Open Access Original Research Article

Market Handling Practices Effect on the Nutritional Profiles of Honey-beans and Groundnuts from Three Different Markets in Ibadan, Nigeria

Mosuro, Aderonke Olufunmilola, Ogundele, Abimbola Eniola, Ayodele, Folasade, Ladokun, Olusola Abiola, Obiodiaka, Chinoso Esther

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i130395

Honey-beans and groundnuts serve as major plant protein sources, market handling practices may affect their nutrient profiles. This study evaluates market-handling practices effects on nutritional profiles of two protein-rich raw-foodstuffs from three markets in Ibadan, Nigeria. Raw honey-beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and groundnut seeds (Arachis hypogaea) were purchased from Dugbe, Sango and Oja-Oba markets (chosen based on their differences) in Ibadan. The samples were cleaned and assayed in triplicates for proximate and mineral compositions (Iron, Zinc, Magnesium and Calcium) according to standard procedures using 3 × 2 factorial method in a completely randomized design. Data were subjected to ANOVA using SAS (2002) and means separated with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (at α0.05), results of proximate analysis were in percentages while minerals were in mg/Kg.  Results showed variations (p<0.05) in dry matter based on different markets. Dry matter content was similar (P>0.05) in Dugbe (91.37±0.67) and Sango (91.46±0.43) market samples but higher (P<0.05) in Oja-Oba (90.64±1.81) samples. Crude protein content of samples from Sango (28.40±11.11) was higher (p<0.05) compared with other locations. Crude fat of honey-beans (24.32±0.44) and groundnut (1.97±0.64) were significantly different (p<0.05). Similarly, crude fibre content of honey-beans (32.42±2.09) and groundnut (16.46±1.33) were different (p<0.05). Results showed similarities in ash content of honey-beans (5.16±0.32) and groundnut (4.85±0.65). Carbohydrate content varied according to sample-type and location; carbohydrate in groundnut (27.88±0.55) was higher (p<0.05) than in honey-beans (14.06±1.92) whereas, carbohydrate content of samples from Dugbe (21.75±7.37) and Sango (21.14±8.87) were different (p<0.05) from each other but both were similar (p>0.05) to samples from Oja-Oba (21.02±7.38). Magnesium content of honey-beans (40.06±9.18) was higher than groundnut (3.11±0.71) while Calcium in honey-beans (5.97±1.25) was also higher (p<0.05) compared with groundnut (2.23±0.54). Variations were observed due to interaction effects of sample-type and market handling. Conclusively, market practices affected nutritional content of selected protein-rich raw foodstuffs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Whey Protein - Phylantin as a Based for the Development of Immunomodulatory Products

Premy Puspitawati Rahayu, Ria Dewi Andriani, Abdul Manab, Manik Eirry Sawitri

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i130396

The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristic of physicochemical properties of interaction of whey protein with different concentration phylantin sources of the Phyllantus niruri L.

Study Design: Phylantin was added to whey protein with various concentration treatments (0 (control), 150, 180, 210 and 240 (μg/ml)).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between June until November 2021 at the Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Brawijaya.

Methodology: Phylantin was added to whey protein with various concentration treatments (0 (control), 150, 180, 210 and 240 (μg/ml)). An analysis is carried out to determine characteristic physicochemical and functional properties such as emulsion stability, emulsion activity, foaming ability, sedimentation, turbidity, particle size and antioxidant activity.

Results: The characteristic physicochemical of whey protein and phylantin was investigated such as emulsion stability, emulsion activity, foaming ability, sedimentation, turbidity, particle size and antioxidant activity. The addition of phylantin improved the physicochemical characteristic of properties. The addition of phylantin in the right level could increase emulsion stability, activity, and total antioxidant. Beside it, it could decrease the sedimentation and turbidity in the right level. The particle of nano size could be maintained.

