Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rice Value Chain Programme on Rice Production in the Gambia

David Gomez, Edward Akpen-Ageh, Hembafan Ann Kwaghngu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i530426

This study on the effects of rice value chain programme on rice farmers’ production was conducted in the Central River Region of the Gambia. The objective of the study seeks the effect of the rice value chain programme on rice farmers’ production in Central River Region of The Gambia. The instruments used for data collection was Focus Group Discussion and In-Depth Interview. The study selected two (2) of the districts from Kuntaur Local Government Area and three (3) from Janjanbureh Local Government Area using purposive sampling technique after which simple random sampling technique was used to select sixteen (16) villages out of which three hundred and eighty-four (384) farmers were randomly selected for the study. The data collected was transcribed for all the focus group and interview comments, the comments were rearranged to have answers which were grouped together for each interview protocol. The findings revealed that, farmers benefitted from the rice value chain programme through interventions such as; available improved seed varieties and fertilizer which have improved rice production. However, challenges still exist in the form of insufficient fertilizer, seeds and market structures. From these findings, it is recommended that Non-Governmental Organizations and investors should supplement government efforts by providing sufficient and quality inputs (seed/fertilizer/machinery) and credit facilities to the rice farmers at a subsidized rate and on time and strengthen the linkages between farmer groups/cooperatives with buyers (Producer-Buyer linkage) for easy market access.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Potential Probiotics from Fermented Food Products

Adenike O. Wejinya, Sunday Y. Giami, Lucretia I. Barber, Patience C. Obinna-Echem

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i530427

Potential probiotics were isolated, identified and characterised from ogi, fufu, nunu, palmwine and fermented tigernut milk. Pour plate method was used for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) media. Three (3) pure colonies were distinctly obtained from each of the fermented food sources with microbial mean counts ranging from 8.13 - 8.25 Log10 Cfu/ml. Isolated strains were identified and characterized using morphological, API-50 CHL (Bio-merieux, France) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Ten (10) of the isolated microorganisms were identified as Lactobacilli, two (2) Micrococci and a Lactococcus. The Lactobacilli were catalase negative and oxidase negative rod-shaped bacteria. The identification accuracy of the isolates based on similarities from the computer-aided API and PCR GenBank databases ranged from 49.00 - 99.90% and 79.00 - 99.00% respectively. The amplification pattern of the 16S regions of the sequenced isolates showed DNA fragments with 500 - 1000 base pairs. The LAB strains identified are Lactobacillus fermentum NBRC 15885, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LM, Lactobacillus plantarum CIP 10315.1, Lactobacillus plantarum NBRC 15891, Lactobacillus parabuchneri LMG 11457, Lactobacillus pentosus 124-3 and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869. These strains had high correlation in both the API and PCR identification techniques that was used in this study. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria can be isolated and identified from ogi, fufu, nunu, paimwine and fermented tigernut milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermentation Practices and Microbiological Profile of Fermented Cacao Beans (Theobroma cacao) from Mvila Division, South Region, Cameroon

C. Saïdou, B. A. Mohammadou, NZ. H. Ghomdim, L. B. Mezajoug, F. S. Nodem, C. Tchiegang

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i530428

Fermentation is an important process in the production of commercial cocoa beans. Conducted in a natural way, it takes place through the action of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic bacteria and fungi. This generally contributes to obtaining cocoa of different grades. In order to improve the quality of commercial cocoa in the division of Mvila, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation practices and the microbiological profile of fresh fermented cocoa beans. For this purpose, a survey on the fermentation techniques of the cocoa sector was firstly done with 75 producers. Thereafter, samples of fermented and dried cocoa beans from different producers were collected for commercial quality assessment (grades, impurities rate and water content). Producers with cocoa beans of good quality were retained and the microbial (LAB, yeast enumeration and characterization) quality of their fresh fermented cocoa were monitored after fermentation. The results obtained on the post-harvest treatment techniques of cocoa beans revealed that the technical itinerary is respected with 100% of producers who put the pots in incubation before fermentation. In addition, fermentation techniques are practiced by 87,5% of producers and take place for 6 days long (in 95 %), notably fermentation in wooden box (47.5%), fermentation in heaps (32.50%). According to the commercial quality, the localities of Melane and Nkoemvone have good quality (Grade=1) cocoa with a rate of brown beans of 95.4% and 94% respectively. Lactic acid bacteria, acetic bacteria and yeast were presents in all fresh cocoa beans with the final load of 1.17 × 107 CFU/g, 1.87 × 105 CFU/g and 5.60 × 106 CFU/g respectively. The fermentative capacity revealed that among the 13 isolates of yeasts, 11 were alcohol producers. This study shows that these microorganisms are responsible for the good fermentation of cocoa beans. It would be judicious to make molecular identification of these strains and to use them as a starter for the controlled fermentation of cocoa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Pasting and Proximate Composition of Improved Weaning Food

