of protein-rich foods has been the bane of developing countries with its attendant nutritional problems. Research efforts have been directed towards finding solutions to this problem. This include investigation into the nutritional potentials of some lesser known legumes and grains. This paper looked at the effect of processed kudzu flours on the liver enzymes,alkaline phosphotase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT); lipid peroxidation of the liver and pancreatic tissues as well as the liver and pancreatic architecture of wistar rats. Raw, cooked and time-controlled autoclaved (20mins,40mins, 60mins) kudzu seeds were made into flours and compounded into 7 diets. Diet 1contained the raw kudzu flour,diet 2 and 7 had the cooked kudzu flour while diets 3-5 had time-controlled autoclaved (20mins,40mins, 60mins) kudzu flour respectively. Diet 6 was the negative control diet and diet 8 was the positive control.Diet 8 had lower ALP value ( 51.6±6.5iu) than the other groups though not statistically (p≤0.05) different. Diet 3had the highest AST(51.0 ± 0.iu) which was statistically (p≤0.05) different from the other groups and ALT (48.0 ± 0.1 iu) that was statistically (p≤0.05) not different with only group 4. The level of malondialdehyde in the liver was lowest in Diet 2 (2.75 x 10-5 ± 0.07 x 10- 5MDA unit) followed by Diets 6 and 8.While the level in the pancreatic tissues was lowest in Diet 8 (83.25 X 10-5± 0.07 x 10-5 MDA unit). However,the variations in the level of MDA in both organs in all the groups were not statistically (p≤0.05) different. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues showed various degrees of abnormalities in Diets (1, 3,4,5 and 6) while Diets 2,7 and 8 had normal cell architecture. The pancreatic tissues showed normal architecture. The results therefore suggest that kudzu when processed poses no toxicological danger to animal and by extension man.

Open Access Original Research Article

The paper highlighted the chemical characteristics of broth from cooked maize and compared them with that from cooked beans. Left-over-water from boiled maize were produced by cooking 2kg of a variety of Zea mays L. with 8kg of water. After this stage, samples of those solutions and samples of the water used for the cooking process were collected for laboratory analysis. The IonPac CS12A and IonPac AS12A analytical columns were respectively used for the separation of ammonium (NH4+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+) as far as cations were concerned, and chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO42-) in the case of anions. The measurements of pH and electric conductivity of fluids were respectively done with a pH-meter on the one hand and a conductivimetre on the other hand. Solutions from cooked maize are rich in mineral salts, particularly major macro elements (N and K) and minor macro elements (Ca, S, Mg). Concerning the third major macro element, notably the phosphorous, it is present in low amounts. The advantage of this fluid consists in its low electric conductivity. This fluid has a pH of 6.15. It is made of about 92% of water. Left-over-water from cooked maize and from cooked beans have very close chemical characteristics. In fact, these two fluids are rich in nitrogen and potassium, and mainly made of water. But, in detail, some particularities are present. The end-of cooking solutions of maize have higher amounts of sodium and chlorides, this joined with a higher electric conductivity. Concerning solutions from cooked beans, they have higher amounts of the different macro elements, and a lower electric conductivity. The recycling of end-of cooking solutions of maize must gainfully become for the nutritionists a favorable target for the future, and this due to the numerous nutrients contained. According however to the results obtained in the case of the present studies, the left-over-water from cooked maize can be gainfully use as fertilizers. Using it as manure requires an earthing-up directly after its application in other to avoid the loss of sulfur and nitrogen through gas emanation. Consuming solutions form cooked maize as herbal tea could be an excellent way to recycle the nutrients that have diffused from the seeds during the cooking process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production, Assessment, and Safety Aspect of Weaning Food from Sorghum, Crayfish and Garden Eggs

F. O. Olukoya, I. Iwanegbe, J. U. Obaroakpo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 62-73
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i230408

Aim: This study examined the production, assessment, and safety aspects of weaning food from sorghum, crayfish, and garden eggs.

Methodology: Sorghum was fermented, garden egg and crayfish were cleaned and processed into flours and further formulated into blends. Five formulations were produced through response  surface methodology. Laboratory analyses were carried out, lipid and hematological studies of thirty five Wistar rat fed with commercial and formulated diets were done, other parameters include; growth rate, feed intake and bodyweight. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in randomized block to test significant variations (P<0.05) among mean values obtained.