Conclusion: As a result, whey protein containing various concentrations of phyllanthin showed that serum interacting with phyllanthin at a dose of 180 μg/ml increased emulsion stability, antioxidant activity, reduced sedimentation, reduced turbidity, and nanoscale has been shown to be able to maintain the particle size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Conditions on the Microbial and Proximate Composition of Bread Made From Wheat Flour and White Flour

Omorodion, Nnenna J. P., Oviwighoyovwe, Precious

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i130397

Bread is one of the most consumed staple foods in the world. It is a good source of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, protein, and fat and micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) which are essential for human health. The aim of the research is to determine the effect of storage conditions on the microbial and physico-chemical composition of bread from wheat flour and white flour. The fresh samples (white and wheat bought from the super market) were cultured according to the standard microbiological procedures. The Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) of the fresh white flour bread sample (FB) obtained was 1.3×104CFU/g (4.11logCFU/g) while that of Wheat bread (WB) sample was 1.2×104CFU/g (4.00 logCFU/g). The total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) of the samples was recorded as 4.9×103 CFU/g (3.69logCFU/g) which was higher in comparison to that of wheat bread with the count of 1.4×103CFU/g (3.14logCFU/g). Decrease in THBC of wheat bread and white bread sample stored at refrigeration temperature as compared to the bread samples stored at ambient temperature in relation to the days of storage was observed. Refrigeration had little effect on the growth of fungi as observed in this study as the Total Heterotrophic Fungal count (THFC) of refrigerated white bread sample increased from 2.0×103CFU/g (3.30logCFU/g) on the day 6 to 8.9×103CFU/g (3.94logCFU/g) on the day 8. The microorganisms isolated were Micrococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus p, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp, Candida sp, and Saccharomyces of which Bacillus and Aspergillus where most occurring among bacteria and fungi respectively. The moisture content, crude lipid, crude protein of the white bread sample were higher than those of wheat bread while the ash content, crude fiber and carbohydrate were higher in the wheat bread sample as compared to those of White bread sample. From the result obtained in the study, it was observed that refrigeration temperature was effective in the increase in shelf life of bread by the reduction in bacteria growth in bread thus, it can be recommended for the storage of bread.

Open Access Original Research Article

The study investigated the effect various processing treatments on the physicochemical composition of mucuna seed flour and consumer acceptability of bitter leaf soups thickened using these flours. Mucuna pruriens vas utilis seeds were processed by roasting, microwave toasting, steeping and boiling and/or a combination of these treatments followed by drying for 48 hours and milling into flour. The processed flours were used to thicken bitter leaf soup and consumer acceptability of the soups were evaluated by sensory evaluation and data generated were statistically analyzed. The results showed that the proximate composition of samples ranged from 10.71- 22.94 %; 14.25 to 17.95 %; 2.43 - 9 4.93%. 0.59-3.27%, 2.62-5.68%, 48.43% - 57.40% of crude protein, moisture; ash, fiber, fat and carbohydrate respectively, with the sample MB (boiled mucuna seed) having the highest protein content. The Overall acceptability score ranged from 6.00 to 8.06 with the sample MSB (steeped and boiled mucuna seed flours) having the highest score while the mean scores for taste, aroma and mouth feel ranges from 7.67– 8.00; 6.53 – 7.67; 6.13 – 7.93 respectively. Therefore, with an overall acceptability rating of 6-8 for all the soups, processed Mucuna seed could favorably compare with other soup thickeners especially the soaked and boiled Mucuna seed flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aim: The effects of soaking and germination on the functional properties of the kpaakpa  (H.barteri) seed flour was evaluated.

Introduction: Kpaakpa (Hildegardia barteri) plant is a tropical leguminous plant in the family of steruliacea which is grown mostly in semi arid forest with other plants especially in Ivory Coast and Nigeria. The seeds are consumed in West Africa as raw or roasted nuts and have a flavour resembling peanut.

Method: The seeds were soaked for 12, 24 and 36 hours and allowed to germinate for 2, 4 and 6 days respectively. The germinated seeds were dried milled into flour and analyzed for functional properties. Results were statistically analyzed and fitted into second order polynomial equation. A face centered response surface method was employed to optimize the process parameters that gave the targeted optimum responses.

Results:The functional properties of the flours; bulk density, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and swelling index were in the range of 0.50-0.60, 1.6-2.30 g/ml, 1.68-2.82 g/ml, 4.0-12 %, 1.2-11.respectively.The Water Absorption Capacity and Oil Absorption Capacity of the flour were enhanced by soaking and germination while foam capacity and bulk density decreased. Response optimization showed that soaking time of 12.6646 h with 3.7530 days of germination were derived as the closest process parameters that could give the targeted value of 0.58 for bulk density.

