Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Packaging on Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Ndop Rice (Tox Variety) During Storage

F. B. Mbemngong, L. M. Ndam, R. M. Njilar, Q. M. Tongwa, V. Sama, A. S. Tening

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 7, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i730436

This study was conducted to investigate the pre and postharvest activities of rice stakeholders and to evaluate the influence of packaging on the proximate and mineral compositions of Ndop rice (TOX rice variety). A survey involving rice stakeholders was conducted in Ndop using a semi-structured questionnaire to gather information on the production, preparation, storage and handling practices of rice. It was found after the survey that, Ndop rice samples from UNVDA were stored in different packaging materials viz; polypropylene, nylon, rubber containers and paper bags at room temperature for two months. It was documented that 55% male and 45% female with the majority (63%) within the age category of 31-50 years are involved in Ndop rice postharvest management practices. Results also revealed that a majority (71%) of the respondents use polypropylene woven bags as packaging materials while 38% of respondents store rice for six months. Mice and weevils were reported as the key biotic factors affecting Ndop rice during storage. Furthermore, the results also showed that the moisture content (MC), fat, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber contents decreased while protein increased across all the treatments during storage. Rice packed in paper bags had the lowest MC (10.17%), while rice in rubber containers had the highest MC (14.67%), at the end of the two months storage period. Rice packed in nylon bag had the highest protein content (14.11±0.71%). The mineral contents of Ndop rice decrease across all treatments after the second month of storage. The highest mineral retention (214.22±5.64 mg/100g for potassium) was observed in rice packed in paper bags. To maintain quality, paper bags or plastic buckets could be recommended as the best packaging materials for Ndop rice at the end of the second-month storage duration. This study contributes to food sufficiency and security by curbing postharvest food loss in Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition of Wheat, Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Flour Blends

G. O. Ogunlakin, F. O. Ajala, A. S. Olajire

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 7, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i730437

Aims: This research aimed at determining the chemical and nutritional properties of composite flour produced from wheat, mushroom and unripe plantain composite flour in order to explore its potentials in food formulation.

Study Design: The experiment followed a completely randomized design.

Methodology: Different formulations (86.67:6.67:6.67, 80:0:20 83.33:13.33:3.33, 90:10:0, 90:0:10, 93.33:3.33:3.33, 83.33:3.33:13.33, 80:10:10, 80:20:0 and 100:0:0) were obtained using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology from the blends of wheat, mushroom and unripe plantain. The proximate, mineral and vitamin contents were determined for the formulated samples. The results were further optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology.

Results: The values for moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrate and energy for the flour blends ranged 8.46-11.82%, 0.80-1.87%, 8.65-14.01%, 0.95-4.98%, 0.35-0.59%, 70.04-78.64% and 354.04-381.02 kcal/100 g, respectively. The values obtained for calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron of the flour blends ranged 26.60-29.95, 0.91-4.05, 1.62-2.01, 80.50-108.14 and 0.88-1.16 mg/100 g, respectively. The values obtained for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C of the flour blends ranged 150.36-160.60, 7.10-20.25, 6.04-23.92, 7.12-7.23, and 2.02-3.05 mg/100 g, respectively. The two optimum blends that gave overall best results using nutritional compositions as dependent variables were 80:12.68:7.32 and 80:13.21:6.79 (wheat, mushroom and unripe plantain).

Conclusion: The result of the proximate and nutritional content showed that the composite flour of wheat, mushroom and unripe plantain flour is a good source of ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre and carbohydrate and relevant in food application especially in the production of baked food products especially in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