Iwanegbe Izuwa, Yakubu Patience, Olowo Helen Bola

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i530429

Aim: Phytochemical, proximate, and pasting qualities of weaning food processed from grains, legumes along with vegetables were examined in this study.

Methods: Fermented maize, defatted soybean and carrot powder were combined at different proportions. Phytochemical, pasting, and nutritive composition were evaluated using standard procedures.

Results: The results showed that Flavonoid and tannin were very low, ranging from 2.07 mg/             100 g-0.02 mg/100 g and 2.05 mg/100 g-0.02 mg/100 g respectively. Fermented maize had the least flavonoids (0.02 mg/100 g) and tannin (0.02 mg/100 g). This was followed by carrot, which had flavonoid 0.63 mg/100 g and Tannin 0.63 mg/100 g, the highest was defatted soybean with flavonoid 2.07 mg/100 g and tannin 2.05 mg/100 g in that increasing order. Sample A which was fermented maize, had the highest saponin (21.43%). Next was carrot i.e. sample C (7.51%). The least saponin recorded was in defatted soybean sample B (3.56%). Sample A showed the highest (2208cP) peak viscosity and was followed by B (1473cP), D (903.0cP), C (781.0cP), and E (408cP) in that decreasing order. The breakdown viscosity ranged from 97cP to 923cP. The highest break down viscosity was sample A (923cP), followed by sample B (500cP), sample D sample C (206cP), and sample E (97cP). The highest final viscosity (FV) was observed in sample A (2099cp), next was sample B (1535cp), sample D (1058cp), sample C (936cp), while the least was sample E (522cp). The moisture content ranged from 7.91-11.05%. Sample E had the least moisture (7.91%), next was C (9.45%), A (9.68%), D (10.21%) and B (11.05%) in that increasing order.

Conclusion and Recommendation: It was obvious from this study that fermented maize when used as weaning food increases the starch digestibility as well as the pasting properties of weaning foods. Hence, maize should be fermented before it is used as a weaning food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Study on Health Impact of Dietary Protein, Vitamin and Electrolyte Supplementation: A Pilot Study

P. N. J. Fernando, S. Pigera, S. A. N. Rashani, S. J. Jayawickrema, A. P. de Silva

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i530430

Aims: Daily use of commercially available protein, multivitamin and electrolyte dietary supplements (MS) is a common practice among athletes. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of MS on athlete’s health.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort, pilot study.

Methodology: This Study was conducted with 45 healthy athletes who were using MS (n=25) and not using MS (n=20). In this study, MS users were consuming protein, multivitamin and electrolyte dietary supplements daily for more than 2 months continuously. Health effects of the study subjects were evaluated by biochemical tests and physical examination by a physician. Study was carried out at the Sri Lanka Anti-Doping Agency, Lanka Hospital Sri Lanka between June 2019 and February 2020.

Results: MS users had shown higher relative risk (RR) to have increased total cholesterol(RR=8.7;P<0.05)and LDL levels(RR=2.9;P<0.05) compared to non-MS users. The RR of overweight was 2.4 higher for MS users males than females. RR to increase weight had varied with type of sport and period on MS.

Conclusion: Negative effect was observed in the Lipid profile and weight of the MS users. Consuming MS more than 2 months, has an increasing effect on the lipid profile and weight of athletes and it is more pronounced in males. The clinical implication of this finding needs further study.