Conclusion: Soaking and germination imparted positively to the functionality of the flours with respect to Water absorption capacity and Oil absorption capacity of the flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

In today’s world, synthetic preservatives, pesticides, fungicides, etc., misused are a call for concern, especially in the current health-conscious generation, whose consciousness to an extent have been due to the outbreak of many unknown and doubtful diseases. As such consumers' demands for as natural as possible or organic food have pushed food scientists, processors, preservatory, etc. to look for alternative natural sources especially plant botanicals. This study, therefore, extracted essential oil (EO) from orange peels (waste) of citrus Valencia fruit by a mechanical cold-press method. The essential oil was used for the treatment of three varieties of mango fruits (Broken, John, and Julie) and which were stored at room temperature. The fruits were then sampled and analyzed for quality attributes at four days intervals, from which the result of the control and treated mango fruits showed that citrus EO could extend the shelf-life of mango fruit by retaining most of the organoleptic properties in the unripped form. And in which 0.3 and 0.4 percent of the EO in carrier oil happens to show the best quality retention, a recommended percentage is used for further findings. However, it should be noted that the treated mango fruits did not ripen and that the immediate greenish outside of the peels due to the acidic nature of the extracted oil was also soft, but not the pulp of the fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycoflora and Aflatoxin Producing Fungi from Some Storage Cereal Grains Sold in Darki Market, Wudil Local Government Area, Kano State, Nigeria

Farida Isah El-Hassan, Ediga Bede Agbo, Sadisu Farouk Umar

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 65-76
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i130401

Aim: The study was aimed at determining the mycoflora and aflatoxin producing fungi in some storage cereals sold at Darki market, Wudil Local Government Area, Kano State. Nigeria.

Study Design: A total of thirty samples (ten samples containing 250g each of maize, millet and wheat) were obtained from storage facilities of traders in different location of Darki, market.

Place and Duration of Study: Storage facilities of Darki market, Wudil, Kano State, between May 2021 and July 2021.

Methodology: Samples were subjected to serial dilution, enumeration of fungal load using pour plate method, inoculation and isolation of fungi using direct plating method, extraction and detection of aflatoxin using thin layer chromatography and molecular analysis using PCR.

Result: Total fungal (mold) count on Potato Dextrose Agar recorded the highest count of 6.5103 in wheat sample 4 (WH4) while the least count of 2.2102 was recorded in wheat sample 6 (WH6). The fungal isolates obtained from this study were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp, Mucor spp, and Rhizopus spp. The percentage of occurrence of fungi isolated from the cereal samples was highest in Aspergillus niger (34.43%) and the least (11.48%) was recorded in Mucor spp. Extraction and detection methods revealed a blue fluorescence on the TLC plates indicating the presence of aflatoxin B in the samples. The standard calculated range of Retention factor value was between 0.58 and 0.75. After DNA extraction, the fragment size obtained by PCR reactions with primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 showed 600bp for most of the isolates. All the Aspergillus spp, Fusarium spp. and Rhizopus spp showed positivity for the molecular markers ITS1/ITS4 by having positive bands. Only Mucor spp showed negative results for ITS1/ITS4 primers and showed no band.

Conclusion: This study shows that most of the cereals were contaminated with either one or more molds but within the satisfactory and marginal limits. However, aflatoxin contamination is a threatening issue Hence aflatoxins contamination of crops at harvest conditions should be controlled to some extent by the implementation of good agricultural practices and good storage practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Household Food Insecurity Evidence among Rural Pastoralist Community in South Omo, Ethiopia

Tsegaye Alemu, Zerish Zethu Nkosi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 77-90
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i130402

Background: Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in developing nations particularly in Ethiopia. During COVID- 19, food insecurity has worsened as result of lock down in most part of Africa as well as Ethiopia. In this regard, several studies have been conducted in central and agrarian communities, yet there is little evidence of studies on food insecurity in pastoralist communities. Thus, the study aimed to assess the burden and factors associated with food insecurity at rural pastoralist community.

Methodology: A community-based, comparative cross-sectional study conducted among 536 households. Pre-tested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Data were entered in Epi info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 25 for data analysis.

Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity in this study area was 88% [95% CI: 88.2, 91.0]. Low land agro-ecology [(AOR=3.1, 95% CI: (1.5, 6.3)], pastoralist community [AOR=3.7, 95% CI: (1.6, 8.7)], low wealth index [(AOR=2.5, 95% CI: (1.1. 3.6)], and larger family size composition which were statistically significant with food insecurity at household level.

Conclusion: The burden of food insecurity was 88% in the study area.  This was substantially high level and a severe public health problem. Low wealth index, family size, and low land agro ecology were contributing factors for food insecurity. Therefore, policy makers and local administration advised to invest pastoralist income generating intervention and modernize agricultural technology to tackle food insecurity in the study area.