Results: The results showed that moisture content observed in the diets was very low. The lowest moisture content was observed in diet O (10.41%), the highest protein was from diet L (26.35%). The highest ash content was observed in diet L (5.35%). Diet L (8.82%) had the highest fat content. The highest calcium content was found in diet L (26591.10 mg/kg). Next were A (26158.86 mg/kg), M (23405.84 mg/kg), I (16291.12 mg/kg), O (13298.34 mg/kg), and F (6011.12 mg/kg). Diet A (103.40 mg/kg) had the highest iron content.  Next were M (91.69 mg/kg), L (89.74 mg/kg), O (77.66 mg/kg), I (77.07 mg/kg), and X (28.19 mg/kg). The lowest low density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed in rats fed diet M (14.0 mg/dl). Next were rats fed diets L (16.0 mg/dl), S (17.50 mg/dl) and O (24.0 mg/dl). The bodyweight of the rats at day 0 ranges between 32.10-33.85g, at day 4 (39.60-47.90 g), at day 8 (38.85 – 52.75 g), at day 12 (38.70 -54.35 g), at day 16 (41.80-74.25 g), at day 20 (46.30 -84.85 g), at day 24 (47.85 -86.35 g), and at day 28 (50.15 -90.35 g). The highest white blood cell (WBC) counts were diets M, and O with the same values (10.0X109/L), next was A and S with the same values (9.0x108/L), L (8.0x108/L), I (7.0x108/L) and X (4.0x108/L) in that same decreasing order. The highest PCV count was diet I (43%).  Next were A (42 %), O (41%), M (40%), L (39%), X (38%), and S (37%).

Conclusion and Recommendation: This study showed that the use of sorghum, crayfish, and garden eggs (vegetable) at a combination of 60: 30:10 respectively, could improve optimal health and growth in children between 6-23 months in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic effect of Lipophilic Antioxidants Extracted from Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) with Vitamin E on the Stability of Cotton Seed Oil during Frying of Plantain Chips

Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Serge Eric Ngangoum, Aduni Ufuan Achidi, Ophelie Leonce Bidias à Koul, Erika Audrey Eyoum Alima, Bernard Tiencheu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 74-85
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i230409

Aims: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the synergistic effect of the ethanolic extract and powder of cloves buds (Syzygium aromaticum) with vitamin E in delaying cotton seed oil oxidation during frying of plantain chips.

Study design:  Purchase of clove buds, cleaning, preparation of clove buds ethanolic extract and powder, supplementation of cotton seed oil enriched with vitamin E with the extract and powder at different concentrations and evaluation of oil stability during frying of plantain chips.

Place and Duration of Study: General  Science  Laboratory,  School  of  Agriculture  and  Natural Resources,  Catholic  University  Institute  of  Buea-Douala Campus,  Littoral   Region,  Cameroon,  from  January  to June 2019.

Methodology: In refined cotton seed oil (2.5 L) containing vitamin E as preservative was respectively added 0.30, 0.60, 1.00 and 1.30% of Syzygium aromaticum (SA) buds ethanolic extract and 0.5, 1, 1.50% of buds powder. After ensuring the good dispersion of the antioxidants added, oil samples were used for the deep-frying of plantain chips for 10 and 20 min respectively. Oil sample without clove served as control. The stability of the various oil samples was evaluated through the determination of peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, iodine and acid acid (% oleic) values.

Results: Results showed that the natural plant extract and powder increased the stability of the oil compared to the control. Oil samples supplemented with the extract at concentration 0.30 and 0.60% presented good stability compared to the control, while the same extract at higher concentrations (1.00 and 1.30%) tend to behave as prooxidant. Concerning the powder it exhibited better good preservative properties on the oil and at all levels.

Conclusion: Clove ethanolic extract at concentration < 0.60% and its powder at concentration 0.50-1.5% can be used to delay cotton seed oil alteration during frying of plantain chips.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa and African walnut seeds were processed into flour and evaluated for tannin, total phenol and anti-oxidant activity. Different formulations of wheat, African walnut and Moringa seed composite flour (A: WHF 100%: AWF 0;MSF 0, B= WHF 77.5%:AWF 20%: MSF 2.5%, C=WHF 75%: AWF 20%: MSF 5.0%, D= WHF 72.5%: AWF 20%: MSF 7.5%. E = WHF 70%: AWF 20%: MSF 10%, F = WHF 90%: AWF 0 : MSF 10%, G = WHF 80% : AWF 20% : MSF 0 ) were used in the production of biscuits. The Amino acid content of the prepared biscuits were determined and the Amino acid score using Hens egg and FAO standard to evaluate protein quality. Results reveal that Tannin and Total phenol content of African walnut flour was significantly higher with values 49.82mg/100g and 54.90mg/100g respectively, with Moringa seed flour having an anti-oxidant activity of 60.55%. Amino acid content of the biscuits showed that glutamic acid was higher in all the samples ranging from 10.96 – 12.33g/100g. Amino acid score results indicate that the amino acid content of the composite biscuits were higher than the FAO standards for adults above 18years.