This study was carried out to assess complementary feeding practices of under-five children in Akuku Toru Local Government Area of Rivers State. A cross-sectional descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of nursing mothers with children (0-24 months) attending their normal health services in seven (7) major primary health care centres in Akuku Toru Local Government Area, Rivers State. A sample size of 210 nursing mothers was selected for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire titled “Assessment of Complementary Feeding Practices of Children Questionnaire”. The questionnaire was validated by three validates. Data generated using the research instrument was analyzed using frequency, percentages and mean. The findings obtained showed that most nursing mothers initiate complementary feeding at early age and their reasons often times are pressure from their family members who do not understand the benefits of adequate breast milk and pressure from employers to resume work. Majority of the sampled nursing mothers in the study area prefer cereal/grain, fruits, vegetables, yoghurt and custard over other complementary foods used in nursing a child. Majority of the respondent agreed that the nutritional status of infants introduced to complementary foods at their early stage of development is usually underweight, stunting and wasting. It was also established that inappropriate complementary feeding practices adopted by nursing mothers in the study areas has significant effect on the nutritional status of their infants. Therefore, the study recommends that there is need for promotion of women’s health and nutrition as a strategy that will benefit child nutritional status. Interventional programmes should target poorer household and mothers with lower educational level to improve complementary feeding practices of mothers. Developmental programmes should focus on empowering women in rural communities by improving of household income through creation of employment and access to credit facilities that will enable women engage in sustainable means of livelihood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Thermal Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Moisture-Sorption Characteristics of Two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) Varieties

Theophilus M. Ikegwu, Chika U. Obiora, Joy C. Mba, Eunice N. Odo, Nkemakonam M. Anene

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 7, Page 35-52
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i730439

Two cocoyam varieties (Colocasia esculenta) known as taro grown in Cross-River State and Bendel were subjected to different processing conditions (boiling and drying) and the effect of boiling temperature, boiling time and drying temperatures were investigated. They were processed into flour using standard methods, packaged in low-density polyethylene bags and kept in the laboratory for analysis. The results obtained showed that crude fat, crude protein, ash, moisture, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents ranged from 0.42-0.92%, 6.03-9.01%, 2.13-3.90%, 5.20-12.07%, 0.43-0.77% and 73.32-81.73%, respectively. The anti-nutrients contents of the samples showed that oxalate ranged from 0.01-0.99 mg/g, alkaloids (0.12-0.73 mg/g), flavonoids (0.00-0.83 mg/g), phytate (0.01-1.90 mg/g), saponin (0.00-0.83 mg/g) and tannin (0.00-0.01 mg/g). The investigation revealed that there were significant (p<0.05) variations in the functional properties of the cocoyam samples with the water absorption capacity ranging from (1.56-3.01 mg/g), bulk density(0.58-0.82 mg/g), swelling index (1.54-2.91 mg/g), Oil absorption capacity (1.32-1.67 mg/g), while porosity ranged from 0.30-0.76 mg/g. There were also significant (p<0.05) variations in the thermal diffusivity of the samples with the samples of Cross River Cocoyam having higher thermal diffusivity compared to sample of Bendel Cocoyam. The higher thermal diffusivity observed in the cross river cocoyam could be due to the lower moisture content of the samples. The result of the pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, peak time, final viscosity, breakdown and set back viscosities ranged from 10.88-15.81 N/m2, 7.87-20.87 mins, 8.00-9.97 N/m2, 15.10-17.90 N/m2, 6.0-7.5 N/m2 and 2.3-3.8 N/m2. The research discovered that sample with less pasting temperatures and high peak viscosity had better thickening effect as seen in sample of Cross River Cocoyam. The moisture sorption isotherms had sigmoid-shaped profiles for all of the three temperatures. The hysteresis effect at the three temperatures was distinctly expressed. The increasing temperatures resulted in less hysteresis effect on taro flour which meant the adsorption and desorption curves were closer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Finding a bio-composite film to replace petroleum-based synthetic plastic has received considerable attention in recent years. In this research, biocomposite films were effectively prepared using corn cob powder and coconut coir as reinforcing materials in various concentrations using solution casting and annealing techniques. Corn starch was used as a co-biopolymer, glycerol (3% v/v) and acetic acid (5% v/v) as plasticizers were added as well. Biodegradability, mechanical, physical, FTIR, SEM, XRD, tensile and antibacterial tests were performed on the biocomposite samples. The biodegradability test showed that the samples were biodegradable and that the rate of biodegradation improved with time, reaching 87.37 % in just ten days. The SEM test was used to investigate the molecular structure of the biocomposite films, and the findings demonstrated that the raw ingredients had been well mixed, resulting in a smooth surface. The antibacterial test was conducted against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) bacteria. This study examines the influence of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of biocomposites based on starch. Various natural fibers may boost the strength of biocomposites, as shown by the findings. According to the results, maize starch, corn cobs, and coconut coir are all suitable for food packaging purposes.